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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Applying Bostrom's Reversal Test to check the Principle of Procreative Beneficence's major critiques for the Status Quo Bias

Singh, Karanveer January 2023 (has links)
Julian Savulescu believes parents have a moral duty to use reproductive technologies like IVF and Prenatal screening to choose the best possible child. According to his principle of Procreative Beneficence, one should select the best child of the possible children one could have. However, this principle has attracted numerous critiques from numerous authors. This paper aims to demonstrate that most critiques suffer from a status quo bias. It means that these critiques overly emphasize the possible negative outcomes concerning the principle of Procreative Beneficence because these critiques have an implicit affinity toward the status quo. The affinity for the status quo renders these critiques unable to appreciate the potential positive outcomes of applying the principle of Procreative Beneficence. Some authors argue that these critiques overemphasize the potential negative outcomes. I employ Nick Bostrom's Reversal Test to check these critiques for implicit Status Quo Bias. In Bostrom's Reversal Test, we consider the desired trait, often a positive deviation from the status quo. Suppose we find selecting the embryo with the desired trait ethically contentious. In that case, we imagine selecting an embryo that lacks that desired trait and is a negative deviation from the Status Quo. If we find the latter also problematic, we conclude that choosing the embryo with the desired trait seems ethically contentious because of our affinity to the Status Quo, also called the Status Quo Bias. The thesis accomplishes two tasks. First, it analyzes the various critiques for the Principle of Procreative Beneficence. Second and last, it employs Bostrom's Reversal Test to check these critiques for any potential Status Quo Bias and concludes that PPB’s primary critiques do indeed suffer from the Status Quo Bias. / Thesis / Candidate in Philosophy
22

Designing and implementing a Bible college course that introduces the study of biological life used as a foundation to discuss both biologically and biblically current bioethical issues facing the church

Lucas, James R. January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (D. Min.)--Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1997. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 249-251).
23

Designing and implementing a Bible college course that introduces the study of biological life used as a foundation to discuss both biologically and biblically current bioethical issues facing the church

Lucas, James R. January 1997 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (D. Min.)--Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1997. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 249-251).
24

Designing and implementing a Bible college course that introduces the study of biological life used as a foundation to discuss both biologically and biblically current bioethical issues facing the church

Lucas, James R. January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (D. Min.)--Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1997. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 249-251).
25

A reflection on the morality of ownership of genetic material

De Carvalho, Candice Lee 23 November 2011 (has links)
The question of ownership of genetic material is highly relevant to medical ethics at this point in our history. What has become a major debate is how DNA can, and if it ought to be commoditised; and how and if individuals can keep their genetic information private, or whether it ought to be shared with all. In this research report I question whether genetic information is exceptional when compared with other medical or health-related information. The Kantian view of commoditisation of the body and human dignity is given along with some of the most prominent views on self-ownership. Patenting and genetic biobanking have received much attention in recent years, I focus on these issues and moral questions that surround these practices. The idea of genetic information as a common and natural 'resource' is discussed. If it is indeed a common heritage for all, how ought individuals, populations, researchers and funders to relate to genetic information? I briefly examine what some communities and cultures may have to say about genetic information and I attempt to tie all these varying perspectives together. I find that it is not ownership per se that is often the subject of dispute, but how those who happen to have control over that information share it. I present a possible maxim to guide the sharing of genetic information with others; that patenting does not necessarily amount to an affront to human dignity in the Kantian sense and that inter-cultural perspectives on genetic information may differ significantly. I conclude that how genetic material is shared, or not shared and why seems to depend more on the population in question at any given time and its social, political and economic structures than on the question of ownership per se.
26

An ethical reflection on the DOTS programme in South Africa: adherence, vulnerable populations, benefits, and burdens

Maboko, Emmanuel 10 November 2011 (has links)
The introduction of the Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991 was developed as the ideal public health measure for the treatment and management of tuberculoisis (TB) (Naidoo, Dick & Cooper 2008:1). However, despite attempts to cure and control tuberculosis, two million new cases are reported in the sub-Saharan region of Africa. The problem of TB in South Africa is made worse by the high incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS. There are many contributing factors that may play a part in South Africa’s low cure rate such as unequal national drug distribution, lack of healthcare personnel, patient superstitions and myths concerning tuberculosis. I have touched upon some of these issues. But in this research report I have mainly concentrated on the South African DOTS programme and some of the ethical issues involved in the problem of patient adherence as it concerns the fair societal distribution of burdens and benefits. I have used the ethical framework for public health ethics for my analysis as proposed by Nancy Kass, and also placed a special focus on adherence problems as they concern vulnerable populations. Quality of the DOTS programme in South Africa such as staff attitudes towards TB patients and poor communication skills, nursing care, broken equipment, dirty facilities, absenteeism may contribute towards non-adherence. Moreover, poor quality healthcare services may encourage TB patients to seek alternative treatment other than hospital care thereby increasing their vulnerability to infection and disease progression. Cultural differences in health care and practices may be a barrier to the effective distribution of quality healthcare.
27

Uma reflexão sobre o direito à vida para além dos seres humanos

Torres, Marta de Oliveira January 2012 (has links)
121 f. / Submitted by Ana Valéria de Jesus Moura (anavaleria_131@hotmail.com) on 2013-05-24T19:51:37Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Uma reflexão sobre o direito à vida para além dos seres humanos - Marta de Oliveira Torres.pdf: 874785 bytes, checksum: 34c5c02ae7223d0e3a27be4db04a4429 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Ana Valéria de Jesus Moura(anavaleria_131@hotmail.com) on 2013-05-24T19:53:16Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 Uma reflexão sobre o direito à vida para além dos seres humanos - Marta de Oliveira Torres.pdf: 874785 bytes, checksum: 34c5c02ae7223d0e3a27be4db04a4429 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2013-05-24T19:53:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Uma reflexão sobre o direito à vida para além dos seres humanos - Marta de Oliveira Torres.pdf: 874785 bytes, checksum: 34c5c02ae7223d0e3a27be4db04a4429 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012 / Na avaliação ética e jurídica de uma conduta, parte-se de um paradigma dominante antropocêntrico cujos critérios valorativos não incluem o valor da vida dos seres não-humanos. Para sustentar esse valor, há vários discursos repetidos ao longo da história, seja desprovendo os demais seres vivos de alma ou racionalidade, seja colocando o ser humano no topo de uma progressiva evolução, ou até mesmo combatendo filosofias ou religiões que pugnam uma maior aproximação com a natureza. A “coisificação” da vida está levando a uma devastação da natureza de tamanha monta que está a comprometer a vida atual e de futuras gerações. Na história brasileira, estamos presenciando o fim de florestas conservadas pelos índios, os quais estão sendo desapropriados de suas terras, com o aniquilamento de árvores e plantas da região. Somente uma mudança para um paradigma centrado na vida humana e não-humana viabilizará a permanência digna dos seres vivos das futuras gerações. No presente trabalho, analisaremos como o ser humano se relaciona com os animais e plantas na religião e alimentação ao longo da história e as respectivas explicações para essa diversidade de tratamento. Apontaremos a necessidade de mudança do paradigma antropocêntrico e a opção de uma ética biocêntrica, aplicando o “princípio responsabilidade” proposto por Hans Jonas. Veremos a utilização do Direito para a manutenção do valor antropocêntrico, cuja intolerância remonta aos registros de Zaratustra; perceberemos que a banalização da vida dos seres vivos não-humanos atravessa todo o registro histórico da humanidade. Ao analisarmos as decisões judiciais e a legislação produzida nas últimas décadas, verificaremos que o Direito brasileiro é um discurso utilizado para disfarçar a atrocidade que está sendo cometida contra a natureza em nome de um progresso acessível por uma minoria. / Salvador
28

Public bioethics : an intermediary between public health and the media /

Carry, Wendy M. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (M.P.H.)--University of Nevada, Reno, 2007. / "December, 2007." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 52-54). Online version available on the World Wide Web. Library also has microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : ProQuest Information and Learning Company, [2007]. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
29

Global Bioethics: A Descriptive Analysis of the Function of Bioethics in Health and Medicine on a Global Scale

January 2011 (has links)
abstract: This thesis explores concept of "global bioethics" in both its development as well as its current state in an effort to understand exactly where it fits into the larger field of bioethics. Further, the analysis poses specific questions regarding what it may contribute to this field and related fields, and the possibility and scope associated with the continued development of global bioethics as its own discipline. To achieve this, the piece addresses questions regarding current opinions on the subject, the authorities and their associated publications related to global bioethics, and what the aims of the subject should be given its current state. "Global Bioethics" is a term that, while seen frequently in bioethics literature, is difficult to define succinctly. While many opinions are provided on the concept, little consensus exists regarding its application and possible contributions and, in some cases, even its very possibility. Applying ethical principles of health and medicine globally is undoubtedly complicated by the cultural, social, and geographical considerations associated with understanding health and medicine in different populations, leading to a dichotomy between two schools of thought in relation to global bioethics. These two sides consist of those who think that universality of bioethics is possible whereas the opposing viewpoint holds that relativism is the key to applying ethics on a global scale. Despite the aforementioned dichotomy in addressing applications of global bioethics, this analysis shows that the goals of the subject should be more focused on contributing to ethical frameworks and valuable types of thinking related to the ethics health and medicine on a global scale. This is achieved through an exploration of bioethics in general, health as a function of society and culture, the history and development of global bioethics itself, and an exploration of pertinent global health topics. While primarily descriptive in nature, this analysis critiques some of the current discussions and purported goals surrounding global bioethics, recommending that the field focus on fostering valuable discussion and framing of issues rather than the pursuit of concrete judgments on moral issues in global health and medicine. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.S. Biology 2011
30

Barriers to medical error reporting and disclosure by doctors: a bioethical evaluation

Carmichael, Trevor Robin January 2017 (has links)
A Research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Bioethics and Health Law. Johannesburg, 2017 / Medical errors that occur in public sector hospitals should be discussed with patients and notified to specific structures to improve systems and patient safety. To elucidate barriers to doctors reporting errors and to establish correct ethical requirements, a mixed methods approach was used. A normative literature-based analysis was done to determine the correct ethical processes taking into account South African legislation. In addition a questionnaire-based internet survey (using REDCap) was conducted at the School of Clinical Medicine (SOCM) at the University of the Witwatersrand which examined the current situation and attitudes towards medical error disclosure. There were 211 clinicians who completed the survey. Public sector hospital staff shortages and patient overloads (96%) as well as poor record-keeping systems (89%) were identified as important reasons for errors. Fears of victimization by colleagues (59%) and medico-legal consequence (56%) were prominent as reasons not to disclose medical errors. Poor reporting systems available to doctors (66%) and insufficient support from senior staff made it difficult for doctors to report errors. Training on correct disclosing of errors to patients and family was seen as necessary to improve skills and facilitate effective disclosure (94%). There was general agreement that doctors 'ought to' disclose harmful medical errors (83%) and to a lesser degree 'potentially harmful' errors to patients (70%). Ethical guidelines that are appropriate for South Africa are suggested, as well as the introduction of easier reporting systems. For disclosure, a safe environment that protects against victimization and medico-legal prosecution is important and legislation to support this is urgently required. Training for doctors in correct methods for adequate disclosure and apology will assist improving patient care. / MT2017

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