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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

. Influência de baixas temperaturas sobre aspectos bionômicos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera, Muscidae) e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) / Influência de baixas temperaturas sobre aspectos bionômicos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera, Muscidae) e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

ROSENTHAL, Luciane D'avila 15 March 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-08-20T14:31:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 dissertacao_luciane_rosenthal.pdf: 1122695 bytes, checksum: 7ee7ac8946d194d522474edc2cb3b123 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-03-15 / Survival, longevity and reproductive aspects of the flies are related to biotic, abiotic and interaction between them. The temperature, for example, directly influences the speed and rate of development, behavior, feeding, fecundity, dispersal, reproductive potential and the number of individuals in a population. Given this, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of storage muscoidea adults of Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala at low temperatures (5 and 10°C) through the analysis of the bionomic survival, longevity, number of ovos.fêmeas-1 and viability (%) eggs. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Biology, Federal University of Pelotas, and the achievement were maintained colonies of both species, pre-established laboratory conditions (temperature 25+2°C, relative humidity 70+10%; photoperiod of 12 hours). We randomly selected 15 pairs/species/repeat, and packaged in glass bottles, with three replicates/treatment. All repetitions were simultaneously placed in a chamber of biological development (B.O.D.) at temperatures of 5, 10 and 25+2°C (control) and is the factor A (temperature controlled conditioning of adults). The flies were removed from B.O.Ds. 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, constituting Factor B (exposure time of adult B.O.D.), proceeding in the measurement cages and packaging, the survivors of the respective temperature of 25+2°C, to the death of the last diptera, analyzing longevity, the average number of ovos.fêmeas-1 and viability (%) eggs. The results were statistically analyzed with the purpose of observing whether each temperature controlled conditioning of adults was limiting within each exposure time of adults in B.O.D. Thus we can infer that the use of low temperatures (5 and 10°C), in order to reduce metabolic rates and the development of these insects in adulthood, was a strategy that interfered on bionomic aspects analyzed for the two species under study. In conclusion: The temperature controlled exposure of adults 5°C prevents the creation of C. megacephala; The utilization of low temperature conditioning (5 and 10ºC) is a strategy that impacts negatively on the survival of adults (males + females), female survival, male survival, longevity, the average number of ovos.fêmeas- 1 and viability of eggs of M. domestica and C. megacephala when compared to a temperature of 25+2°C. The time of exposure of adult M. domestica and C. megacephala in B.O.D. for 7 days, allows the occurrence of overall survival (females + males), female survival, male survival, longevity, higher average number of ovos.fêmeas-1 and egg viability; The number of adult female survivors of M. domestica exposed to low temperatures conditioning (5 and 10°C) is numerically more significant, the number of male survivors. / Sobrevivência, longevidade e aspectos reprodutivos dos dípteros estão relacionados a fatores bióticos, abióticos e a interação entre eles. A temperatura, por exemplo, influencia diretamente a velocidade e taxas de desenvolvimento, o comportamento, a alimentação, a fecundidade, a dispersão, o potencial reprodutivo e o número de indivíduos de uma população. Diante disto, o objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em verificar a influência da estocagem de muscóideos adultos de Musca domestica e Chrysomya megacephala a baixas temperaturas (5 e 10°C), mediante a análise dos aspectos bionômicos sobrevivência, longevidade, número médio de ovos.fêmeas-1 e viabilidade (%) de ovos. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos, da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, e para a realização foram mantidas colônias de ambas as espécies, pré-estabelecidas às condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25+2°C; umidade relativa 70+10%; fotoperíodo de 12 horas). Foram selecionados ao acaso 15 casais/espécie/repetição, e acondicionados em frascos de vidro, totalizando três repetições/tratamento. Todas as repetições foram simultaneamente acondicionadas em câmara de desenvolvimento biológico (B.O.D.) nas temperaturas de 5, 10 e 25+2°C (controle), constituindo o Fator A (temperaturas controladas de condicionamento de adultos). Os dípteros eram retirados das B.O.Ds. aos 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias, constituindo o Fator B (tempo de exposição de adultos em B.O.D.), procedendo-se a quantificação e o acondicionamento em gaiolas, dos respectivos sobreviventes a temperatura de 25+2°C, até a morte do último díptero, analisando a longevidade, o número médio de ovos.fêmeas-1 e a viabilidade (%) de ovos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística, com a finalidade de observar se cada temperatura controlada de condicionamento de adultos era limitante dentro de cada tempo de exposição de adultos em B.O.D. Desta maneira pode-se inferir que a utilização de baixas temperaturas (5 e 10ºC), como forma de reduzir as taxas metabólicas e o desenvolvimento destes insetos na fase adulta, foi uma estratégia que interferiu sobre os aspectos bionômicos analisados para as duas espécies em estudo. Como conclusões: A temperatura controlada de exposição de adultos 5ºC inviabiliza a criação de C. megacephala; A utilizaçao de baixas temperaturas de condicionamento (5 e 10ºC) é uma estratégia que interfere negativamente sobre a sobrevivência de adultos (femeas + machos), sobrevivência de fêmeas, sobrevivência de machos, a longevidade, o número médio de ovos.fêmeas-1 e a viabilidade de ovos de M. domestica e C. megacephala, quando comparadas a temperatura de 25+2ºC; O tempo de exposição de adultos de M. domestica e C. megacephala em B.O.D. por 7 dias, permite a ocorrência de sobrevivência total (fêmeas + machos), sobrevivência de fêmeas, sobrevivência de machos, a longevidade, o maior número médio de ovos.fêmeas-1 e viabilidade de ovos; O número de sobreviventes fêmeas adultas de M. domestica expostas a baixas temperaturas de condicionamento (5 e 10ºC) é numericamente mais expressivo, que o número de machos sobreviventes.
2

The biology and ecology of Mussidia spp. (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) and associated natural enemies in Kenya / Benjamin Kimwele Muli

Muli, Benjamin Kimwele January 2009 (has links)
Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of maize, cotton and Phaseolus bean in West Africa, has never been described as a crop pest from East and southern Africa (ESA). It was hypothesized that in ESA it was either kept under control by natural enemies or that there exist several populations of M. nigrivenella with different host plant ranges. Another possibility is the mis-identification of the Mussidia species in ESA. Studies were conducted in Kenya between 2005 and 2007 to assess the species diversity and host plant range of Mussidia spp. and spatial distribution studies were done on selected host plants. Later, based on the results of host plant range, surveys were conducted between 2006 and 2007 in mid-altitude coastal Kenya to establish a catalogue of parasitoids associated with Mussidia spp. The suitability of stem borers found in Kenya for development of Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatoidea) and the factors affecting the bionomics of Mussidia sp. in the laboratory were examined. Eight plant species were found to host two Mussidia spp. and six putative morphospecies, which occur sympatrically in the coastal region. The two Mussidia spp. were Mussidia fiorii Ceconni and de Joannis and M. nr nigrivenella. Only one Mussidia sp., M.Jiorii, was found attacking one host plant species in the mid-altitude regions. In general, the host plant range was much narrower than in West Africa. Mussidia nr nigrivenella and Mussidia "madagascariensis" larval distribution was aggregated on Canavalia cathartica Thouars. (Fabaceae) and Strychnos madagascariensis Poir. (Loganiaceae), respectively, while the distribution of M. fiorii adults on Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) was regular. Eight parasitoid species were recovered from Mussidia spp. eggs and larvae and include the trichogrammatid egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea Girault, a braconid egg-larval parasitoid, Phanerotoma sp., the bethylid Goniozus sp. and the braconid Apanteles sp. Moreover, the ichneumonid larval parasitoid Syzeuctus sp. was obtained from M. fiorii, while the tachinid Leskia sp. was obtained from M, "madagascariensis". Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea, the only parasitoid species which was successfully reared in the laboratory, successfully attacked and developed on eggs of six lepidopteran hosts indicating its potential to exploit other alternate lepidopteran pests of maize in West Africa. Like the parasitoid species, only one Mussidia sp., M.fiorii, was successfully reared in the laboratory and it developed on maize seed-, Canavalia enseiformes L. DC (Fabaceae) seed- and maize leaf-based diets while it could not develop on Mucuna pruriens L. DC (Fabaceae) seed- and C. cathartica seed-based diets. The lower developmental thresholds for M. fiorii eggs, larvae, pupae and egg to adult were found to be 12.8±0.25°C, 14.4±0.27°C, 11.0±0.03°C and 13.5i0.2rc, respectively, while the thermal constants were 82.0±1.61, 384.6±9.43, 144.9±6.84 and 588.2±10.81 degree days, respectively. Adults started emerging during the last hour of photophase and peak emergence was observed in the 2nd hour of scotophase. Mating activity largely took place between the 4th and 5th hour of scotophase. It can be concluded that there exist several Mussidia spp. in Africa that vary in their host plant range. Overall, mortality caused by parasitoids was negligible hence they were unlikely to explain the population dynamics of the Mussidia spp. in Kenya. The fact that Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea successfully attacks and develops in six lepidopteran hosts, including two Mussidia spp. indicates its potential for use as a biological agent against M. nigrivenella in West Africa. Mussidia fiorii was able to develop on diets based on maize and C. enseiformes. The knowledge on dietary and thermal requirements would optimize mass production of the host and natural enemies. The present study revealed again a serious bottleneck for biocontrol worldwide, namely the proper identification of the pest and natural enemy species as a result of an ever dwindling number of taxonomists. We therefore suggest that molecular (DNA) techniques should be used in addition to detailed morphological examination. In view of the fact that natural control will not be effective in case of accidental introduction of the West African M. nigrivenella into Kenya, we suggest stringent precautions during movement of grains especially maize between the West Africa region and Kenya. / Thesis (Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences and Management))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2009.
3

The biology and ecology of Mussidia spp. (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) and associated natural enemies in Kenya / Benjamin Kimwele Muli

Muli, Benjamin Kimwele January 2009 (has links)
Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of maize, cotton and Phaseolus bean in West Africa, has never been described as a crop pest from East and southern Africa (ESA). It was hypothesized that in ESA it was either kept under control by natural enemies or that there exist several populations of M. nigrivenella with different host plant ranges. Another possibility is the mis-identification of the Mussidia species in ESA. Studies were conducted in Kenya between 2005 and 2007 to assess the species diversity and host plant range of Mussidia spp. and spatial distribution studies were done on selected host plants. Later, based on the results of host plant range, surveys were conducted between 2006 and 2007 in mid-altitude coastal Kenya to establish a catalogue of parasitoids associated with Mussidia spp. The suitability of stem borers found in Kenya for development of Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatoidea) and the factors affecting the bionomics of Mussidia sp. in the laboratory were examined. Eight plant species were found to host two Mussidia spp. and six putative morphospecies, which occur sympatrically in the coastal region. The two Mussidia spp. were Mussidia fiorii Ceconni and de Joannis and M. nr nigrivenella. Only one Mussidia sp., M.Jiorii, was found attacking one host plant species in the mid-altitude regions. In general, the host plant range was much narrower than in West Africa. Mussidia nr nigrivenella and Mussidia "madagascariensis" larval distribution was aggregated on Canavalia cathartica Thouars. (Fabaceae) and Strychnos madagascariensis Poir. (Loganiaceae), respectively, while the distribution of M. fiorii adults on Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) was regular. Eight parasitoid species were recovered from Mussidia spp. eggs and larvae and include the trichogrammatid egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea Girault, a braconid egg-larval parasitoid, Phanerotoma sp., the bethylid Goniozus sp. and the braconid Apanteles sp. Moreover, the ichneumonid larval parasitoid Syzeuctus sp. was obtained from M. fiorii, while the tachinid Leskia sp. was obtained from M, "madagascariensis". Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea, the only parasitoid species which was successfully reared in the laboratory, successfully attacked and developed on eggs of six lepidopteran hosts indicating its potential to exploit other alternate lepidopteran pests of maize in West Africa. Like the parasitoid species, only one Mussidia sp., M.fiorii, was successfully reared in the laboratory and it developed on maize seed-, Canavalia enseiformes L. DC (Fabaceae) seed- and maize leaf-based diets while it could not develop on Mucuna pruriens L. DC (Fabaceae) seed- and C. cathartica seed-based diets. The lower developmental thresholds for M. fiorii eggs, larvae, pupae and egg to adult were found to be 12.8±0.25°C, 14.4±0.27°C, 11.0±0.03°C and 13.5i0.2rc, respectively, while the thermal constants were 82.0±1.61, 384.6±9.43, 144.9±6.84 and 588.2±10.81 degree days, respectively. Adults started emerging during the last hour of photophase and peak emergence was observed in the 2nd hour of scotophase. Mating activity largely took place between the 4th and 5th hour of scotophase. It can be concluded that there exist several Mussidia spp. in Africa that vary in their host plant range. Overall, mortality caused by parasitoids was negligible hence they were unlikely to explain the population dynamics of the Mussidia spp. in Kenya. The fact that Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr lutea successfully attacks and develops in six lepidopteran hosts, including two Mussidia spp. indicates its potential for use as a biological agent against M. nigrivenella in West Africa. Mussidia fiorii was able to develop on diets based on maize and C. enseiformes. The knowledge on dietary and thermal requirements would optimize mass production of the host and natural enemies. The present study revealed again a serious bottleneck for biocontrol worldwide, namely the proper identification of the pest and natural enemy species as a result of an ever dwindling number of taxonomists. We therefore suggest that molecular (DNA) techniques should be used in addition to detailed morphological examination. In view of the fact that natural control will not be effective in case of accidental introduction of the West African M. nigrivenella into Kenya, we suggest stringent precautions during movement of grains especially maize between the West Africa region and Kenya. / Thesis (Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences and Management))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2009.
4

Ecological investigation of a new host-parasite relationship : <i>Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei</i> in thinhorn sheep (<i>Ovis dalli</i>)

Jenkins, Emily Joan 20 September 2005
Discovery of a new host-parasite relationship, <i>Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei</i> in Dalls sheep (<i>Ovis dalli dalli</i>) in the Canadian North, prompted the first investigation of the geographic distribution, pathogenesis, ecology and epidemiology of this parasite, as well as the related protostrongylid <i>Protostrongylus stilesi</i>, at Subarctic latitudes (60-65ºN). All protostrongylid parasites have an indirect life-cycle, where first-stage larvae are shed in the feces of a mammalian definitive host, penetrate the foot of a gastropod intermediate host, and develop to infective third-stage larvae. <p> Protostrongylid larvae were recovered from over 2000 fecal samples from thinhorn sheep (<i>Ovis dalli</i>) and other hosts for <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i> across northwestern North America (38-69 ºN). Through novel application of molecular techniques to identify morphologically indistinguishable first-stage larvae, new records for <i>P. odocoilei</i> were established at 20 locations. This provided insight into the historical origins and biogeography of this new host-parasite relationship, and greatly expanded the known geographic range of both protostrongylids. <p> Clinical effects, including a neurological syndrome, were described in five thinhorn sheep experimentally infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i>. Neural and respiratory pathology in these five sheep were compared with over 50 wild Dalls sheep from a population naturally infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i>. In the end stages, diffuse verminous interstitial pneumonia associated with P. odocoilei led to respiratory failure, and may have acted as a predisposing factor for bacterial pneumonia, which caused sporadic mortalities in this wild population. <p> At Subarctic latitudes, seasonal patterns in host and parasite availability, including larval shedding by Dalls sheep and larval development in experimentally infected gastropods, suggested that lambs become infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i> in a narrow seasonal window in their first fall on winter range. In combination with laboratory experiments, a degree day model for temperature-dependent larval development was developed, validated, and applied to describe and predict the effects of climate warming on protostrongylid parasites of thinhorn sheep in northern North America. In a future of climate warming, the narrow seasonal window for parasite development and transmission would be significantly extended, leading to amplification of populations of <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i> in endemic regions, and possibly range expansion of <i>P. odocoilei</i>. This may have consequences for the health of thinhorn sheep, as well as other wildlife that are important resources in the Canadian North.
5

Ecological investigation of a new host-parasite relationship : <i>Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei</i> in thinhorn sheep (<i>Ovis dalli</i>)

Jenkins, Emily Joan 20 September 2005 (has links)
Discovery of a new host-parasite relationship, <i>Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei</i> in Dalls sheep (<i>Ovis dalli dalli</i>) in the Canadian North, prompted the first investigation of the geographic distribution, pathogenesis, ecology and epidemiology of this parasite, as well as the related protostrongylid <i>Protostrongylus stilesi</i>, at Subarctic latitudes (60-65ºN). All protostrongylid parasites have an indirect life-cycle, where first-stage larvae are shed in the feces of a mammalian definitive host, penetrate the foot of a gastropod intermediate host, and develop to infective third-stage larvae. <p> Protostrongylid larvae were recovered from over 2000 fecal samples from thinhorn sheep (<i>Ovis dalli</i>) and other hosts for <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i> across northwestern North America (38-69 ºN). Through novel application of molecular techniques to identify morphologically indistinguishable first-stage larvae, new records for <i>P. odocoilei</i> were established at 20 locations. This provided insight into the historical origins and biogeography of this new host-parasite relationship, and greatly expanded the known geographic range of both protostrongylids. <p> Clinical effects, including a neurological syndrome, were described in five thinhorn sheep experimentally infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i>. Neural and respiratory pathology in these five sheep were compared with over 50 wild Dalls sheep from a population naturally infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i>. In the end stages, diffuse verminous interstitial pneumonia associated with P. odocoilei led to respiratory failure, and may have acted as a predisposing factor for bacterial pneumonia, which caused sporadic mortalities in this wild population. <p> At Subarctic latitudes, seasonal patterns in host and parasite availability, including larval shedding by Dalls sheep and larval development in experimentally infected gastropods, suggested that lambs become infected with <i>P. odocoilei</i> in a narrow seasonal window in their first fall on winter range. In combination with laboratory experiments, a degree day model for temperature-dependent larval development was developed, validated, and applied to describe and predict the effects of climate warming on protostrongylid parasites of thinhorn sheep in northern North America. In a future of climate warming, the narrow seasonal window for parasite development and transmission would be significantly extended, leading to amplification of populations of <i>P. odocoilei</i> and <i>P. stilesi</i> in endemic regions, and possibly range expansion of <i>P. odocoilei</i>. This may have consequences for the health of thinhorn sheep, as well as other wildlife that are important resources in the Canadian North.

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