• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 32
  • 20
  • 8
  • 6
  • 4
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 85
  • 85
  • 20
  • 18
  • 18
  • 16
  • 15
  • 14
  • 12
  • 12
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 9
  • 9
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Triaxial Behaviour of Layered Soil at Small Strain Level

Liu, Wei 10 September 2017 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the anisotropic behaviour of layered soil at small strain level. This thesis comprised experimental, numerical, and theoretical aspects and provided an insight to the concept of the ‘equivalent’ homogeneous cross-anisotropic material indicating that the layered soil can be replaced by an equivalent transversely isotropic material under certain conditions. In the experimental program, this study extended Vaid’s work (1971) to conduct K0-compression tests in a rigid triaxial cell with a flexible lateral boundary for the determination of the K0-value of normally consolidated soil. The error induced by the compliance of the cell-water system that always existed in the previous study was successively eliminated by attaching a compliance correction system (i.e., GDS controller) to the triaxial cell. Three stress path tests (i.e., the K0-compression test, the plane strain compression test, and the hydrostatic pressure compression test) were conducted consecutively in a rigid triaxial cell for a layered soil specimen to determine the elastic cross-anisotropic properties of the equivalent homogeneous material. The applicability of the proposed approach was demonstrated by conducting the tests on two types of soil (i.e., the homogeneous soil and the layered soil). A three-parameter constitutive equation for describing the soil’s cross-anisotropic elastic behaviour was modified in a basic FEM program. Based on the material properties determined by the experimental study as an input, numerical simulations (i.e., the numerical K0-test) using FEM were conducted to compare numerical results with the test results. In the theoretical part, this study made use of the Reuss and the Voigt approximations and proposed a simple, yet physically meaningful, approach to determine the equivalent cross-anisotropic elastic properties of a multilayered medium. To simplify the exposition, a multilayered medium with two constituent materials that were both isotropic was examined. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc)
2

Evaluation of Compression Testing and Compression Failure Modes of Paperboard : Video analysis of paperboard during short-span compression and the suitability of short- and long-span compression testing of paperboard / Utvärdering av kompressionsbrottmoder och kompressionstestning för kartong : Videoanalys av kartong under kompressionstestning och lämpligheten av två olika kompressionsmetoder

Sjöstrand, Björn January 2013 (has links)
The objectives of the thesis were to find the mechanisms that govern compression failures in paperboard and to find the link between manufacturing process and paperboard properties. The thesis also investigates two different test methods and evaluates how suitable they are for paperboard grades. The materials are several commercial board grades and a set of hand-formed dynamic sheets that are made to mimic the construction of commercial paperboard. The method consists of mounting a stereomicroscope on a short-span compression tester and recording the compression failure on video, long-span compression testing and standard properties testing. The observed failure modes of paperboard under compression were classified into four categories depending on the appearance of the failures. Initiation of failure takes place where the structure is weakest and fiber buckling happens after the initiation, which consists of breaking of fiber-fiber bonds or fiber wall delamination. The compression strength is correlated to density and operations and raw materials that increase the density also increases the compression strength. Short-span compression and Long-span compression are not suitable for testing all kinds of papers; the clamps in short-span give bulky specimens an initial geometrical shape that can affect the given value of compression strength. Long-span compression is only suitable for a limited range of papers, one problem with too thin papers are low wavelength buckling.
3

Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas de ossos de coelhas submetidas à administração de glicocorticóides / Evaluation of mechanical properties of the bone´s of rabbits induced glucocorticoid administration

Silva Junior, Célio Anderson da 26 August 2003 (has links)
O corticóide é usado nas várias especialidades médicas por ser um fármaco de potente efeito anti-inflamatório e imunossupressor, no entanto, é capaz de produzir algumas alterações metabólicas quando administrado por uso prolongado. Desta forma o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as possíveis alterações nas propriedades mecânicas de osso cortical e trabecular de coelhas albinas, quando submetidas à administração de corticoesteróide em altas doses e por tempo prolongado, através de ensaio mecânico de flexão em três pontos em tíbia e fêmures avaliados como estrutura, além de ensaios mecânicos em corpos de prova por flexão em três pontos em fêmures e compressão em vértebras (L5). Para o estudo foram utilizados 39 animais, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, experimental (GE) e controle (GC). Estes grupos foram divididos em quatro subgrupos, sendo 2 experimentais e 2 controles. Na investigação estrutural foram avaliadas as tíbias e fêmures direito por ensaios mecânicos de flexão em 3 pontos, e na investigação como material foram realizados ensaios mecânicos de flexão em 3 pontos para fêmures e compressão para vértebras (L5) através de corpos de prova. A metodologia utilizada para esta pesquisa foi igual para todos os animais, no entanto, o grupo experimental foi administrado durante 21 dias com o medicamento metilprednisolona (Solumedron) diluída em solução salina numa proporção de 2 mg/Kg/dia, e o grupo controle foi somente administrada solução salina na mesma dosagem. Todos os ensaios mecânicos foram realizados na Máquina Universal de Ensaio do Laboratório de Bioengenharia - FMRP/USP. Durante os ensaios foram registrados os valores das deflexões e as respectivas cargas aplicadas, sendo posteriormente confeccionadas curvas carga versus deflexão para cada osso ensaiado. As propriedades mecânicas determinadas para os fêmures e tíbias analisadas de forma estrutural foram: a carga aplicada no limite de proporcionalidade, deflexão no limite de proporcionalidade, carga máxima, rigidez e a resiliência de cada osso. Já para os fêmures e vértebras analisados como material ósseo, foram avaliados suas tensões máximas através da curva carga versus deflexão. Comparações estatísticas foram realizadas entre os resultados encontrados, através do teste T-Student, com nível de significância estabelecido em 5% para todos os parâmetros analisados. Nas análises estatísticas entre os grupos investigados não foram observadas diferenças significativas em nenhuma das comparações, porém observou-se ao final deste estudo uma perda de peso corporal significativa do grupo experimental. Desta forma foi evidenciado através dos resultados encontrados nesta pesquisa que as propriedades mecânicas investigadas não apresentaram alterações significativas com o protocolo de administração de medicamento, sugerindo-se que novos experimentos sejam realizados, com modificações de dosagem e tempo de aplicação. / Corticoteroids are used in many clinical conditions because they present strong anti-inflammatory and imunessupressor activities. But, at the same time, they can cause many metabolic alterations and side effects mainly when there is prolonged. In the present research we studied the possible alterations caused by steroids on the mechanical properties of lamellar and trabecular bone of rabbits. The mechanical properties were assessed by bending tests performed on intact femurs and tibial as well as in samples of cortical bone. Compression tests were performed in L5 vertebral. Thirty-seven female rabbits were randomly distributes in one experimental group (EG-animals) and control (CG animals). Such groups were divided into four subgroups: two experimentals and two controls. The experimental animals received 2mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone (Solumedron ® ) during three weeks. The control animals received the same volume of intramuscular injections of saline, once a day, during three weeks. From the load x deformation curves the load and deflexion were obtained at the yielding point. The ultimate load as well as resilience were also obtained for the intact bones. When the specimens were analysed the ultimate tension was determined. The statisitical analyses did not show any difference between treated and untreated animals for the mechanical properties. But the treated animals showed a significant loose of body weight. We ful that such results require a deepening in the investigation.
4

Resistência de um solo não saturado a partir de ensaios com teor de umidade constante (CW) / Shear strength of an unsaturated soil from constant water content tests

Georgetti, Giovana Bizão 16 April 2010 (has links)
Em muitas partes do mundo, engenheiros geotécnicos freqüentemente lidam com solos não saturados, e o desempenho de obras nestes solos depende de suas características mecânicas, como a resistência ao cisalhamento. A determinação experimental da resistência de solos não saturados pode ser feita em laboratório utilizando técnicas que permitem controle ou medida da sucção, sendo uma delas o ensaio de compressão triaxial com teor de umidade constante. Neste contexto, essa pesquisa analisa a resistência ao cisalhamento de um solo arenoso compactado não saturado por meio de ensaios de compressão triaxial. Ensaios do tipo adensado-drenado e adensado-não drenado foram realizados com solo saturado, enquanto ensaios com teor de umidade constante foram realizados para caracterizar o comportamento do solo não saturado. Os resultados dos ensaios com solo saturado foram combinados e forneceram uma envoltória de resistência comum em termos de tensões efetivas. Para o solo não saturado, as curvas tensão-deformação foram representadas pela diferença de tensões principais e por esta normalizada por algumas das variáveis de estado de tensão do solo. Tais curvas se assemelham a curvas típicas de um material plástico, com exceção das obtidas para a menor tensão confinante, nas quais se observou a ocorrência de picos de resistência. Já a sucção apresentou um comportamento comum a todos os ensaios, com redução inicial seguida de estabilização. As diferentes representações da curva tensão-deformação permitiram definir superfícies planares de resistência no espaço tensão x sucção x resistência, nas quais foram observadas pequenas variações nos valores de coesão efetiva e ângulo de atrito com relação à sucção. Apesar do bom ajuste destas envoltórias planares, os resultados mostraram alguma não-linearidade. Por fim, testaram-se os métodos de Khalili e Khabbaz (1998) e Vilar (2007) de previsão da resistência ao cisalhamento de solos não saturados. / In many parts of the world, geotechnical engineers frequently deal with unsaturated soils, and the performance of constructions on such soils depends on their mechanical characteristics, and among them, the shear strength. The unsaturated soil shear strength can be experimentally determined by using techniques which allow soil suction control or measurement and one of the available techniques is the constant water content triaxial compression test. In this context, this research analyzes the shear strength of an unsaturated compacted sandy soil using triaxial compression tests. Consolidated-drained and consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests were performed with the saturated soil, while constant water content triaxial compression tests were performed to characterize the unsaturated soil behavior. Results of tests with saturated soil were gathered and yielded a common shear strength envelope in terms of effective stress. Regarding the unsaturated soil, the stress-strain curves were represented by the deviator stress and the deviator stress normalized by some stress state variables of the soil. Such curves were similar to typical curves of a plastic material, except for those obtained for the lower confining pressure, in which peak of stress were observed. Suction development during shearing presented a common behavior to all the tests, with initial reduction followed by stabilization. The different representations of stress-strain curves allowed defining shear strength planar surfaces on stress x suction x strength space, which showed small variations of effective cohesion and angle related to suction. Despite of the good adjustment of these planar shear strength envelopes, the results showed some non-linearity. Finally, the methods proposed by Khalili and Khabbaz (1998) and Vilar (2007) for predicting the shear strength of unsaturated soils were tested.
5

MEMS-based Mechanical Characterization of Micrometer-sized Biomaterials

Kim, Keekyoung 24 September 2009 (has links)
The mechanical properties of biomaterials play important roles in performing their specialized functions: synthesizing, storing, and transporting biomolecules; maintaining internal structures; and responding to external environments. Besides biological cells, there are also many other biomaterials that are highly deformable and have a diameter between 1μm and 100μm, comparable to that of most biological cells. For example, many polymeric microcapsules for drug delivery use are spherical particles of micrometers size. In order to mechanically characterize individual micrometer-sized biomaterials, the capability of capturing high-resolution and low-magnitude force feedback is required. This research focuses on the development of micro devices and experimental techniques for quantifying the mechanical properties of alginate-chitosan microcapsules. The micro devices include microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive force sensors and force-feedback microgrippers, capable of measuring sub-μN forces. Employing the MEMS devices, systems were constructed to perform the micro-scale compression testing of microcapsules. The force sensors are capable of resolving forces up to 110μN with a resolution of 33.2nN along two independent axes. The force sensors were applied to characterizing the mechanical properties of hydrogel microparticles without assembling additional end-effectors. The microcapsules were immobilized by a PDMS holding device and compressed between the sensor probe and holding device. Young's modulus values of individual microcapsules with 1%, 2%, and 3% chitosan coating were determined through the micro-scale compression testing in both distilled deionized (DDI) water and pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The Young's modulus values were also correlated to protein release rates. Instead of compressing the microcapsule against the wall of the holding device, a force-feedback MEMS microgripper with the capability of directly compressing the microcapsule between two gripping arms has been used for characterizing both the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the microcapsules during micromanipulation. The single-chip microgripper integrates an electrothermal microactuator and two capacitive force sensors, one for contact detection (force resolution: 38.5nN) and the other for gripping force measurements (force resolution: 19.9nN). Through nanoNewton force measurements, closed-loop force control, and visual tracking, the system quantified the Young's modulus values and viscoelastic parameters of alginate microcapsules, demonstrating an easy-to-operate, accurate compression testing technique for characterizing soft, micrometer-sized biomaterials.
6

MEMS-based Mechanical Characterization of Micrometer-sized Biomaterials

Kim, Keekyoung 24 September 2009 (has links)
The mechanical properties of biomaterials play important roles in performing their specialized functions: synthesizing, storing, and transporting biomolecules; maintaining internal structures; and responding to external environments. Besides biological cells, there are also many other biomaterials that are highly deformable and have a diameter between 1μm and 100μm, comparable to that of most biological cells. For example, many polymeric microcapsules for drug delivery use are spherical particles of micrometers size. In order to mechanically characterize individual micrometer-sized biomaterials, the capability of capturing high-resolution and low-magnitude force feedback is required. This research focuses on the development of micro devices and experimental techniques for quantifying the mechanical properties of alginate-chitosan microcapsules. The micro devices include microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive force sensors and force-feedback microgrippers, capable of measuring sub-μN forces. Employing the MEMS devices, systems were constructed to perform the micro-scale compression testing of microcapsules. The force sensors are capable of resolving forces up to 110μN with a resolution of 33.2nN along two independent axes. The force sensors were applied to characterizing the mechanical properties of hydrogel microparticles without assembling additional end-effectors. The microcapsules were immobilized by a PDMS holding device and compressed between the sensor probe and holding device. Young's modulus values of individual microcapsules with 1%, 2%, and 3% chitosan coating were determined through the micro-scale compression testing in both distilled deionized (DDI) water and pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The Young's modulus values were also correlated to protein release rates. Instead of compressing the microcapsule against the wall of the holding device, a force-feedback MEMS microgripper with the capability of directly compressing the microcapsule between two gripping arms has been used for characterizing both the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the microcapsules during micromanipulation. The single-chip microgripper integrates an electrothermal microactuator and two capacitive force sensors, one for contact detection (force resolution: 38.5nN) and the other for gripping force measurements (force resolution: 19.9nN). Through nanoNewton force measurements, closed-loop force control, and visual tracking, the system quantified the Young's modulus values and viscoelastic parameters of alginate microcapsules, demonstrating an easy-to-operate, accurate compression testing technique for characterizing soft, micrometer-sized biomaterials.
7

Mechanical Behaviour of Nanocrystalline Rhodium Nanopillars under Compression

Alshehri, Omar 27 January 2012 (has links)
Nanomechanics emerged as chemists and physicists began fabricating nanoscale objects. However, there are some materials that have neither been fabricated nor mechanical investigated at the nanoscale, such as rhodium. Rhodium is used in many applications, especially in coatings and catalysis. To contribute to the understanding the nano-properties of this important material, rhodium was fabricated and mechanically investigated at the nanoscale. The nanopillars approach was employed to study size effects on mechanical properties. Nanopillars with different diameters were fabricated using electroplating followed by uniaxial compression tests. SEM was used as a quality control technique by imaging the pillars before and after compression to assure the absence of buckling, barrelling, or any other problems. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SEM were used as microstructural characterization techniques, and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used as the chemical characterization technique. Due to substrate induced effects, only the plastic region of the stress-strain curves were investigated, and it was revealed that rhodium softens with decreased nanopillar diameter. This softening/weakening effect was due to the nanocrystallinity of the fabricated pillars. This effect is consistent with the literature that demonstrates the reversed size effect of nanocrystalline metals, i.e., smaller is weaker. Further studies should focus on eliminating the substrate effect that was due to the adhesion layers between Rh and the silicon substrate being softer than Rh, consequently, causing Rh to sink into the adhesion layer when compressed and thus perturbing the stress-strain curve. Moreover, further investigation of other properties of Rh is required to achieve a comprehensive understanding of Rh at the nanoscale, and to render it suitable for specific, multivariable applications.
8

Experimental And Numerical Analysis Of Compression On A Forging Press

Bicer, Gokhan 01 June 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Forging is a metal forming process which involves non-linear deformations. Finite element and finite volume software programs are commonly used to simulate the process. In these simulations, material properties are required. However, stress-strain relations of the materials at some elevated temperatures are not available in the material libraries of the related software programs. In this study, the stress-strain curves have been obtained by applying the Cook and Larke Simple Compression Test to AISI 1045 steel at several temperatures on a forging press with a capacity of 1000 tons. The stress-strain curves have also been determined by simulating the processes in a commercial finite element software. It is observed that experimental results are consistent with the numerical ones. A modular die set has been designed and manufactured to conduct the Cook and Larke Simple Compression Test. It has been shown that the forging press with data acquisition system can be used as a material testing equipment to obtain stress-strain curves.
9

Mechanical and physical characterization of tire bales

Freilich, Brian Jeremy 05 November 2012 (has links)
Tire bales are a suitable construction material for conditions which require a lightweight material with high permeability and strength. Although several tire bale case histories have been reported in the literature, only limited material properties of the bales are available. Determining the mechanical and physical properties of the tire bales is necessary for the proper design and construction of future tire bale structures. The development and results from a series of large scale laboratory and field test procedures, used to determine the mechanical and physical characteristics of a tire bale structure, are provided in this dissertation. A tire bale structure, as compared to the individual tire bale, is defined as two or more tire bales stacked upon each other resulting in an interface contact between layers of the tire bales. Results from the test programs indicate that the interface between the tire bales controls the strength and compressibility of the bale structure. The strength of the interface was characterized utilizing a large scale direct shear test, which was modified to include the effects of moisture, soil infill and stress orientation on the interface strength. Interface shear stresses were used to define shear strength parameters for the different tire bale interfaces. The compressibility of the tire bale structure was characterized utilizing a large scale vertical compression test. The influence of the individual tire bale geometry on strength and compressibility was determined by conducting the large scale tests on two bale types, the standard block bale and the standard cylinder bale. A tire ridge interface model was developed to represent the physical characteristics of the tire bales that control the strength and deformations along the interface. Tensions within the baling wires were measured during the direct shear and compression tests using strain gauges attached to the baling wires. A tension meter was also developed so that the baling wire tensions could be determined without damaging the tire bale and baling wires. A destructive expansion pressure test was used at the conclusion of the research program to determine the pressures the tire bale exerts on the surrounding structure after wire breakage. / text
10

DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF A535 ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER DIFFERENT STRAIN RATE AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

2014 October 1900 (has links)
Aluminum alloys are a suitable substitution for heavy ferrous alloys in automobile structures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the flow stress behavior of as-cast and homogenized A535 aluminum alloy under various deformation conditions. A hot compression test of A535 alloy was performed in the temperature range of 473-673 K (200-400˚C) and strain rate range of 0.005-5 s-1 using a GleebleTM machine. Experimental data were fitted to Arrhenius-type constitutive equations to find material constants such as n, nʹ, β, A and activation energy (Q). Flow stress curves for as-cast and homogenized A535 alloy were predicted using an extended form of the Arrhenius constitutive equations. The dynamic shock load response of the alloy was studied using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test apparatus. The strain rate used ranged from 1400 s-1 to 2400 s-1 for as-cast and homogenized A535 alloy. The microstructures of the deformed specimens under different deformation conditions were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Obtained true stress-true strain curves at elevated temperatures showed that the flow stress of the alloy increased by increasing the strain rate and decreasing the temperature for both as-cast and homogenized specimens. The homogenization heat treatment showed no effect on the mechanical behavior of the A535 alloy under hot deformation conditions. Hot deformation activation energy for both as-cast and homogenized A535 alloy was calculated to be 193 kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion of pure aluminum (142 kJ/mol). The calculated stress values were compared with the measured ones and they showed good agreement by the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.997 and the average absolute relative error (AARE) of 6.5 %. The peak stress and the critical strain at the onset of thermal softening increased with strain rate for both the as-cast and homogenized A535 alloy. Homogenization heat treatment affected the high strain-rate deformation of the alloy, by increasing the peak stress and the thermal softening onset strain compared to those obtained for as-cast specimens. Deformed shear bands (DSBs) were formed in both the as-cast and homogenized A535 alloy in the strain rate range of 2000-2400 s-1.

Page generated in 0.2548 seconds