Keywords in the mist: Automated keyword extraction for very large documents and back of the book indexing.Csomai, Andras 05 1900 (has links)
This research addresses the problem of automatic keyphrase extraction from large documents and back of the book indexing. The potential benefits of automating this process are far reaching, from improving information retrieval in digital libraries, to saving countless man-hours by helping professional indexers creating back of the book indexes. The dissertation introduces a new methodology to evaluate automated systems, which allows for a detailed, comparative analysis of several techniques for keyphrase extraction. We introduce and evaluate both supervised and unsupervised techniques, designed to balance the resource requirements of an automated system and the best achievable performance. Additionally, a number of novel features are proposed, including a statistical informativeness measure based on chi statistics; an encyclopedic feature that taps into the vast knowledge base of Wikipedia to establish the likelihood of a phrase referring to an informative concept; and a linguistic feature based on sophisticated semantic analysis of the text using current theories of discourse comprehension. The resulting keyphrase extraction system is shown to outperform the current state of the art in supervised keyphrase extraction by a large margin. Moreover, a fully automated back of the book indexing system based on the keyphrase extraction system was shown to lead to back of the book indexes closely resembling those created by human experts.
A formal model for measuring the different levels of IT-based Design and Construction Integration (ITDCI) in colleges and universitiesMokbel, Hala Nabil 04 May 2009 (has links)
Modern manufacturing processes are becoming more integrated and relying on measuring performance to better identify ways of improvement. The AEC industry is now moving in this direction through IT-based Design and Construction Integration (ITDCI). ITDCI is a collaborative knowledge-based activity in which each participant continuously and timely contributes and shares his/her knowledge to realize a specific goal, bonded by a unified and cohesive culture with the use of the supportive IT-tools. Executing the project in an ITDCI fashion requires the satisfaction of these conditions. This research developed a formal model that consists of 75 ITDCI mechanisms distributed over the different phases of the facility development process within colleges and universities to enable the knowledge transfer process and achieve the highest level of integration. The level of ITDCI involved in a particular project can be then measured by quantifying the number of ITDCI mechanisms introduced. The research methodology included the following activities: reviewing the related literature, developing and validating a scenario for the facility development process within typical colleges and universities through literature review and interviews, providing a definition for each phase of the process to be executed in an ITDCI fashion and finally identifying actions or mechanisms that have to be activated to obtain the highest level of ITDCI. The model was validated through an online survey that targeted the members of the Society of Colleges and Universities (SCUP) and a case study. WPI's new East Hall residence facility was used as a case study to validate the model. This model is a significant contribution to the construction industry because it acts as a measuring tool to assess the corresponding level of ITDCI in the facility development process. It also helps to develop a common understanding among industry practitioners on what is required to achieve a desired level of ITDCI in their project. This comprehension would guide them to a better recognition of the benefits and consequences of each specific level of IT-based integration on their project outcomes. It will also enable them to execute more accurate cost/benefit analyses and eventually opt for the optimum ITDCI level. For future work, the model could be expanded to include other types of facilities, such as residential, healthcare and commercial facilities to achieve wider adoption within the AEC industry.
Unified framework for construction project integration and its potential association with project performanceOspina Alvarado, Angelica Maria 04 April 2011 (has links)
The construction industry is not performing as desired by the stakeholders that compose it. Several authors and practitioners have claimed that moving the industry towards a more integrated approach to project delivery could notoriously improve the overall performance of the industry. The main purpose of this dissertation was to obtain a unified framework for project integration, by identifying the critical success attributes for achieving project integration, the different levels of importance of attributes other than the critical success attributes to improve the integration process, and by determining if there are major differences among the perceptions of respondents depending on their role in the industry. In addition, this study also sought to identify potential associations between the integration attributes and the different project performance or project success criteria. In order to develop this framework and to identify the potential associations between integration attributes and project performance, a survey was conducted. The sample of the survey was composed of construction industry practitioners; it included owners, facility managers, engineers, specialty consultants, general contractors, subcontractors, among other professionals. The sample size was 264 respondents. The main method used for developing the framework was the Thurstone Scaling Method of Successive Interval Procedure; in addition, this method was complemented and validated using correlation analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of the means. According to the perception of respondents, 19 attributes out of the 45 attributes under study, were identified as critical for successfully achieving project integration. In addition, four other categories of importance were identified and the other integration attributes were categorized accordingly. No major differences were found between the perceptions that different project participants had in regard to the importance of the different attributes to achieve project integration, leading to the conclusion that the perception of respondents in regard to this matter is very homogeneous. The potential impact of the 45 attributes on 12 performance criteria was analyzed. According to the perception of respondents, most of the integration attributes have different levels of impact on the different performance criteria; however there is not a clear relationship between the level of importance for achieving project integration and the level of potential impact on the different performance criteria. Most of the integration attributes are divided in two groups depending on their behavior across all integration criteria; in addition there are three groups that have one attribute each. The potential impact of each of these groups differs from one performance criterion to the other; however there are some performance criteria where the behavior of the groups is similar. The groups have a similar behavior on cost, time, and productivity; they also behave similarly on quality and owner satisfaction; on functionality and user satisfaction; and on health and safety and environmental impact and sustainability.
Cranford, Edward Andrew
09 December 2016
The generation of predictive inferences may be difficult when a story leads to multiple possible consequences. Prior research has shown that readers only generate predictive inferences automatically, under normal reading conditions, when the story is based on familiar events for which the reader has readily available knowledge about what may happen next, there is enough constraining information in the text so that the inference is highly predictable, and there are few or no alternative inferences available (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992). However, some evidence shows predictive inferences were generated when the likelihood of the targeted inference was reduced and the story implied an alternative consequence could occur (Klin, Murray, Levine, & Guzmán, 1999). It is possible, though, that the alternative was not a likely enough consequence to affect processing of the targeted inference. Prior research did not examine whether the alternative inference was drawn or whether multiple inferences could be entertained simultaneously. The experiments in this dissertation were designed to further assess the nature of interference when multiple consequences are possible by increasing the likelihood of the alternative so that both inferences were more equally likely to occur. The first two experiments used a word-naming task and showed that neither inference was activated when probed at 500 ms after the story (Experiment 1A) or when probed at 1000 ms (Experiment 1B), suggesting the alternative inference interferes with activation of the targeted inference. Experiments 2 and 3 used a contradictory reading paradigm to assess whether the inferences were activated but only at a minimal level so that they were not detected in a word-naming task. Reading time was slower when a sentence contradicted both inferences but not when it contradicted only one inference, even after reading a lengthy filler text. Reading time was also slower in Experiment 3 when the filler text was removed. These results imply both inferences were generated at a minimal level of activation that does not strengthen over time. The results are discussed in the light of comprehension theories that could account for the representation of minimally encoded inferences (Kintsch, 1998; Myers & O'Brien, 1998).
Lasley, Victoria Lynn
01 January 2019
As-built drawings are the traditional method used by the construction industry to record changes made during construction. As-builts provide valuable information for new design projects as well as rehabilitation and remediation projects. The completeness and accuracy of these plans are essential for transportation industries and their success. While the importance of as-builts is widely recognized, the process of creating them has proven to be difficult. It is a time consuming process and entities often lack the resources necessary to complete accurate and detailed as-builts. After an investigation of current as-built operations within State Transportation Agencies, recommendations have been made to redefine construction "as-built" plans to meet current state transportation needs. First, the importance of a central storage location accessible to all stakeholders cannot be overemphasized. Along with a central storage location, standard guidelines should be developed regarding what information is required to be included within as-built plans. This study's approach to developing such guidelines included meeting with as-built end users and formulating a list of requested information. To ensure as-builts are being completed on time and accurately, it is recommended that as-built plans be developed throughout the project using simple to use editing software on iPads. A PDF editor is ideal for as-built development as PDF is the requested format by most end users. Finally, to ensure this process is being followed by construction, a liaison between as-built developers and users is recommended.
The construction industry is known for its inefficiency, with projects exceeding budgets and not completing on time. It is claimed that these problems stem from the industry’s characteristics and affect the project’s success. Research has increased within the field of construction supply chains and construction supply chain management as a way to increase coordination and improve project performances. However, the industry and the companies within have a long way to go before construction supply chain management is integrated. This study presents problems that are manageable for a general contractor and what enabler can be implemented to facilitate the integration of construction supply chain management and coordination. The study investigates a Swedish project and its current situation, where the collected data from interviews belong to either people, processes, or contexts. The study identifies 22 problems and 21 enablers from interviews, literature, and frameworks. Early on in the study, it is noted that problems are linked and affect various disciplines. Consequently, if one problem arises it affects other disciplines. Therefore to understand the problems origin and connections will the opted analysis provide their association to each other and their belonging to either the construction or supply process. Based on the belonging, the problems are sorted if they are considered manageable for a general contractor and relate to either organizational efforts, management of the information flow, or relationships. The study also provides proposed applications for information and communication technology. Furthermore, initial steps towards integrating construction supply chain management for a general contractor this is done by initiating ’supply chain integration’ and develop integrating processes, products, and services. It is recommended that this should be done by mapping the current state of the supply and construction process, identifying individuals who are familiar with supply chain methods, and involve them in works for improvement. The second step is to develop an organizational and team culture that is open for change and supports integration. Once the culture has been established, more effort and resources can be added towards building relationships and develop construction supply chain collaborations. Proposed enablers are among several to develop selection criteria to determine suppliers and subcontractors and adapt resources such as time and money accordingly. Since subcontractors are responsible for the supply process, it is recommended that goals and evaluation criteria for these actors should be developed based on supply chain performances and form the basis for evaluating subcontractors. This study confirms previous studies where the general contractors’ ability to cooperate and their practices are affected by the owners’ demand and preferred methods. Therefore it is required that the general contractor’s ability to adapt accordingly is increased. Consequently, the need for new management principles that are highly adaptive and easy to use is demonstrated. The compiled results indicate an imbalance of responsibilities and a lack of ownership for changing the industry and showing the need for new management principles. Which leaves the question, who is responsible for changing the industry? Even though this is a complex question, as indicated in the study, there are actions that a general contractor can take to integrate construction supply chain management and increase coordination.
10 December 2007
No description available.
Adaptation du modèle de la Construction-Intégration de Kintsch à la compréhension des énoncés et à la résolution des problèmes arithmétiques complexes / Understanding and solving complex word arithmetic problems : adaptation of the Construction-Integration model of KintschLebreton, Olivier 21 January 2011 (has links)
Cette recherche a pour objet la compréhension des énoncés de problèmes arithmétiques complexes et leur résolution. Les problèmes complexes choisis combinent des problèmes simples de types Changement et Combinaison. Ce travail s’appuie sur le modèle de la Construction-Intégration de Kintsch. Les résultats montrent qu’il existe une relation entre le niveau d’expertise en compréhension de textes narratifs et la résolution des problèmes arithmétiques complexes. Comprendre un texte narratif ou un énoncé de problème complexe exige de la part des lecteurs la construction d’un réseau propositionnel hiérarchisé et les résultats suggèrent, entre autres, une sensibilité des élèves aux propositions textuelles et aux ellipses contenues dans les textes. La formation des macropropositions est un processus fondamental et les résultats montrent une relation entre le nombre d’objets contenus dans les énoncés de problème et la procédure préférentiellement choisie par les élèves. Ils suggèrent d’une part, la mise en oeuvre du processus de catégorisation au cours du processus de compréhension et d’autre part, l’affaiblissement des liaisons entre les macropropositions élaborées et le schéma de problème Parties-Tout qui leur sont liés. D’un point de vue pédagogique, les résultats montrent que les questions relatives à l’activation d’une part des concepts superordonnés et d’autre part des schémas de problèmes Parties-Tout ne sont pas à privilégier pour aider les élèves. Finalement, les connaissances du lecteur sont essentielles à la compréhension. Cet élément est confirmé ici et la compréhension des problèmes complexes nécessite des connaissances solides relativement aux problèmes arithmétiques simples. / This research deals with text comprehension processes and complex arithmetic word problems resolution by 9-10 years old children in Reunion Island based upon the CI model of Kintsch. The complex word arithmetic problems used in this research are a combination of Change simple problems and Combine simple problems. The results show a relation between subject’s level of expertise in narrative texts comprehension and complex arithmetic word problems resolution. In order to understand a narrative text or to resolve a complex arithmetic word problem, subjects have to elaborate a coherent hierarchical propositional network : bridging inferences and macropropositions are involved to achieve complex arithmetic word problems resolution too. More precisely, the results suggest children are sensitive to the number of propositions and to the ellipsises. Macropropositions formation is an integral process of reading. The results show a relation between number of objects in complex arithmetic problems and procedure naturally used by children to solve them. They suggest on the one hand, categorization processes are an integral part of reading and on the other hand, some links between macropropositions and arithmetic hypothesis become weaker. Consequently, questions about superordinate concepts and arithmetic hypothesis attached to them are not helpul to resolve complex arithmetic word problems. Finally, reader’s knowlegde is a key element of comprehension processes and to achieve complex arithmetic word problems, problem schemata about simple arithmetic word problems are crucial. The results show a relation between subject’s level of expertise in simple arithmetic word problems and complex arithmetic word problems resolution.
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