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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

On Fault Resilient Network-on-Chip for Many Core Systems

Moriam, Sadia 24 May 2019 (has links)
Rapid scaling of transistor gate sizes has increased the density of on-chip integration and paved the way for heterogeneous many-core systems-on-chip, significantly improving the speed of on-chip processing. The design of the interconnection network of these complex systems is a challenging one and the network-on-chip (NoC) is now the accepted scalable and bandwidth efficient interconnect for multi-processor systems on-chip (MPSoCs). However, the performance enhancements of technology scaling come at the cost of reliability as on-chip components particularly the network-on-chip become increasingly prone to faults. In this thesis, we focus on approaches to deal with the errors caused by such faults. The results of these approaches are obtained not only via time-consuming cycle-accurate simulations but also by analytical approaches, allowing for faster and accurate evaluations, especially for larger networks. Redundancy is the general approach to deal with faults, the mode of which varies according to the type of fault. For the NoC, there exists a classification of faults into transient, intermittent and permanent faults. Transient faults appear randomly for a few cycles and may be caused by the radiation of particles. Intermittent faults are similar to transient faults, however, differing in the fact that they occur repeatedly at the same location, eventually leading to a permanent fault. Permanent faults by definition are caused by wires and transistors being permanently short or open. Generally, spatial redundancy or the use of redundant components is used for dealing with permanent faults. Temporal redundancy deals with failures by re-execution or by retransmission of data while information redundancy adds redundant information to the data packets allowing for error detection and correction. Temporal and information redundancy methods are useful when dealing with transient and intermittent faults. In this dissertation, we begin with permanent faults in NoC in the form of faulty links and routers. Our approach for spatial redundancy adds redundant links in the diagonal direction to the standard rectangular mesh topology resulting in the hexagonal and octagonal NoCs. In addition to redundant links, adaptive routing must be used to bypass faulty components. We develop novel fault-tolerant deadlock-free adaptive routing algorithms for these topologies based on the turn model without the use of virtual channels. Our results show that the hexagonal and octagonal NoCs can tolerate all 2-router and 3-router faults, respectively, while the mesh has been shown to tolerate all 1-router faults. To simplify the restricted-turn selection process for achieving deadlock freedom, we devised an approach based on the channel dependency matrix instead of the state-of-the-art Duato's method of observing the channel dependency graph for cycles. The approach is general and can be used for the turn selection process for any regular topology. We further use algebraic manipulations of the channel dependency matrix to analytically assess the fault resilience of the adaptive routing algorithms when affected by permanent faults. We present and validate this method for the 2D mesh and hexagonal NoC topologies achieving very high accuracy with a maximum error of 1%. The approach is very general and allows for faster evaluations as compared to the generally used cycle-accurate simulations. In comparison, existing works usually assume a limited number of faults to be able to analytically assess the network reliability. We apply the approach to evaluate the fault resilience of larger NoCs demonstrating the usefulness of the approach especially compared to cycle-accurate simulations. Finally, we concentrate on temporal and information redundancy techniques to deal with transient and intermittent faults in the router resulting in the dropping and hence loss of packets. Temporal redundancy is applied in the form of ARQ and retransmission of lost packets. Information redundancy is applied by the generation and transmission of redundant linear combinations of packets known as random linear network coding. We develop an analytic model for flexible evaluation of these approaches to determine the network performance parameters such as residual error rates and increased network load. The analytic model allows to evaluate larger NoCs and different topologies and to investigate the advantage of network coding compared to uncoded transmissions. We further extend the work with a small insight to the problem of secure communication over the NoC. Assuming large heterogeneous MPSoCs with components from third parties, the communication is subject to active attacks in the form of packet modification and drops in the NoC routers. Devising approaches to resolve these issues, we again formulate analytic models for their flexible and accurate evaluations, with a maximum estimation error of 7%.
32

Low latency and Resource efficient Orchestration for Applications in Mobile Edge Cloud

Doan, Tung 21 March 2023 (has links)
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets characterized by low computing and storage capabilities. Meanwhile, there is an explosive growth of applications on mobile devices that require high computing and storage capabilities. These challenges lead to the introduction of cloud computing empowering mobile devices with remote computing and storage resources. However, cloud computing is centrally designed, thus encountering noticeable issues such as high communication latency and potential vulnerability. To tackle these problems posed by central cloud computing, Mobile Edge Cloud (MEC) has been recently introduced to bring the computing and storage resources in proximity to mobile devices, such as at base stations or shopping centers. Therefore, MEC has become a key enabling technology for various emerging use cases such as autonomous driving and tactile internet. Despite such a potential benefit, the design of MEC is challenging for the deployment of applications. First, as MEC aims to bring computation and storage resources closer to mobile devices, MEC servers that provide those resources become incredibly diverse in the network. Moreover, MEC servers typically have a small footprint design to flexibly place at various locations, thus providing limited resources. The challenge is to deploy applications in a cost-efficient manner. Second, applications have stringent requirements such as high mobility or low latency. The challenge is to deploy applications in MEC to satisfy their needs. Considering the above challenges, this thesis aims to study the orchestration of MEC applications. In particular, for computation offloading, we propose offloading schemes for immersive applications in MEC such as Augmented Reality or Virtual Reality (AR/VR) by employing application characteristics. For resource optimization, since many MEC applications such as gaming and streaming applications require the support of network functions such as encoder and decoder, we first present placement schemes that allow efficiently sharing network functions between multiple MEC applications. We then introduce the design of the proposed MANO framework in MEC, advocating the joint orchestration between MEC applications and network functions. For mobility support, low latency applications for use cases such as autonomous driving have to seamlessly migrate from one MEC server to another MEC server following the mobility of mobile device, to guarantee low latency communication. Traditional migration approaches based on virtual machine (VM) or container migration attempt to suspend the application at one MEC server and then recover it at another MEC server. These approaches require the transfer of the entire VM or container state and consequently lead to service interruption due to high migration time. Therefore, we advocate migration techniques that takes advantage of application states.
33

Swiss-Roll Microbattery: Design, Fabrication, and Integration

Li, Yang 04 January 2023 (has links)
Microbatteries are being considered as the critical components for portable and smart microelectronics, including remote sensors, micro-electromechanical systems, microrobots, implantable medical devices, and the Internet of Things, owing to their high energy densities, long life span, and facile on-chip integration. To date, tremendous efforts have been devoted to developing new methodologies for building high-performance microbatteries with minimum footprint areas. However, an effective and reliable fabrication procedure that is compatible with the modern microelectronics industry has not yet been reported for microbatteries so far. Two main issues need to be considered for the device design: (1) pursuing satisfying energy and power densities at limited footprint area is highly desired by constructing the 3D microelectrode architecture with high aspect ratio while reducing its footprint; (2) a novel technology is highly demanded to produce the 3D microstructure following an on-chip processing route which is compatible with the manufacturing procedure of microelectronic devices. Rolled-up nanotechnology can transform a large-area planar precursor into a micrometer-sized Swiss-roll by careful strain-engineering and state-of-the-art micro-patterning techniques with a micro-origami self-assembly process, which reduces the device size for monolithic integration. This dissertation demonstrates brand-new 3D Swiss-roll microbatteries with high performance at a sub-square millimeter-scale by employing rolled-up nanotechnology. Two types of micro-batteries with different configurations have been designed and fabricated, including twin Swiss-roll and single Swiss-roll structures. The twin Swiss-roll microbattery is fabricated based on two separated Swiss-roll micro-scaffolds with a parallel structure and controllable distance between them. The tuneable mesostructure benefits the mass loading of electroactive materials, rendering the excellent energy density at a greatly reduced footprint area. The twin Swiss-roll configuration is conducive to compatibility with novel battery chemistries due to its separated parallel Swiss-roll structure. In order to further decrease the overall footprint area, a single Swiss-roll configuration is designed for a fully integrated Swiss-roll microbattery. Micro-anode and micro-cathode are integrated into a single Swiss-roll configuration with an extremely small footprint area, which benefits the integration and miniaturization of microelectronics. Finally, an integrated device composed of a single Swiss-roll microbattery and UV photodetector is successfully fabricated within 1 mm2. The concept presented here enables the high-performance microbattery that can break through the limitation on microbattery’s footprint area, which opens up the new vision for the future on-chip microelectronics.:Table of contents Chapter 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Background and motivation of this work 1 1.2. Dissertation structure 2 Chapter 2. Overview of 3D microbatteries 5 2.1. Electrochemical energy storage 5 2.2. Rechargeable zinc batteries 6 2.2.1. Alkaline rechargeable zinc batteries 7 2.2.2. Aqueous zinc ion batteries 8 2.2.3. Dual-ion hybrid zinc batteries 9 2.3. Configurations for 3D microbatteries 10 2.3.1. 3D sandwiched architecture 12 2.3.2. 3D interdigital architecture 13 2.3.3. Rolled-up microtubular architecture 15 2.4. Conclusion 17 Chapter 3. Overview of rolled-up technology 21 3.1. Self-rolled-up inorganic layers 21 3.2. Self-rolled-up polymeric shapeable platform 24 3.3. Applications of rolled-up nanomembranes for energy storage devices 26 3.3.1. Rolled-up active materials for LIBs 26 3.3.2. Rolled-up micro-platform for in-situ investigation 27 3.3.3. Rolled-up integratable 3D micro-capacitors/supercapacitors 29 Chapter 4. Experimental methods 35 4.1. Fabrication technologies 35 4.1.1. Photolithography 36 4.1.2. Electron beam evaporation 37 4.1.3. Magnetron sputtering deposition 38 4.1.4. Electrochemical deposition 39 4.2. Characterization methods 40 4.2.1. Scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam milling, and energy dispersive spectrometry 40 4.2.2. X-ray diffraction 41 4.2.3. Raman spectroscopy 41 4.2.4. Electrochemical characterization 42 4.2.5. Finite element method simulations 43 Chapter 5. A twin Swiss-roll microbattery 45 5.1. Introduction 45 5.2. Fabrication and characterization of twin Swiss-roll microbattery 46 5.2.1. Reshape a 2D precursor to a 3D mesostructured Swiss-roll 46 5.2.2. The construction of Swiss-roll microelectrodes 48 5.3. Results and discussion 51 5.3.1. The encapsulation of twin Swiss-roll microbattery 51 5.3.2. Electrochemical performance of twin Swiss-roll microbattery 52 5.3.3. Practical applications of twin Swiss-roll microbattery 55 5.4. Conclusion 57 Chapter 6. A single Swiss-roll microbattery 59 6.1. Introduction 59 6.2. Fabrication of Swiss-roll Zn-Ag microbattery 60 6.2.1. Fabrication of micro-origami layer stack 61 6.2.2. Fabrication of battery components 63 6.2.3. Self-roll-up of single Swiss-roll microbattery 63 6.3. Results and discussion 65 6.3.1. Materials characterization 65 6.3.2. Electrolyte optimization 65 6.3.3. Electrochemical performance of single Swiss-roll microbattery 70 6.4. Conclusion 73 Chapter 7. Summary and outlook 75 7.1. Summary 75 7.2. Outlook 77 Bibliography 79 List of figures 87 List of tables 91 Versicherung 93 Acknowledgment 95 Publications and presentations 97 Curriculum vita 99
34

Beiträge zur Regelung elektrischer Maschinen an Mehrpunktstromrichtern unter Nutzung optimierter Pulsmuster

Hoffmann, Andreas 06 January 2023 (has links)
Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich der Modulation und Regelung von Mehrpunktstromrichtern zum Antrieb elektrischer Maschinen unter Nutzung optimierter Pulsmuster. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, das Potential und die Grenzen der Modulation mit optimierten Pulsmustern unter der Randbedingung der heute vorhandenen Softwareframeworks und Rechentechnik aufzuzeigen. Darüber hinaus soll dem Leser ein gesamtheitlicher Überblick über die optimierten Pulsmuster vermittelt werden. Ausgehend vom Stand der Technik der verbreiteten Arten der Modulation werden die optimierten Pulsmuster eingeführt. Für die notwendige Berechnung der Pulsmuster als Lösung einer Optimierungsaufgabe wird ein allgemeines Konzept der mathematischen Beschreibung vorgestellt. Darauf basierend werden zehn heute verfügbare numerische Löser auf ihre Konvergenz bezüglich der Lösung des gestellten Problems untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es möglich ist, optimierte Pulsmuster mit Frequenzverhältnissen mf ≤ 21 online zu berechnen und dass geeignete Löser auch bei mf ≫ 50 sicher konvergieren. Eine Analyse der gefundenen Lösungen zeigt, dass der von trägerbasierten Modulationen bekannte lineare Zusammenhang zwischen mittlerer Schaltfrequenz und Schaltverlusten bei den optimierten Pulsmustern nicht gegeben ist. Darauf aufbauend wird ein neuer Algorithmus zur Wahl verlustminimierter Pulsmuster erarbeitet. Es zeigt sich, dass dessen Einsatz auch bei mf ≫ 21 gegenüber der Raumzeigermodulation zu einer signifikanten Reduktion der Schaltverluste (ca. 20%) führt. Mit den Grundlagen der Berechnung und der Analyse der Eigenschaften der optimierten Pulsmuster, wird basierend auf dem Stand der Technik ein neuartiger lastunabhängiger Modulator entwickelt. Dieser kompensiert die Unstetigkeiten der Pulsmusterwechsel durch Regelung des Integrals des harmonischen Inhalts der Pulsmuster. Aufbauend auf diesem neuartigen Modulator wird eine parameterrobuste Maschinenregelung entworfen. Diese weist eine Dead-Beat-Dynamik der Regelung des elektrischen Momentes einer angeschlossenen Maschine auf und ermöglicht im stationären Zustand, im Gegensatz zu den bestehenden Konzepten, die Ausgabe eines unveränderten Pulsmusters. Damit wird die angestrebte minimierte Stromwelligkeit erreicht. Im letzten Teil der Arbeit wird der Einfluss einer Modulation mit optimierten Pulsmustern auf den Symmetrierungsvorgang eines selbstgeführten Dreipunkt-UStromrichter (3L-NPC-VSC) untersucht. Dabei wird eine neue Methode der Reduktion der dynamischen Zwischenkreiswelligkeit, sowie eine neuartige, in allen Arbeitspunkten stabile, Methode der statischen Zwischenkreissymmetrierung präsentiert. Alle erarbeiteten Algorithmen wurden mit Hilfe von Simulationen und Experimenten verifiziert.:1 Einleitung 1 1.1 Inhalt und Motivation der vorliegenden Arbeit 2 1.2 Experimenteller Versuchsstand 4 1.3 Verwendete Grundlagen und Kennwerte 6 1.3.1 Fourieranalyse 6 1.3.2 Laplace-Transformation 7 1.3.3 Gütekriterien 8 2 Modulation 9 2.1 Klassifikation der Generierung der Pulsmuster 9 2.2 Modulationsverfahren 11 2.2.1 Trägerbasierte Pulsweitenmodulation 11 2.2.2 Raumzeigermodulation 22 2.2.3 Optimierte Pulsmuster 25 3 Optimierte Pulsmuster 29 3.1 Optimierungskriterien 30 3.1.1 Gewichtetes Gesamt-Oberschwingungsverhältnis 30 3.1.2 Gesamt-Oberschwingungsverhältnis 30 3.1.3 Minimale Drehmomentwelligkeit 31 3.1.4 Individuelle Wichtung der Harmonischen 32 3.1.5 Verlustminimierung in der Last 33 3.1.6 Schaltverlustminimierung der Halbleiter des Umrichters 34 3.2 Formulierung der Optimierungsaufgabe der optimierten Pulsmuster 35 3.2.1 Berechnung der Fourierkoeffizienten 36 3.2.2 Notwendige Nebenbedingungen der Optimierung 38 3.3 Vergleich von Algorithmen der nichtlinearen Optimierung 38 3.3.1 Vergleich verschiedener Lösungsmethoden 39 3.3.2 Definition des für den Vergleich genutzten Problems 43 3.3.3 Dauer der Berechnung der lokalen Minima 44 3.3.4 Vergleich der lokalen Minima der verschiedenen Löser 45 3.3.5 Berechnung verlustminimaler optimierter Pulsmuster 46 3.3.6 Untersuchungen zur Auswahl der lokalen Minima 47 3.3.7 Vergleich der optimierten Pulsmuster mit SVM und CB-Modulation 56 4 Stand der Technik der Regelung von Drehstrommaschinen 60 4.1 Grundlagen der Modellierung der Asynchronmaschine 60 4.2 Klassische Ansätze der Regelung elektrischer Maschinen 62 4.2.1 Feldorientierte Regelung 62 4.2.2 Direkte Selbstregelung 69 4.2.3 Direkte Momentenregelung 72 4.2.4 Vergleich der vorgestellten klassischen Regelungsarten 75 4.3 Regelung mit optimierten Pulsmustern auf Basis der Feldorientierung 76 4.3.1 Dynamischer Modulationsfehler durch unstetige Pulsmuster 76 4.3.2 Direkte Pulsmustermodifikation 80 4.3.3 Behandlung des dynamischen Modulationsfehlers 84 4.4 Geschlossener Regelkreis 86 4.5 Regelung mit optimierten Pulsmustern auf Basis der DSC 92 4.5.1 Eigenschaften der vorgestellten Pulserzeugungsarten 94 4.5.2 Dynamischen Eigenschaften der vorgestellten Regelungsstrukturen 95 5 Verallgemeinerte Konzepte zur Nutzung optimierter Pulsmuster 98 5.1 Implementierung eines allgemeingültigen OPP-Modulators 98 5.2 Behandlung des harmonischen Anteils der Pulsmuster 104 5.3 Modulation und Modifikation der Pulsmuster bei hohem mf 105 5.4 Dead-Beat-Control auf Basis der Pulsmustermodifikation 108 5.5 Maschinen-Beobachter 109 5.5.1 Beobachter der Asynchronmaschine 111 5.5.2 Beobachter der permanenterregten Synchronmaschine 114 5.6 Geschlossener Statorflussregelkreis 115 5.6.1 Untersuchung der Sensitivität des Modells 119 5.7 Entwurf der übergeordneten Regelkreise 123 5.7.1 Entwurf des Rotorflussreglers 125 5.7.2 Entwurf des Drehzahlreglers 126 5.7.3 Begrenzung des Statorstromes 127 5.7.4 Simulative und experimentelle Ergebnisse 127 6 Zwischenkreissymmetrierung des 3L-NPC-VSC bei OPP-Modulation 135 6.1 Der Neutralpunktstrom 135 6.2 Minimierung der Neutralpunktstromwelligkeit 138 6.3 Aktive Symmetrierung 140 6.4 Integration der Regelung der Zwischenkreissymmetrie 154 7 Zusammenfassung 158 Literatur 161 Abkürzungsverzeichnis 177 Symbolverzeichnis 178 / This thesis deals with the modulation and control of multilevel converters as electrical drives using an optimized pulse pattern (OPP) modulation scheme. The aim of the work is to determine the potential and the limits of the modulation using OPPs, considering state-of-the-art software frameworks und computing technology. Furthermore the reader shell get a holistic overview of all aspects regarding the use of OPPs. Starting with the state-of-the-art of the most popular modulation schemes and their characteristics the optimized pulse patterns are introduced. A general mathematical formulation, which describes the OPP calculation as minimization problem, is shown. With this formulation, ten implementations of nonlinear constraint minimization algorithms are analyzed with regard to the convergence behavior. It is shown, that OPP can be calculated online for frequency ratios mf ≫ 21. Further, some algorithms converge reliable also for mf ≫ 50. Afterwards, the solutions of the minimization of the weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) problem are analyzed. It is shown, that the linear relationship between the averaged switching frequency and the switching loss, which is known from carrier based modulation schemes, does not apply for OPPs. A new method to find loss optimized pulse patterns is proposed. With this method the modulation using OPPs can reduce the converter switching losses in comparison to space vector modulation significantly (20%) also for mf ≫ 21. Based on the analysis of the found OPP solutions a novel modulator, which is independent of the parameters of the load, is proposed. This modulator compensates the discontinuities due to the pulse pattern changes by controlling the integral of the harmonic content of the modulator output. Based on this modulator a new parameter robust machine control was developed. This concept shows a dead-beat-dynamic of the control of the electrical torque and uses in contrast to state-of-the-art concepts the unmodified OPP in steady state, which leads to a minimal load current ripple. The last part of the thesis deals with the influence of using an OPP modulation on the DC-link balancing of a Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Voltage-Source-Converter (3L-NPC-VSC). A new method to reduce the dynamic neutral-pointpotential-ripple as well as a new stable static balancing method are proposed. All proposed algorithms and methods are verified by simulation and experiment.:1 Einleitung 1 1.1 Inhalt und Motivation der vorliegenden Arbeit 2 1.2 Experimenteller Versuchsstand 4 1.3 Verwendete Grundlagen und Kennwerte 6 1.3.1 Fourieranalyse 6 1.3.2 Laplace-Transformation 7 1.3.3 Gütekriterien 8 2 Modulation 9 2.1 Klassifikation der Generierung der Pulsmuster 9 2.2 Modulationsverfahren 11 2.2.1 Trägerbasierte Pulsweitenmodulation 11 2.2.2 Raumzeigermodulation 22 2.2.3 Optimierte Pulsmuster 25 3 Optimierte Pulsmuster 29 3.1 Optimierungskriterien 30 3.1.1 Gewichtetes Gesamt-Oberschwingungsverhältnis 30 3.1.2 Gesamt-Oberschwingungsverhältnis 30 3.1.3 Minimale Drehmomentwelligkeit 31 3.1.4 Individuelle Wichtung der Harmonischen 32 3.1.5 Verlustminimierung in der Last 33 3.1.6 Schaltverlustminimierung der Halbleiter des Umrichters 34 3.2 Formulierung der Optimierungsaufgabe der optimierten Pulsmuster 35 3.2.1 Berechnung der Fourierkoeffizienten 36 3.2.2 Notwendige Nebenbedingungen der Optimierung 38 3.3 Vergleich von Algorithmen der nichtlinearen Optimierung 38 3.3.1 Vergleich verschiedener Lösungsmethoden 39 3.3.2 Definition des für den Vergleich genutzten Problems 43 3.3.3 Dauer der Berechnung der lokalen Minima 44 3.3.4 Vergleich der lokalen Minima der verschiedenen Löser 45 3.3.5 Berechnung verlustminimaler optimierter Pulsmuster 46 3.3.6 Untersuchungen zur Auswahl der lokalen Minima 47 3.3.7 Vergleich der optimierten Pulsmuster mit SVM und CB-Modulation 56 4 Stand der Technik der Regelung von Drehstrommaschinen 60 4.1 Grundlagen der Modellierung der Asynchronmaschine 60 4.2 Klassische Ansätze der Regelung elektrischer Maschinen 62 4.2.1 Feldorientierte Regelung 62 4.2.2 Direkte Selbstregelung 69 4.2.3 Direkte Momentenregelung 72 4.2.4 Vergleich der vorgestellten klassischen Regelungsarten 75 4.3 Regelung mit optimierten Pulsmustern auf Basis der Feldorientierung 76 4.3.1 Dynamischer Modulationsfehler durch unstetige Pulsmuster 76 4.3.2 Direkte Pulsmustermodifikation 80 4.3.3 Behandlung des dynamischen Modulationsfehlers 84 4.4 Geschlossener Regelkreis 86 4.5 Regelung mit optimierten Pulsmustern auf Basis der DSC 92 4.5.1 Eigenschaften der vorgestellten Pulserzeugungsarten 94 4.5.2 Dynamischen Eigenschaften der vorgestellten Regelungsstrukturen 95 5 Verallgemeinerte Konzepte zur Nutzung optimierter Pulsmuster 98 5.1 Implementierung eines allgemeingültigen OPP-Modulators 98 5.2 Behandlung des harmonischen Anteils der Pulsmuster 104 5.3 Modulation und Modifikation der Pulsmuster bei hohem mf 105 5.4 Dead-Beat-Control auf Basis der Pulsmustermodifikation 108 5.5 Maschinen-Beobachter 109 5.5.1 Beobachter der Asynchronmaschine 111 5.5.2 Beobachter der permanenterregten Synchronmaschine 114 5.6 Geschlossener Statorflussregelkreis 115 5.6.1 Untersuchung der Sensitivität des Modells 119 5.7 Entwurf der übergeordneten Regelkreise 123 5.7.1 Entwurf des Rotorflussreglers 125 5.7.2 Entwurf des Drehzahlreglers 126 5.7.3 Begrenzung des Statorstromes 127 5.7.4 Simulative und experimentelle Ergebnisse 127 6 Zwischenkreissymmetrierung des 3L-NPC-VSC bei OPP-Modulation 135 6.1 Der Neutralpunktstrom 135 6.2 Minimierung der Neutralpunktstromwelligkeit 138 6.3 Aktive Symmetrierung 140 6.4 Integration der Regelung der Zwischenkreissymmetrie 154 7 Zusammenfassung 158 Literatur 161 Abkürzungsverzeichnis 177 Symbolverzeichnis 178
35

IRONSperm: Sperm-templated soft magnetic microrobots

Magdanz, Veronika, Khalil, Islam S. M., Simmchen, Juliane, Furtado, Guilherme P., Mohanty, Sumit, Gebauer, Johannes, Xu, Haifeng, Klingner, Anke, Aziz, Azaam, Medina-Sánchez, Mariana, Schmidt, Oliver G., Misra, Sarthak 22 July 2022 (has links)
We develop biohybrid magnetic microrobots by electrostatic self-assembly of nonmotile sperm cells and magnetic nanoparticles. Incorporating a biological entity into microrobots entails many functional advantages beyond shape templating, such as the facile uptake of chemotherapeutic agents to achieve targeted drug delivery. We present a single-step electrostatic self-assembly technique to fabricate IRONSperms, soft magnetic microswimmers that emulate the motion of motile sperm cells. Our experiments and theoretical predictions show that the swimming speed of IRONSperms exceeds 0.2 body length/s (6.8 ± 4.1 µm/s) at an actuation frequency of 8 Hz and precision angle of 45°. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coating increases the acoustic impedance of the sperm cells and enables localization of clusters of IRONSperm using ultrasound feedback. We also confirm the biocompatibility and drug loading ability of these microrobots, and their promise as biocompatible, controllable, and detectable biohybrid tools for in vivo targeted therapy.
36

Dual Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Tracking of Magnetically Driven Micromotors: From In Vitro to In Vivo

Aziz, Azaam, Holthof, Joost, Meyer, Sandra, Schmidt, Oliver G., Medina-Sánchez, Mariana 22 July 2022 (has links)
The fast evolution of medical micro- and nanorobots in the endeavor to perform non-invasive medical operations in living organisms has boosted the use of diverse medical imaging techniques in the last years. Among those techniques, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), considered a functional technique, has shown to be promising for the visualization of micromotors in deep tissue with high spatiotemporal resolution as it possesses the molecular specificity of optical methods and the penetration depth of ultrasound. However, the precise maneuvering and function's control of medical micromotors, in particular in living organisms, require both anatomical and functional imaging feedback. Therefore, herein, the use of high-frequency ultrasound and PAI is reported to obtain anatomical and molecular information, respectively, of magnetically-driven micromotors in vitro and under ex vivo tissues. Furthermore, the steerability of the micromotors is demonstrated by the action of an external magnetic field into the uterus and bladder of living mice in real-time, being able to discriminate the micromotors’ signal from one of the endogenous chromophores by multispectral analysis. Finally, the successful loading and release of a model cargo by the micromotors toward non-invasive in vivo medical interventions is demonstrated.
37

Engineering microrobots for targeted cancer therapies from a medical perspective

Schmidt, Christine K., Medina-Sánchez, Mariana, Edmondson, Richard J., Schmidt, Oliver G. 22 July 2022 (has links)
Systemic chemotherapy remains the backbone of many cancer treatments. Due to its untargeted nature and the severe side effects it can cause, numerous nanomedicine approaches have been developed to overcome these issues. However, targeted delivery of therapeutics remains challenging. Engineering microrobots is increasingly receiving attention in this regard. Their functionalities, particularly their motility, allow microrobots to penetrate tissues and reach cancers more efficiently. Here, we highlight how different microrobots, ranging from tailor-made motile bacteria and tiny bubble-propelled microengines to hybrid spermbots, can be engineered to integrate sophisticated features optimised for precision-targeting of a wide range of cancers. Towards this, we highlight the importance of integrating clinicians, the public and cancer patients early on in the development of these novel technologies.
38

Insights into Texture and Phase Coexistence in Polycrystalline and Polyphasic Ferroelectric HfO2 Thin Films using 4D-STEM

Grimley, Everett D., Frisone, Sam, Schenk, Tony, Park, Min Hyuk, Mikolajick, Thomas, Fancher, Chris M., Jones, Jacob L., Schroeder, Uwe, LeBeau, James M. 11 April 2022 (has links)
An abstract is not available for this content.
39

A Silent-Speech Interface using Electro-Optical Stomatography

Stone, Simon 21 June 2022 (has links)
Sprachtechnologie ist eine große und wachsende Industrie, die das Leben von technologieinteressierten Nutzern auf zahlreichen Wegen bereichert. Viele potenzielle Nutzer werden jedoch ausgeschlossen: Nämlich alle Sprecher, die nur schwer oder sogar gar nicht Sprache produzieren können. Silent-Speech Interfaces bieten einen Weg, mit Maschinen durch ein bequemes sprachgesteuertes Interface zu kommunizieren ohne dafür akustische Sprache zu benötigen. Sie können außerdem prinzipiell eine Ersatzstimme stellen, indem sie die intendierten Äußerungen, die der Nutzer nur still artikuliert, künstlich synthetisieren. Diese Dissertation stellt ein neues Silent-Speech Interface vor, das auf einem neu entwickelten Messsystem namens Elektro-Optischer Stomatografie und einem neuartigen parametrischen Vokaltraktmodell basiert, das die Echtzeitsynthese von Sprache basierend auf den gemessenen Daten ermöglicht. Mit der Hardware wurden Studien zur Einzelworterkennung durchgeführt, die den Stand der Technik in der intra- und inter-individuellen Genauigkeit erreichten und übertrafen. Darüber hinaus wurde eine Studie abgeschlossen, in der die Hardware zur Steuerung des Vokaltraktmodells in einer direkten Artikulation-zu-Sprache-Synthese verwendet wurde. Während die Verständlichkeit der Synthese von Vokalen sehr hoch eingeschätzt wurde, ist die Verständlichkeit von Konsonanten und kontinuierlicher Sprache sehr schlecht. Vielversprechende Möglichkeiten zur Verbesserung des Systems werden im Ausblick diskutiert.:Statement of authorship iii Abstract v List of Figures vii List of Tables xi Acronyms xiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1. The concept of a Silent-Speech Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Structure of this work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Fundamentals of phonetics 7 2.1. Components of the human speech production system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. Vowel sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3. Consonantal sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4. Acoustic properties of speech sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.5. Coarticulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.6. Phonotactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.7. Summary and implications for the design of a Silent-Speech Interface (SSI) . . . . . . . 21 3. Articulatory data acquisition techniques in Silent-Speech Interfaces 25 3.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2. Scope of the literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3. Video Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4. Ultrasonography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.5. Electromyography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.6. Permanent-Magnetic Articulography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.7. Electromagnetic Articulography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.8. Radio waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.9. Palatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.10.Conclusion and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4. Electro-Optical Stomatography 55 4.1. Contact sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.2. Optical distance sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.3. Lip sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4.4. Sensor Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4.5. Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.6. Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5. Articulation-to-Text 99 5.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.2. Command word recognition pilot study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.3. Command word recognition small-scale study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6. Articulation-to-Speech 109 6.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.2. Articulatory synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.3. The six point vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 6.4. Objective evaluation of the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 6.5. Perceptual evaluation of the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6.6. Direct synthesis using EOS to control the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.7. Pitch and voicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 7. Summary and outlook 145 7.1. Summary of the contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 7.2. Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 A. Overview of the International Phonetic Alphabet 151 B. Mathematical proofs and derivations 153 B.1. Combinatoric calculations illustrating the reduction of possible syllables using phonotactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 B.2. Signal Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 B.3. Effect of the contact sensor area on the conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 B.4. Calculation of the forward current for the OP280V diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 C. Schematics and layouts 157 C.1. Schematics of the control unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 C.2. Layout of the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 C.3. Bill of materials of the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 C.4. Schematics of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 C.5. Layout of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 C.6. Bill of materials of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 D. Sensor unit assembly 169 E. Firmware flow and data protocol 177 F. Palate file format 181 G. Supplemental material regarding the vocal tract model 183 H. Articulation-to-Speech: Optimal hyperparameters 189 Bibliography 191 / Speech technology is a major and growing industry that enriches the lives of technologically-minded people in a number of ways. Many potential users are, however, excluded: Namely, all speakers who cannot easily or even at all produce speech. Silent-Speech Interfaces offer a way to communicate with a machine by a convenient speech recognition interface without the need for acoustic speech. They also can potentially provide a full replacement voice by synthesizing the intended utterances that are only silently articulated by the user. To that end, the speech movements need to be captured and mapped to either text or acoustic speech. This dissertation proposes a new Silent-Speech Interface based on a newly developed measurement technology called Electro-Optical Stomatography and a novel parametric vocal tract model to facilitate real-time speech synthesis based on the measured data. The hardware was used to conduct command word recognition studies reaching state-of-the-art intra- and inter-individual performance. Furthermore, a study on using the hardware to control the vocal tract model in a direct articulation-to-speech synthesis loop was also completed. While the intelligibility of synthesized vowels was high, the intelligibility of consonants and connected speech was quite poor. Promising ways to improve the system are discussed in the outlook.:Statement of authorship iii Abstract v List of Figures vii List of Tables xi Acronyms xiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1. The concept of a Silent-Speech Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Structure of this work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Fundamentals of phonetics 7 2.1. Components of the human speech production system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. Vowel sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3. Consonantal sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4. Acoustic properties of speech sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.5. Coarticulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.6. Phonotactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.7. Summary and implications for the design of a Silent-Speech Interface (SSI) . . . . . . . 21 3. Articulatory data acquisition techniques in Silent-Speech Interfaces 25 3.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2. Scope of the literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3. Video Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4. Ultrasonography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.5. Electromyography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.6. Permanent-Magnetic Articulography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.7. Electromagnetic Articulography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.8. Radio waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.9. Palatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.10.Conclusion and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4. Electro-Optical Stomatography 55 4.1. Contact sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.2. Optical distance sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.3. Lip sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4.4. Sensor Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4.5. Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.6. Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5. Articulation-to-Text 99 5.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.2. Command word recognition pilot study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.3. Command word recognition small-scale study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6. Articulation-to-Speech 109 6.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.2. Articulatory synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.3. The six point vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 6.4. Objective evaluation of the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 6.5. Perceptual evaluation of the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6.6. Direct synthesis using EOS to control the vocal tract model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.7. Pitch and voicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 7. Summary and outlook 145 7.1. Summary of the contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 7.2. Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 A. Overview of the International Phonetic Alphabet 151 B. Mathematical proofs and derivations 153 B.1. Combinatoric calculations illustrating the reduction of possible syllables using phonotactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 B.2. Signal Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 B.3. Effect of the contact sensor area on the conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 B.4. Calculation of the forward current for the OP280V diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 C. Schematics and layouts 157 C.1. Schematics of the control unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 C.2. Layout of the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 C.3. Bill of materials of the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 C.4. Schematics of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 C.5. Layout of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 C.6. Bill of materials of the sensor unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 D. Sensor unit assembly 169 E. Firmware flow and data protocol 177 F. Palate file format 181 G. Supplemental material regarding the vocal tract model 183 H. Articulation-to-Speech: Optimal hyperparameters 189 Bibliography 191
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Spectroscopy of ionizing radiation using methods of digital signal processing

Ma, Yuzhen 04 August 2022 (has links)
Nuclear spectroscopy is an interdisciplinary subject of physics and electronics, which adopts state-of-the-art digital electronic technology and computer technology to analyze the information in ionizing radiation. The use of FPGAs shortens the development cycles of the digital circuit design and reduces system noise with compact electronics size. As a result, digital spectrometers with FPGAs are gaining popularity in research and industrial markets. The motivation behind this work was to replace conventional analog electronics with modern digital technology to provide an excellent energy resolution for different kinds of nuclear detectors and experiments. In this thesis, a SiPM-based scintillation detector is first designed based on the basic principles of ionizing radiation. The readout circuit of the detector is given in detail. Subsequently, a real-time DPP module is designed using the FPGA of Lattice. The system noise of the DPP is measured, compared, and analyzed after the hardware verification and implementation of digital algorithms to assess the capability of the DPP module. Afterward, digital pulse processing algorithms are investigated in detail to improve the performance of the designed digital module. The design and implementation of multipass moving average and trapezoidal filter are presented. The PZC and BLR are designed and implemented according to the analysis of the trapezoidal filter’s weakness to have a better energy resolution of the digital system. Algorithms are designed and implemented on a Simulink platform. Experimental results and analyses are provided at the end of this thesis. The acquired data are analyzed in real-time or by offline software. Spectra and resolutions are demonstrated of different detectors to evaluate the performance of digital module and algorithms implementation. The resolution of the scintillation detector can be obtained to 4.2%, which is almost the optimal value based on their datasheet. The implementations of digital algorithms are verified. Other applications are provided, such as coincidence and cosmic muons measurements.

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