• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 313
  • 126
  • 87
  • 45
  • 39
  • 35
  • 24
  • 24
  • 13
  • 8
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • Tagged with
  • 907
  • 273
  • 191
  • 178
  • 111
  • 99
  • 89
  • 86
  • 80
  • 79
  • 77
  • 72
  • 70
  • 68
  • 68
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Efeito da irradiação com lasers de alta potência na adesividade do cimento resinoso às paredes do interior do canal radicular e análise da interface adesiva / In vitro bond strenght of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin irradiated with High-Power lasers and adhesive interface analyses

Cruvinel, Pedro Bastos 28 March 2016 (has links)
O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar in vitro, a ação dos lasers de alta potência (Nd:YAG e diodo 980nm), associados ao carvão mineral como fotopotencializador, sobre a adesividade do cimento endodôntico, por meio do teste de pushout, e na interface dentina/material obturador, por meio de microscopia confocal a laser. 50 caninos foram instrumentados com sistema Mtwo até #50.04 e irrigados com hipoclorito a 1% a cada troca dos instrumentos. Os espécimes foram distribuídos em 5 grupos (n=10): GI - controle EDTAC, GII - EDTAC e laser Nd:YAG, GIII - EDTAC e laser diodo 980 nm, GIV - EDTAC, laser Nd:YAG e carvão mineral 5 g/100mL, e GV - EDTAC, laser diodo 980 nm e carvão mineral 5 g/100 mL. As aplicações de laser foram na potência de 1.5 W, frequência de 100 Hz pulsátil e fibra de 200&mu;m, por 16 segundos em movimentos elípticos (8 s no sentido coroa-ápice e 8 s no sentido ápice-coroa). Após, os espécimes foram obturados com cimento AH Plus, pela técnica de condensação lateral ativa. As raízes foram seccionadas no sentido transversal, em slices de 1mm de espessura, e submetidas ao teste de pushout em máquina universal de ensaios e o tipo de falha foi analisado em microscópio confocal a laser, e se determinou a profundidade e a uniformidade dos tags de cimento na interface dentina/material obturador. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste ANOVA a nível de significância de 5%, seguidos dos testes de Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn e Tukey (para a comparação dos grupos). O GI apresentou a maior a resistência de união do cimento à dentina que o tratamento somente com EDTAC 17% (17,21 ± 21,75 MPa), sendo semelhante ao GII (12,21 ± 18,20 MPa) e ao GIV (14,92 ± 28,06 MPa), ambos tratados com laser Nd:YAG, com exceção do GIV, que foi adicionado de carvão mineral. O GV (8,75 ± 13,42 MPa) apresentou resultados similares aos dos grupos GII e GIV, mas a mesma similaridade foi observada quando comparado ao GIII (7,11 + 11,28 MPa), que apresentou os piores resultados. O terço apical (23,27 ± 29,21 MPa) apresentou valor de resistência de união maior que o cervical (5,92 ± 5,33 MPa) e médio (6,93 ± 7,11MPa), que foram semelhantes entre si (p>0,05). Houve predominância de falhas mistas, seguidas das coesivas. O GII (86,27&micro;m) apresentou os maiores valores de penetração de tags, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos GIII (51,57&micro;m), IV (36,77&micro;m) e V (32,37&micro;m) (p<0,05). O GI (71,63&micro;m) não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação ao II e III (p>0,05). O GIV apresentou os menores valores, sem diferenças do III e V, (p>0,05). O terço cervical (58,44&micro;m) apresentou os melhores valores, seguidos dos terços médio (45,02&micro;m) e apical (42,24&micro;m) (p>0,05). Concluiu-se que o tratamento com laser Nd:YAG associado ou não ao carvão mineral, apresentou melhores resultados de força adesiva que o tratamento com laser diodo 980nm, exceto quando esse foi adicionado do carvão mineral. O grupo controle e o laser diodo 980nm apresentaram menores quantidades de falhas adesivas e maiores quantidades de falhas mistas comparados aos demais grupos. Ambos os lasers não interferiram de maneira negativa na penetração de cimento se comparados ao grupo controle, no que se relaciona à resistência adesiva do cimento obturador. / The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of high-power lasers (Nd:YAG and diode 980nm) associated with mineral coal as fotopotencializer on Bond strenght of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin, using the push-out test, and on the dentin/filling material interface, using confocal laser microscopy. For this purposes, 50 canines were instrumented with Mtwo Rotary system up to #50.04 instrument, irrigating with sodium hypoclorite 1% at each instrument exchange. The specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), according the treatment of root canal dentin: group I - control EDTAC, group II - EDTAC and Nd:YAG laser, group III - EDTAC and diode laser 980 nm, group IV - EDTAC, Nd:YAG laser and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL, and group V - EDTAC, diode laser 980 nm and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL. All the lasers application was assigned according to the parameters: 1.5 W of power, 100 Hz pulsatile frequency and 200 &micro;m fiber, for 16 seconds in eliptical movements (8 s crown-down direction and 8 s apex-crown direction). Following irradiation, the canals were filled with active lateral condensation of AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha cones. After, the roots were sectioned transversally to obtain 1mm-thick slices. One of two slices from each third were subjected to a push-out test in a universal testing machine and the failure mode was analyzed with confocal laser microscopy and classified as: adhesive to the filling material, adhesive to dentin, cohesive in the filling material and mixed. The remaining slice was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy to evaluate the penetration and homogeneity of the perimeter of the root canal cross-section with sealer tags, at the dentin/filling material interface. All data were analyzed by ANOVA (at 5% significance level) following the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Tukey tests (for groups comparation). Any of the proposing treatments increased more Bond strength of the sealer to root dentin that treatment with only EDTAC 17% (17.21 ± 21.75 MPa), similar to the group II (12.21 ± 18.20 MPa) and group IV (14.92 ± 28.06 MPa), both treated with Nd: YAG laser, with the exception of group IV, which was added to mineral coal. The group V (8.75 ± 13.42 MPa) had similar results to the groups II and IV, but the same similiarity were found when compared with group III (7.11 + 11.28 MPa), with lower results. Regarding the root thirds, the apical third (23.27 ± 29.21 MPa) presented a statistically higher value on Bond strenght than the cervical third (5.92 ± 5.33 MPa) and middle third (6.93 ± 7, 11 MPa) (p> 0.05). It was observed in general that there was a predominance of mixed failures, followed by cohesive failures. The lowest amount were the adhesive failures. Group II (86.27&micro;m) showed the highest tags penetration values, with a statistically difference to the group III (51.57 &micro;m), IV (36.77 &micro;m) and V (32.37 &micro;m) (p < 0.05). Group I (71.63 &micro;m) was statistically similar to groups II and III (p> 0.05). Group IV had the lowest values and was statistically similarity to groups III and V (p> 0.05). The cervical third (58.44 &micro;m) showed best values, followed by the middle third (45.02mm) and apical third (42.24 &micro;m) (p> 0.05). It was concluded that the treatment with Nd:YAG laser provides better results than the diode 980 nm laser, except when was added mineral coal. The control and diode 980 nm laser groups presented less adhesive failures and more mists failures than the other groups. Both lasers did not interfere negatively compared to the control group
42

Passivação a vidro de junções semicondutoras em dispositivos de potência. / Glass passivation in power rectifiers.

Marzano, Fabiana Lodi 22 August 2006 (has links)
A busca de melhores características elétricas, acompanhada de crescentes evoluções tecnológicas e novos materiais passivantes para junções semicondutoras vem sendo bastante pesquisados nas últimas décadas. Existem dois tipos de passivação: por filmes finos ou por filmes espessos. No primeiro caso são realizadas deposições de óxido de silício, carbeto de silício, nitreto de silício, enquanto que no segundo caso faz-se uso de materiais como borrachas de silicone ou vidros. A escolha entre filme fino e filme espesso está relacionada diretamente ao custo/benefício e as características do dispositivo final. Na indústria de semicondutores de potência opta-se pelos filmes espessos devido às grandes dimensões dos dipositivos e ao custo do processo empregado nas linhas de produção. Os passivantes mais utilizados em semicondutores de potência são borrachas de silicone e vidros. Os vidros inorgânicos são mais estáveis a temperaturas elevadas do que as borrachas de silicone. Neste trabalho procuramos desenvolver e controlar um processo de passivação a vidro em junções semicondutoras de dispositivos de potência para que seja usado numa linha de produção de diodos retificadores de alta estabilidade. Existem diferentes tipos de vidros para esta aplicação como os vidros de Al-Pb-B-Si e os vidros de Zn-B-Si. No presente trabalho foi realizada uma comparação entre a influência da composição química dos vidros, a granulometria do pó (frita) deste vidro, com a tensão de ruptura e corrente de fuga dos diodos levando em conta o rendimento do processo. Observou-se que fritas de vidro de Al-Pb-B-Si com granulometrias mais finas resultam em tensões de ruptura maiores com um rendimento de produção de até 33% superior aos demais casos. As correntes de fuga , à temperatura ambiente, para fritas de vidro de Zn-B-Si e Al-Pb-B-Si com diferentes granulometrias, se mostrou pràticamente a mesma. / The search for better electrical properties, new passivating materials for semiconductors junctions and the process of obtaining those ones have being studied intensively in the latest decades. There are two types of passivation layers: thick film and thin film. The first one is obtained by the deposition of silicon oxides, silicon nitride or silicon carbide, while in the second one is obtained through the application of silicon rubber or glass over the exposed juntion. The decision of using one or another depends on cost/benefit and desired electrical properties of the devices. In the semiconductor power industry the thick films are frequently used because the devices dimensions are large and the cost of these processes are cheaper than those of thin films. Silicon rubber and glass are widely used by this industry. The silicon rubbers are materials that show temperature resistance up to 2000C. The inorganic glasses are more stables at high temperatures. In this work we developed a process of glass passivation for power semiconductors devices, controlled this process and it is in use in a production line of a semiconductor power device industry. There are a few glasses for this application where the two more widely used are Al-B-Pb-Si glass and Zn-B-Si glass. In this work it was compared the influence of the glass chemical composition as well as frit grain size of the glass, over the breakdown voltage and leakage current of the devices. It was observed that glasses of Al-B-Pb-Si with smaller grain size gave better values of breakdown voltage with a production yield bigger up to 33%. It was obtained leakage current values of the same magnitude, at ambient temperature, for both kinds of glasses with different grain sizes and composition.
43

Dosimetria de elétrons em processos de irradiação com diodos resistentes a danos de radiação / Electron dosimetry in irradiation processing with rad-hard diodes

Santos, Thais Cavalheri dos 28 September 2012 (has links)
Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de sistemas dosimétricos baseados em diodos especiais de Si, resistentes a danos de radiação, para monitoração online de processos de irradiação com elétrons de 1,5 MeV de energia e para dosimetria relativa e escaneamento de feixe de elétrons clínicos dentro de uma faixa de energia de 6 a 21 MeV. Os diodos utilizados foram produzidos pelos métodos de fusão zonal padrão (FZ), Czochralski em presença de um campo magnético (MCz) e crescimento Epitaxial (EPI). Para utilizar os diodos como detectores, eles foram fixados em uma base de alumina permitindo a ligação dos eletrodos de polarização e de extração de sinais. Após a montagem na base, cada diodo foi fixado em uma sonda acrílica preta dotada de uma janela de Mylar® aluminizado e de conector do tipo LEMO®. Com os dispositivos operando em modo fotovoltaico, a integração dos sinais de corrente em função do tempo de irradiação permitiu obter a carga produzida no volume sensível de cada diodo irradiado. O acelerador de elétrons utilizado para as irradiações de doses altas foi o DC 1500/25/4 - JOB 188 de 1,5 MeV instalado no Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações do IPEN/CNEN-SP. Foram estudados o perfil da corrente em função do tempo de exposição, a repetibilidade de resposta, a sensibilidade em função da dose absorvida e a curva resposta de cada dispositivo. Foi observada uma queda na sensibilidade mais acentuada para o diodo MCz do que para o diodo FZ e uma boa repetibilidade nos dois casos. Ainda, o aumento da carga com a dose absorvida obedeceu a uma função polinomial de segunda ordem. Na caracterização do diodo EPI, ele exibiu melhor repetibilidade que a obtida por dosímetros CTA, rotineiramente aplicados em processamento por radiação. Os resultados acima descritos indicam a potencial utilização desses diodos de Si resistentes a danos de radiação em dosimetria online para aplicações envolvendo elevadas doses. Para as irradiações de doses baixas foram utilizados os Aceleradores Lineares KD2 e Primus, ambos fabricados pela Siemens e instalados no Hospital Sírio-Libanês. A resposta dos diodos foi avaliada para energias de 6 a 21 MeV. Foram estudados: a repetibilidade de resposta, a curva dose-resposta em função da dose absorvida, a sensibilidade em carga com a energia do feixe de elétrons, a porcentagem de dose profunda (PDP) e o perfil transversal de dose. Apesar da resposta dos diodos FZ, MCz e EPI serem levemente dependentes da energia do feixe de elétrons, a resposta dosimétrica, em todo o intervalo de energia de feixe estudado, mostrou-se linear. Ainda, em relação aos diodos epitaxiais, os dispositivos estudados mostraram excelente acordo com simulações de Monte Carlo e medições realizadas com MatriXX®, demonstrando que os dispositivos podem ser usados como dosímetros em elétrons radioterápicos para escaneamento de varredura de feixe, mapeamento de distribuições de dose de feixes, monitoramento rotineiro da constância do fator calibração e dosimetria relativa. / This work had the aim of the development of dosimetric systems based on Si special diodes, resistant to radiation damage to online monitoring of irradiation processing using 1.5 MeV electrons energy and for relative dosimetry and clinical electron beam scanning within an energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The diodes used were produced by Float Zone standard (FZ), Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and epitaxy growth (EPI) methods. In order to use the diodes as detectors, they were fixed on alumina base to allow the connection of the polarization electrodes and the signals extraction. After the diode assembly on the base, each one was housed in a black acrylic probe with aluminized Mylar® window and LEMO® connector. With the devices operating in photovoltaic mode, the integration of the current signals as a function of irradiation time allowed obtain the charge produced in the sensitive volume of each diode irradiated. The electron accelerator used for high doses irradiation was the DC 1500/25/4 JOB 188 of the 1.5 MeV installed at the Radiation Technology Center of the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The current profile as function of exposure time, the response repeatability, the sensitivity as function of absorbed dose and the dose response curve were studied for each device. In comparison to FZ diode, we observed a greater decrease in the sensitivity for MCz diode, and good repeatability in both cases. Also, the increasing of the charge with the absorbed dose was well fitted by a second order polynomial function. In the EPI diode characterization, this one exhibited repeatability better than CTA dosimeters applied routinely in radiation processing. The above results indicate the potential use of these radiation hardness Si diodes in online dosimetry to high doses applications. For low doses irradiation were used the linear accelerators KD2 and Primus, both manufactured by Siemens and located at Sirio-Libanês Hospital. The diodes responses were evaluated for electron beams within the energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The following studies were carried out: the short-term repeatability, the dose-response curve as a function of absorbed dose, the charge sensitivity as function of electron beam energy, the percentage depth dose (PPD) and the dose transversal profile. Despite the response of the diodes FZ, MCz and EPI be slightly dependent on the electron beam energy, the dosimetric response was linear in all electron beam energy range studied. In addition to this, the EPI devices showed excellent agreement with simulation performed with Monte Carlo code and the measurements performed with MatriXX®, confirming that the devices can be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy for scanning purposes, dose distribution mapping, constancy monitoring of calibration factor and relative dosimetry.
44

Dosimetria de elétrons em processos de irradiação com diodos resistentes a danos de radiação / Electron dosimetry in irradiation processing with rad-hard diodes

Thais Cavalheri dos Santos 28 September 2012 (has links)
Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de sistemas dosimétricos baseados em diodos especiais de Si, resistentes a danos de radiação, para monitoração online de processos de irradiação com elétrons de 1,5 MeV de energia e para dosimetria relativa e escaneamento de feixe de elétrons clínicos dentro de uma faixa de energia de 6 a 21 MeV. Os diodos utilizados foram produzidos pelos métodos de fusão zonal padrão (FZ), Czochralski em presença de um campo magnético (MCz) e crescimento Epitaxial (EPI). Para utilizar os diodos como detectores, eles foram fixados em uma base de alumina permitindo a ligação dos eletrodos de polarização e de extração de sinais. Após a montagem na base, cada diodo foi fixado em uma sonda acrílica preta dotada de uma janela de Mylar® aluminizado e de conector do tipo LEMO®. Com os dispositivos operando em modo fotovoltaico, a integração dos sinais de corrente em função do tempo de irradiação permitiu obter a carga produzida no volume sensível de cada diodo irradiado. O acelerador de elétrons utilizado para as irradiações de doses altas foi o DC 1500/25/4 - JOB 188 de 1,5 MeV instalado no Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações do IPEN/CNEN-SP. Foram estudados o perfil da corrente em função do tempo de exposição, a repetibilidade de resposta, a sensibilidade em função da dose absorvida e a curva resposta de cada dispositivo. Foi observada uma queda na sensibilidade mais acentuada para o diodo MCz do que para o diodo FZ e uma boa repetibilidade nos dois casos. Ainda, o aumento da carga com a dose absorvida obedeceu a uma função polinomial de segunda ordem. Na caracterização do diodo EPI, ele exibiu melhor repetibilidade que a obtida por dosímetros CTA, rotineiramente aplicados em processamento por radiação. Os resultados acima descritos indicam a potencial utilização desses diodos de Si resistentes a danos de radiação em dosimetria online para aplicações envolvendo elevadas doses. Para as irradiações de doses baixas foram utilizados os Aceleradores Lineares KD2 e Primus, ambos fabricados pela Siemens e instalados no Hospital Sírio-Libanês. A resposta dos diodos foi avaliada para energias de 6 a 21 MeV. Foram estudados: a repetibilidade de resposta, a curva dose-resposta em função da dose absorvida, a sensibilidade em carga com a energia do feixe de elétrons, a porcentagem de dose profunda (PDP) e o perfil transversal de dose. Apesar da resposta dos diodos FZ, MCz e EPI serem levemente dependentes da energia do feixe de elétrons, a resposta dosimétrica, em todo o intervalo de energia de feixe estudado, mostrou-se linear. Ainda, em relação aos diodos epitaxiais, os dispositivos estudados mostraram excelente acordo com simulações de Monte Carlo e medições realizadas com MatriXX®, demonstrando que os dispositivos podem ser usados como dosímetros em elétrons radioterápicos para escaneamento de varredura de feixe, mapeamento de distribuições de dose de feixes, monitoramento rotineiro da constância do fator calibração e dosimetria relativa. / This work had the aim of the development of dosimetric systems based on Si special diodes, resistant to radiation damage to online monitoring of irradiation processing using 1.5 MeV electrons energy and for relative dosimetry and clinical electron beam scanning within an energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The diodes used were produced by Float Zone standard (FZ), Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and epitaxy growth (EPI) methods. In order to use the diodes as detectors, they were fixed on alumina base to allow the connection of the polarization electrodes and the signals extraction. After the diode assembly on the base, each one was housed in a black acrylic probe with aluminized Mylar® window and LEMO® connector. With the devices operating in photovoltaic mode, the integration of the current signals as a function of irradiation time allowed obtain the charge produced in the sensitive volume of each diode irradiated. The electron accelerator used for high doses irradiation was the DC 1500/25/4 JOB 188 of the 1.5 MeV installed at the Radiation Technology Center of the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The current profile as function of exposure time, the response repeatability, the sensitivity as function of absorbed dose and the dose response curve were studied for each device. In comparison to FZ diode, we observed a greater decrease in the sensitivity for MCz diode, and good repeatability in both cases. Also, the increasing of the charge with the absorbed dose was well fitted by a second order polynomial function. In the EPI diode characterization, this one exhibited repeatability better than CTA dosimeters applied routinely in radiation processing. The above results indicate the potential use of these radiation hardness Si diodes in online dosimetry to high doses applications. For low doses irradiation were used the linear accelerators KD2 and Primus, both manufactured by Siemens and located at Sirio-Libanês Hospital. The diodes responses were evaluated for electron beams within the energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The following studies were carried out: the short-term repeatability, the dose-response curve as a function of absorbed dose, the charge sensitivity as function of electron beam energy, the percentage depth dose (PPD) and the dose transversal profile. Despite the response of the diodes FZ, MCz and EPI be slightly dependent on the electron beam energy, the dosimetric response was linear in all electron beam energy range studied. In addition to this, the EPI devices showed excellent agreement with simulation performed with Monte Carlo code and the measurements performed with MatriXX®, confirming that the devices can be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy for scanning purposes, dose distribution mapping, constancy monitoring of calibration factor and relative dosimetry.
45

Development of Hybrid Solar System

Shafi, Muhammad Irfan, Talukder, Md. Maidur Rehman January 2013 (has links)
Technology replaces newer technology with improved efficiency. Solar technology is going to draw out a new life to make a green change in the terms of energy. As a result energy from the sunlight is being changed into electric energy by using solar cell. But still its efficiency could not be able to make a sense as a depending energy technology. In order to look up the solution, solar technology is changing rapidly to get maximum output. To take up this new challenge solar technology is trying to change its building component that are used to make solar cell, for example solar cell material, bypass diode system, blocking diode system etc.   Now-a-days, solar energy system is designed as a hybrid system that can make electricity and hot water at the same time. In the hybrid solar system, photovoltaic and solar thermal systems are integrated at the same system and as a result heat and electricity are produced simultaneously at the same area. Solar cells are attached with both top and the bottom side of the module and the collectors are set up inside the module. By using collector inside the module, rejected heat from the solar cell is absorbed by the water that flows through the collectors. But a problem arises at the midday or after midday because the reflector of this system cannot reflect sunlight properly on the bottom side of the module. That’s why shading is occurred on the bottom side which reduce the total electrical output of this system.   To work out this shading problem, a bypass diode is connected in parallel with the group of solar cells. Schottky diodes are being used as bypass diodes inside in the most of the solar cells. Schottky diode forward voltage drop is almost 0.45 Volt which is an important cause of reducing the output power as well as the efficiency of this hybrid system. To solve this problem, new lossless diode is attached inside the hybrid solar system instead of schottky diode which can work with a very low forward voltage drop roughly 50mV at 10amp.   To make a comparison between the performance of PVT system with the schottky diode and the new lossless diode, many data has been collected from the outdoor test. After getting the output result, it is clear that the output power and efficiency is going to be changed for using the new lossless diode. For using the lossless diode, the efficiency of the bottom side of the module was increased by 0.31 %.
46

Theoretical analysis of reentrant two-mirror non-planar ring laser cavity

Tuan, Hung-Tsang 22 November 2005 (has links)
Abstract In this dissertation a rigorous analysis is performed on the reentrant non-planar ring laser cavity constructed by the Herriott-type multi-pass cell. Since the non-planar ring cavity is a non-orthogonal cavity, so the ABCD matrix method used to analyze the beam propagation is not valid. A rigorous method using Gaussian beam propagation is needed. The beam rotation, astigmatism, and spherical aberration are considered to obtain a self-consistent solution of the Gaussian beam. It turns out that spherical aberration is a very important issue for this non-planar resonator. Without taking into account the spherical aberration, a stable resonator would be difficult to realize. By using a self-consistent Gaussian beam propagation method, the characteristic of laser beam was analyzed and compared with that of the ABCD approximation method. The reentrant ring cavity is very sensitive to cavity length, especially when the planar and non-planar configurations have the same output beams; therefore, it is very important to consider a rigorous method using Gaussian beam propagation. By considering the coordinate transformation of the beam after mirror reflection, a non-planar figure-8 ring cavity can be treated as an orthogonal cavity except for an exchange of tangential and Sagittal planes after each reflection. A simple astigmatic Gaussian beam approach is used to analyze the non-planar figure-8 ring cavity, and an analytic solution is obtained. For the general case of the multi-pass non-planar ring cavity, a general astigmatic Gaussian beam approach is used to treat the problem. The general form of mirror phase shift is used, and two important differences compared to the ABCD method were found. Firstly, the spot size is always elliptical while the spot size is circular using the ABCD approximation. Secondly, a second stable region is found in the cavity, the width of the second stable region is smaller than the first stable regi
47

Development of IS-95 CDMA RF Transceiver Including a Power Amplifier MMIC Design

Wang, Shi-Ming 04 July 2001 (has links)
Abstract¡G This thesis was consisted of two parts. Part 1 introduced the procedure for designing the RF transceiver module in an IS-95 CDMA system using link budget analysis. Part 2 was focused on a CDMA power amplifier integrated circuit design for Personal Communication Service (PCS) applications. The design procedure was introduced in detail and implemented in MMIC for using GaAs HBT foundry provided by the GCS Ltd.. The designed linear gain, output 1dB compression point and power added efficiency (PAE) are above 30 dB, 27 dBm and 36.7% respectively under a single supply voltage of 3.4 V with the help of a diode linearizer. Harmonic components were suppressed more than 26 dB without use of any filters in the output. The adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and the VSWR of input port are below -45 dBc and 2 respectively.
48

An investigation of the response mechanism of the nitrogen phosphorus detector

Schofield, Paul Anthony January 1999 (has links)
The Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector is a sensitive, selective device used in gas chromatography. It responds selectively towards nitrogen and phosphorus containing organic compounds with detection limits in the picogram range. The detector is of great importance for the measurement of trace levels of drugs, pesticides and herbicides in biological matrices and the environment. There is, however, some dispute in the literature regarding the detector's response mechanism. The detector is based on a hydrogen-air diffusion flame. Two electrodes polarise the flame with a potential difference of about 200 V and the current through the flame is measured using an electrometer amplifier. The selectivity of the system relies on the presence of an alkali metal source, usually rubidium. In the presence of nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing organics, C~ and PO· anions are formed, yielding a current which is the measured response. It has been suggested that this selective response arises from a charge transfer reaction between the rubidium excited states and ~ or PO· and P02• radicals. Using an AlGaAs diode laser, the rubidium excited state population can be modulated and the influence on detector current monitored. Rubidium resonance-enhanced ionisation, laser-induced fluorescence and emission spectroscopy have all been used to further probe the response mechanism of the detector. Results have demonstrated that during response the C~ radical concentration increases. In addition the diode laser can modulate the excited state rubidium concentration altering it by a factor of 2. However despite more that doubling the Rubidium excited state concentration no increase in detector response is observed. From these observations it has been concluded that the above mentioned charge transfer reaction plays little if any role in detector response.
49

Design of Variable Attenuators Using Different Kinds of PIN-Diodes

Choudhury, Imran January 2013 (has links)
Variable attenuators are important circuits that can be employed in many radio frequency (RF) applications, e.g., in automatic gain control (AGC) amplifiers, broadband gain-control blocks at RF frequencies or as broadband vector modulators. For any applications, low insertion phase shift and low power consumption are of interest. A way to implement variable attenuators is using the RF PIN diode. The PIN diode is characterized by a low doped (I = intrinsic) semiconductor region between p- (P) and n-type (N) semiconductor regions. Besides the variable attenuators, the PIN-diode is used in other RF circuits, such as RF switches, limiters and phase shifters. This project presents the design of variable attenuators at 7.5 GHz and 500 MHz frequency bandwidth for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications using two different PIN diodes. The variable attenuators have a topology based on 90° hybrid couplers. The design is performed using Advance Design Systems (ADS) from Agilent Technologies Inc. After presenting the PIN diode and its equivalent circuit, the theory of the 90° passive directional branch line coupler and the operation principle of the variable attenuators are presented. As the selection of the appropriate PIN diode is a critical step in the design, special attention is dedicated to this aspect. It follows the design of the variable attenuators with extensive descriptions of the simulations in ADS. Firstly, both series and shunt attenuators are presented. However, as these circuits normally offer narrow band variable attenuation, the 900 directional branch line coupler is used in the attenuator for broader band operation. At the end, a double hybrid coupler is found to eliminate the ripple in the high attenuation state of the single hybrid coupled attenuator. So the final topology of the variable attenuator is a double hybrid coupler variable attenuator- Moreover, in this project, different PIN diodes are investigated for variable attenuator applications. Different manufacture companies are currently providing different kinds of PIN diodes in terms of parameters and packages. Every type of PIN diodes are providing different sort of advantages to the designers. That is why it has become more difficult for the RF designers to choose the right device for the specified application. Beside the design of the variable attenuator using PIN diodes, some considerations in form of a guide line to the designers while they are using the PIN diode for designing the variable attenuator. In this work, the used PIN diodes are a beam lead PIN diode and chip PIN diode. The beam lead PIN diode is used because it is manufactured for high frequency and it produces excellent electrical performance and isolation at high frequencies. On the other hand, the chip PIN diode eliminates the problem of package parasitics. However, printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing limitations at the university laboratory incline the balance in the favor of the beam lead PIN diode, HPND- 4005 from Avagotech, instead of the also considered chip diode MA-COM MA4P202.
50

Design and Fabrication of MIM Diodes with Single and Multi-Insulator Layers

Aydinoglu, Ferhat 08 October 2013 (has links)
A Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is a device that can achieve rectification at high frequencies. The main objective of this research work is designing, fabricating, and characterizing thin film MIM diodes with single and multi-insulator layers. 
Cr/Al₂O₃/Cr and Pt/Al₂O₃/Al MIM diodes have been fabricated to show the impact of the materials on the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is illustrated that the Cr/Al₂O₃/Cr MIM diode has a symmetrical I-V curve while the Pt/Al₂O₃/Al MIM diode has a very asymmetrical I-V curve. 
MIM diodes with single and multi-insulator layers have been fabricated to demonstrate the impact of the number of insulators on a MIM diode’s performance. It is found that by repeating two insulator layers with different electron affinities and keeping the total insulator thickness the same, the asymmetry and nonlinearity values show a significant improvement in a MIM diode. While the asymmetry of the diode with a double insulator layer (MI²M) is 3, it is 90 for the diode with a quadra insulator layer (MI⁴M), which 30 times greater than that of the MI²M diode.

Page generated in 0.0452 seconds