Manimala, Binoy James
No description available.
Cotting, Malcolm Christopher
05 May 2010
A number of challenges in the development and application of flying qualities criteria for modern aircraft are addressed in this dissertation. The history of flying qualities is traced from its origins to modern day techniques as applied to piloted aircraft. Included in this historical review is the case that was made for the development of flying qualities criteria in the 1940's and 1950's when piloted aircraft became prevalent in the United States military. It is then argued that UAVs today are in the same context historically as piloted aircraft when flying qualities criteria were first developed. To aid in development of a flying qualities criterion for UAVs, a relevant classification system for UAVs. Two longitudinal flying qualities criteria are developed for application to autonomous UAVs. These criteria center on mission performance of the integrated aircraft and sensor system. The first criterion is based on a sensor platform's ability to reject aircraft disturbances in pitch attitude. The second criterion makes use of energy methods to create a metric to quantify the transmission of turbulence to the sensor platform. These criteria are evaluated with airframe models of different classes of air vehicles using the CASTLE 6 DOF simulation. Another topic in flying qualities is the evaluation of nonlinear control systems in piloted aircraft. A L1 adaptive controller was implemented and tested in a motion based, piloted flight simulator. This is the first time that the L1 controller has been evaluated for piloted handling qualities. Results showed that the adaptive controller was able to recover good flying qualities from a degraded aircraft. The final topic addresses a less direct, but extremely important challenge for flying qualities research and education: a capstone course in flight mechanics teaching flight test techniques and featuring a motion based flight simulator was implemented and evaluated. The course used a mixture of problem based learning and role based learning to create an environment where students could explore key flight mechanics concepts. Evaluation of the course's effectiveness to promote the understanding of key flight mechanics concepts is presented. / Ph. D.
Putnam, Zachary Reed
08 June 2015
During planetary entry, a vehicle uses drag generated from flight through the planetary atmosphere to decelerate from hyperbolic or orbital velocity. To date, all guided entry systems have utilized lift-modulation trajectory control. Deployable aerodynamic devices enable drag-modulation trajectory control, where a vehicle controls its energy and range during entry by varying drag area. Implementation of conventional lift-modulation systems is challenging for deployable systems. In contrast, drag-modulation trajectory control may be simpler and lower-cost than current state-of-the-art lift-modulation systems. In this investigation, a survey of analytical methods for computing planetary entry trajectories is presented and the approximate analytical solution to the entry equations of motion originally developed by Allen and Eggers is extended to enable flight performance evaluation of drag-modulation trajectory control systems. Results indicate that significant range control authority is available for vehicles with modestly sized decelerators. The extended Allen-Eggers solution is closed-form and enables rapid evaluation of nonlifting entry trajectories. The solution is utilized to develop analytical relationships for discrete-event drag-modulation systems. These relationships have direct application to onboard guidance and targeting systems. Numerical techniques were used to evaluate drag-modulation trajectory control for precision landing and planetary aerocapture missions, including development of prototype real-time guidance and targeting algorithms. Results show that simple, discrete-event drag-modulation trajectory control systems can provide landed accuracies competitive with the current state of the art and a more benign aerothermal environment during entry for robotic-scale exploration missions. For aerocapture, drag-modulation trajectory control is shown to be feasible for missions to Mars and Titan and the required delta-V for periapsis raise is insensitive to the particular method of drag modulation. Overall, results indicate that drag-modulation trajectory control is feasible for a subset of planetary entry and aerocapture missions. To facilitate intelligent system selection, a method is proposed for comparing lift and drag-modulation trajectory control schemes. This method applies nonlinear variational techniques to closed-form analytical solutions of the equations of motion, generating closed-form expressions for variations of arbitrary order. This comparative method is quantitative, performance-based, addresses robustness, and applicable early in the design process. This method is applied to steep planetary entry trajectories and shows that, in general, lift and drag-modulation systems exhibit similar responses to perturbations in environmental and initial state perturbations. However, significant differences are present for aerodynamic perturbations and results demonstrate that drag systems may be more robust to uncertainty in aerodynamic parameters. Finally, the results of these contributions are combined to build a set of guidelines for selecting lift or drag-modulation for a Mars Science Laboratory-class planetary entry mission.
01 January 2005
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The only aeroballistic laboratory of Turkey is the Flight Mechanics Laboratory, FML of TÜ / BITAK - SAGE. In FML, flight profiles of projectiles are reconstructed using their tear marks on paper sheets, called yaw cards. Tear marks are created on yaw cards as projectiles pass through them. These yaw cards are tightly stretched to metal frames which are positioned normal to the direction of projectile flight path. The use of yaw cards for flight profile reconstruction is a low cost and reliable solution. However, the yaw card method requires a heavy workload for the analysis of tear marks. Yaw cards collected from the frames are fed through an optical scanner and converted to digital images. These digital images are then processed by operators to calculate the projectile&rsquo / s flight position and angles. To automate this manual process, an algorithm is developed by using histogram based segmentation techniques, custom search algorithms, and Radon transform. This algorithm identifies and locates the projectile marks and finds angle of attack, angle of side slip and roll angle at each frame station by conducting the necessary transformations. Using this automated algorithm, a considerable amount of improvement is accomplished in terms of both decreasing the analysis time and increasing the accuracy of flight profile reconstruction.
Brown, Ainsmar Xavier
21 January 2011
The field of man portable UASs (Unmanned Aerial Systems) is currently a key area in improving the fielded warrior's capabilities. Pressurized aerostructures that can perform with similar results of solid structures can potentially change how this objective may be accomplished now and in the future. Construction with high density polymers and other composites is currently part of active inflatable vehicle research. Many shape forming techniques have also been adapted from the airship and balloon manufacturing industry. Additional research includes modeling techniques so that these vehicles may be included in simulation packages. A flight dynamics simulation with reduced-order aeroelastic effects derived with Lagrangian and Eulerian dynamics approaches were developed and optimized to predict the behavior of inflatable flexible structures in small UASs. The models are used to investigate the effects of significant structural deflections (warping) on aerodynamic surfaces. The model also includes compensation for large buoyancy ratios. Existing literature documents the similarity in structural dynamics of rigid beams and inflatable beams before wrinkling. Therefore, wing bending and torsional modes are approximated with the geometrically exact ntrinsic beam equations using NATASHA (Nonlinear Aeroelastic Trim And Stability for HALE Aircraft) code. An approach was also suggested for inclusion of unique phenomena such as wrinkling during flight. A simplified experimental setup will be designed to examine the most significant results observed from the simulation model. These methods may be suitable for specifying limits on flight maneuvers for inflatable UASs.
Aircraft design is an act of art requiring dedication and careful work to ensure good results. An essential tool in that work is a flight mechanics simulator. Such simulators are often built up of modules/models that are executed in a sequential order in each time iteration. This project aims to analyze potential improvements to the model execution order based on the dependency structure of one such simulator. The analysis method Design Structure Matrix (DSM), was used to define/map the dependencies and then Binary Linear Programming (BLP) was utilized to find five new potentially improved model orders to minimize the number of feedbacks from one iteration to the next one. Those five proposed execution orders were next compared and evaluated. The result is a model order that reduce the number of models receiving feedbacks from the previous iteration from 13 to 6, with insignificant changes in the precision of the simulator. / Vid flygplanskonstruktion krävs hårt och noggrant arbete för att säkerställa gott resultat. Ett oumbärligt verktyg är då en flygmekanisk simulator. Den typen av simulatorer är ofta uppbyggda av moduler/modeller som exekveras i en bestämd sekventiellt ordning i varje tidsteg. Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka möjliga förbättringar av exekverings ordningen av de olika modellerna i en existerande simulator, baserat på beroendestrukturen. Analysmetoden Design Structure Matrix (DSM) användes för att bestämma beroendestrukturen och sedan utnyttjades Binär Linjär Programmering (BLP) för att hitta fem förbättrade modellordningar med avseende på att minimera antalet modeller som erhåller indata från föregående tidsiteration. De fem förbättringsförslagen jämfördes och utvärderades. Resultatet är en modellordning som kan minska antalet återkopplande modeller från 13 till 6, med insignifikanta skillnader i precisionen av simulatorn.
Pinar, Erdem Emre
01 January 2013
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In this thesis, energy optimal route of an unmanned solar powered air vehicle is obtained for the given mission constraints in order to sustain the maximum energy balance. The mission scenario and the constraints of the solar powered UAV are defined. Equations of motion are obtained for the UAV with respect to the chosen structural properties and aerodynamic parameters to achieve the given mission. Energy income and loss equations that state the energy balance, up to the position of the UAV inside the atmosphere are defined. The mathematical model and the cost function are defined according to the mission constraints, flight mechanics and energy balance equations to obtain the energy optimal path of the UAV. An available optimal control technique is chosen up to the mathematical model and the cost function in order to make the optimization. Energy optimal path of the UAV is presented with the other useful results. Optimal route and the other results are criticized by checking them with the critical positions of the sun rays.
01 February 2010
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This thesis describes the automatic flight control systems designed for a conventional and an over actuated unmanned air vehicle (UAV). A nonlinear simulation model including the flight mechanics equations together with the interpolated nonlinear aerodynamics, environmental effects, mass-inertia properties, thrust calculations and actuator dynamics is created / trim and linearization codes are developed. Automatic flight control system of the conventional UAV is designed by using both classical and robust control methods. Performances of the designs for full autonomous flight are tested through nonlinear simulations for different maneuvers in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances in the aircraft model. The fault tolerant control of an over actuated UAV is the main concern of the thesis. The flight control system is designed using classical control techniques. Two static control allocation methods are examined: Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse and blended inverse. For this purpose, an aircraft with three sets of ailerons is employed. It is shown that with redundant control surfaces, fault tolerant control is possible. Although both of the static control allocation methods are found to be quite successful to realize the maneuvers, the new blended inverse algorithm is shown to be more effective in controlling the aircraft when some of the control surfaces are lost. It is also demonstrated that, with redundant control surfaces it is possible to recover the aircraft during a maneuver even some of the control surfaces are damaged or got stuck at a particular deflection.
Sumer, Yalcin Faik
18 April 2005
Simulation of maneuvers with multibody models of rotorcraft vehicles is an important research area due to its complexity. During the maneuvering flight, some important design limitations are encountered such as maximum loads and maximum turning rates near the proximity of the flight envelope. This increases the demand on high fidelity models in order to define appropriate controls to steer the model close to the desired trajectory while staying inside the boundaries. A framework based on the hierarchical decomposition of the problem is used for this study. The system should be capable of generating the track by itself based on the given criteria and also capable of piloting the model of the vehicle along this track. The generated track must be compatible with the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle. Defining the constraints for the maneuver is of crucial importance when the vehicle is operating close to its performance boundaries. In order to make the problem computationally feasible, two models of the same vehicle are used where the reduced model captures the coarse level flight dynamics, while the fine scale comprehensive model represents the plant. The problem is defined by introducing planning layer and control layer strategies. The planning layer stands for solving the optimal control problem for a specific maneuver of a reduced vehicle model. The control layer takes the resulting optimal trajectory as an optimal reference path, then tracks it by using a non-linear model predictive formulation and accordingly steers the multibody model. Reduced models for the planning and tracking layers are adapted by using neural network approach online to optimize the predictive capabilities of planner and tracker. Optimal neural network architecture is obtained to augment the reduced model in the best way. The methodology of adaptive learning rate is experimented with different strategies. Some useful training modes and algorithms are proposed for these type of applications. It is observed that the neural network increased the predictive capabilities of the reduced model in a robust way. The proposed framework is demonstrated on a maneuvering problem by studying an obstacle avoidance example with violent pull-up and pull-down.
Contribution à la modélisation, l'identification et la commande d'un hélicoptère miniature / Contribution to small-scale helicopter modeling, identification and controlRoussel, Emmanuel 12 October 2017 (has links)
La stabilisation et l’automatisation du vol de tout véhicule aérien nécessite la mise en oeuvre d’algorithmes de commande. La synthèse et la simulation des lois de commande reposent sur un modèle mathématique du véhicule, qui doit être de complexité et de précision appropriées. Cette thèse présente une méthodologie complète d’identification appliquée à un hélicoptère coaxialminiature. L’étude théorique de son comportement en vol permet d’établir plusieurs modèles basés sur la mécanique du vol, qui diffèrent par les phénomènes aérodynamiques pris en compte. Ils sont identifiés, comparés et validés grâce à des données de vol, mettant en évidence l’importance de certains phénomènes dans la précision du modèle. Différentes lois de commande sont alors étudiées et évaluées en simulation puis par des expérimentations sur un prototype. Les résultats obtenus sont conformes aux simulations numériques, validant ainsi l’ensemble de la démarche. / Control algorithms are at the heart of the stability and automatic flight capabilities of any aerial vehicle. Synthesis and simulation of control laws are based on a mathematicalmodel of the vehicle, which must be a trade-off between simplicity and accuracy. This work presents a complete system identification methodology applied on a miniature coaxial helicopter. Based on flight mechanics and aerodynamics, several models are built. They differ in the aerodynamic phenomena taken into account. They are identified, compared and validated thanks to flight data, highlighting important phenomena in the accuracy of the model. Several flight control strategies are then studied and evaluated through simulations and experiments with a prototype. The results are in accordance with numerical simulations, thus validating the whole approach.
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