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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater by Gravel-type Constructed Wetlands

Lin, Hsin-Yi 07 September 2000 (has links)
In this study, we discussed the treatment efficiencies of different types of industrial wastewaters by several lab-scale constructed wetlands. The purpose this study is to decrease certain pollutants in the effluents from the industrial wastewaters treatment plants investivate the feasibility of water reuse and recovering. We divided the experiment into two stages, and three types of industry wastewaters ,including paper, steel and refiring, are in this study. In the first stage, the treatment efficiencies of controlling the flow rate at 6 mL/min higher that those controlling at 4 mL/min. However, sinece the amounts of phosphur were smalls in the industrial weatewaters, the removal efficiencies are not high enough. Thus, we added sewage and phousphate into the wastewaters in second stage of experiments with the best ratio of N : P of 4 : 1. The performance work of these two stage experiments did help to clean the nutrient of nitrogenous in the industrial wastewater, especially the refining industry comparing to the other two types of industries.
2

Identification des sources d’alkylphénols et de phtalates en milieu urbain : comparaison des rejets à dominante urbaine (domestique) par rapport à des rejets purement industriels / Identification of the sources of alkylphénols and phtalates in urban zones : comparison of the discharges to urban dominant (domestic and home-made) with regard to purely industrial discharges

Bergé, Alexandre 16 November 2012 (has links)
Les phtalates et les alkylphénols sont des composés organiques générés par l'industrie chimique, qui entrent dans la composition des matières plastiques, pour les phtalates, et des détergents, pour les alkylphénols. Leurs productions mondiales avoisinent les 6 millions de tonnes pour les phtalates et 500 000 tonnes pour les alkylphénols. Ces composés sont considérés comme ubiquitaires dans l'environnement, c'est-à-dire qu'ils sont retrouvés dans tous les compartiments environnementaux (de l'atmosphère au milieu naturel). Par ailleurs, ils sont considérés comme des perturbateurs endocriniens et peuvent donc causer des dommages aux faunes et flores présentes dans le milieu naturel. Ce travail de thèse a permis de déterminer les niveaux de contamination des eaux usées en phtalates et alkylphénols dans plusieurs compartiments environnementaux situés en zone urbaine. Ainsi, des prélèvements effectués, par temps sec, ont permis de déterminer la qualité des eaux brutes vis-à-vis des paramètres globaux, des phtalates et des alkylphénols dans les rejets industriels, domestiques, les émissaires parisiens ainsi que dans les eaux usées transitant au sein d'une station d'épuration majeure d'Ile-de-France (Seine Centre, Colombes, 92). Ces résultats reflètent certaines spécificités et disparités du réseau d'assainissement, notamment marqués par la forte variabilité qui entoure, à la fois, le prélèvement et les niveaux de contamination par ces micropolluants. Au niveau des rejets industriels, de forts contrastes ont été observés entre les différents secteurs répertoriés (traitement des textiles, traitement de surface, métallurgie, industries pharmaceutiques, etc.). Globalement, les résultats des flux par équivalent-habitant soulignent que les apports domestiques sont la première source de contamination pour ces polluants en région parisienne. En effet, la contribution des apports industriels est inférieure à 5 %, pour tous les composés, quelque soit le secteur industriel considéré. L'étude des émissaires parisiens a permis de montrer une certaine stabilité temporelle de la qualité des effluents dans la partie avale du réseau d'assainissement. En revanche, cette étude a également mis en exergue des divergences et des similitudes entre les sous-bassins versants drainés par les différents émissaires. Ainsi, une étude statistique a montré que les émissaires Saint Denis Achères et Clichy Achères Argenteuil apparaissent significativement plus contaminés que les émissaires Sèvres Achères Reuil et Clichy Achères Bezons. Au niveau de l'efficacité des ouvrages de traitement, les résultats obtenus pour la station d'épuration de Seine Centre ont confirmé son efficacité pour les paramètres globaux communément utilisés pour déterminer la qualité des eaux usées. D'autre part, les résultats obtenus sur l'abattement des phtalates et des alkylphénols (rendements supérieurs à 83 % pour tous les composés) soulignent que même si les stations d'épuration ne sont, initialement, pas construites pour réduire et/ou éliminer les micropolluants, elles y parviennent de façon significative. A l'échelle des ouvrages, le traitement primaire par décantation physico-chimique lamellaire a permis de mettre en évidence l'élimination des polluants hydrophobes tels que le DEHP, le NP, le DnBP et le BBP. Le traitement secondaire par biofiltration a mis en exergue son efficacité à abattre significativement tous les polluants, aussi bien les composés légers (DEP) que les autres composés / Phthalates and alkylphenols are organic molecules generated by the chemical industry, entering the composition of plastics, for phthalates, and detergents for alkylphenols. Their worldwide productions are around 6 million tons and 500,000 tons, respectively. It is now obvious from the concentrations and contents measured in the various environmental compartments that phthalates and alkylphenols are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Indeed, they are found in all environmental compartments (from the atmosphere to the natural environment) at significant levels. These contaminants are also recognized as endocrine disrupting compounds and can cause damages to fauna and flora present in the natural environment. This work has identified levels of wastewater contamination of phthalates and alkylphenols in various environmental compartments in urban areas. Thus, samples taken, during dry weather periods, were used to determine the quality of raw water for global parameters, phthalates and alkylphenols within industrial and domestical discharges as well as the sewer network and a major Parisian sewage treatment plant (Seine Centre, Colombes, 92). These results reflect certain characteristics and disparities of the sewer network, including both high variability of the sampling and the contamination levels by these micropollutants. For industrial discharges, significant disparities have been observed between the different sectors listed (textile manufacturing, surface treatment, metallurgy, pharmaceutical industries, etc.). Overall, the results confirm that household inputs correspond to the first source of contamination in Parisian conurbation. Indeed, the contribution of industrial inputs is less than 5%, for all compounds, whatever the industrial sector. The study of the Parisian sewer network showed some temporal stability of wastewaters in the downstream part. This work however also highlighted disparities and similarities between the sub-watersheds drained by the sewer network. Thus, the northern part of the Parisian network (SDA and CAA) appears to be more contaminated than the Southern part (CAB and SAR).The results obtained for Seine Centre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) confirms the effectiveness of the treatment processes on the removal on the routine water quality parameters. Additionally, the results on the elimination of phthalates and alkylphenols in sewage treatment plant (yields above 83% for all compounds) confirm that even if WWTP are initially not designed for reducing and/or eliminating micropollutants, they proceed significantly. During primary treatment, physicochemical lamellar clarification underlined the removal of hydrophobic pollutants such as DEHP, NP, DnBP and BBP. During the secondary treatment, biofiltration highlighted its effectiveness in eliminating all pollutants, as well as volatile compounds (DEP) and other contaminants
3

Microbial treatment of textile wastewater applicable in developing countries

Forss, Jörgen January 2013 (has links)
No description available.
4

UtilizaÃÃo de Ensaios de Ecotoxicidade no Biomonitoramento de Efluentes de Etes Industriais, Hospitalares e De Aterro SanitÃrio, Localizadas no Estado do Cearà / Use of ecotoxicity tests on Biomonitoring of Industrial Effluents Etes, Hospital and Sanitary Landfill, located in the State of Ceara

MÃrcia Rodrigues de Sousa 29 September 2010 (has links)
CoordenaÃÃo de AperfeiÃoamento de NÃvel Superior / Avaliou-se o uso de testes de ecotoxicidade com o organismo-teste Daphnia magna no biomonitoramento de efluentes de ETEs industriais (real e sintÃtico), hospitalares e de aterro sanitÃrio. Para tanto, foram selecionadas algumas ETEs a citar: Industrial Real (Sistema Integrado do Distrito Industrial â SIDI), Industrial SintÃtico (Reator anaerÃbio seguido dos pÃs-tratamentos em Reator em Batelada SeqÃencial â RBS e Processo de OxidaÃÃo AvanÃado â POA do tipo H2O2/UV, tratando um efluente contendo o corante azo Reactive Black 5 - RB5), Hospitalar (Hospital Geral Waldemar de AlcÃntara â HGWA) e Aterro SanitÃrio (Lixiviado coletado na saÃda do sistema de lagoas de estabilizaÃÃo do Aterro SanitÃrio Metropolitano Oeste de Caucaia â ASMOC e submetido a um pÃs-tratamento por meio de um Reator Aerado Submerso â RAS). Os testes de toxicidade aguda realizados com o lixiviado indicaram que o efluente ao sistema ASMOC apresentou CE50 de 68%, o qual podia ser classificado como moderadamente tÃxico. Assim, alÃm de alguns parÃmetros fÃsico-quÃmicos nÃo estarem atendendo à Portaria n 154/02 da SEMACE, os resultados ecotoxicolÃgicos confirmaram o potencial poluidor do lixiviado em questÃo para ser descartado no Riacho Garoto, de baixa capacidade de diluiÃÃo. O pÃs-tratamento aerÃbio realizado no RAS contribuiu bastante na reduÃÃo da toxicidade do lixiviado, tanto em termos fÃsico-quÃmicos quanto em termos ecotoxicolÃgicos, aumentando o valor de CE50 para 95,04%, se configurando como uma boa opÃÃo de pÃs-tratamento. Os resultados obtidos com o esgoto afluente e efluente ao SIDI revelaram que o CE50 passou de 18,05% para 61,90%, mudando a classificaÃÃo de muito tÃxico para moderadamente tÃxico, respectivamente. Entretanto, o estudo efluente do SIDI, com as caracterÃsticas fÃsico-quÃmicas e de toxicidade encontradas, associadas à elevada vazÃo de esgotos tratados, representam um sistema com uma carga poluidora que merece ser investigada no corpo receptor. Em relaÃÃo ao esgoto hospitalar, observou-se que o esgoto bruto apresentou alta toxicidade e um CE50 de 7,27% (muito tÃxico) enquanto que o efluente tratado pela seqÃÃncia de reator UASB e lodo ativado apresentou CE50 de 30,83% (tÃxico). Portanto, os ensaios ecotoxicolÃgicos apontaram para o carÃter tÃxico do efluente em termos agudos, e podemos inferir a toxicidade crÃnica que tal efluente pode causar no corpo hÃdrico, jà que o mesmo pode conter elevadas concentraÃÃes de fÃrmacos, hormÃnios e outros micro-poluentes. O efluente sintÃtico bruto contendo o corante RB5 apresentou CE50 de 23,02%, sendo classificado como efluente muito tÃxico. ApÃs o tratamento no reator UASB, o valor de CE50 caiu para 40,34%, ou seja, houve uma diminuiÃÃo da toxicidade no tratamento anaerÃbio. No pÃs-tratamento pelo RBS ocorreu uma diminuiÃÃo significativa de toxicidade, em que o mesmo pode ser classificado como nÃo tÃxico. Entretanto, o POA do tipo do tipo UV/H2O2 provocou aumento da toxicidade, com o efluente apresentando CE50 de 20,17%, recebendo classificaÃÃo de muito tÃxico. A investigaÃÃo ecotoxicolÃgica em D. magna para avaliar o efeito da concentraÃÃo de H2O2 revelou elevada toxicidade do residual de perÃxido, sendo que em todas as diluiÃÃes testadas houve morte de 100% dos organismos expostos. Portanto, os estudos indicaram que muito embora o processo de oxidaÃÃo avanÃado (POA) do tipo H2O2/UV tenha uma boa perspectiva de aplicaÃÃo no tratamento de esgotos recalcitrantes, o perÃxido residual tem que ser cuidadosamente monitorado, nÃo sà por elevar a DQO do efluente como tambÃm por aumentar a toxicidade deste. Como conclusÃo geral da presente dissertaÃÃo foi possÃvel demonstrar a grande importÃncia dos testes ecotoxicolÃgicos agudos e crÃnicos no biomonitoramento de cargas poluidoras localizadas em corpos de Ãgua do CearÃ, assim como para um melhor entendimento dos processos biolÃgicos e nÃo biolÃgicos de tratamento de esgotos. / We evaluated the use of ecotoxicity tests with Daphnia magna for the biomonitoring of industrial effluents (real and synthetic), hospital effluent and leachate: real industrial wastewater (Integrated System of Industrial District - SIDI), synthetic industrial wastewater (anaerobic reactor followed by the post-treatments Sequential Batch Reactor - SBR and Advanced Oxidation Process - AOP type H2O2/UV, both treating a wastewater containing the azo dye Reactive Black 5 - RB5), Hospital effluent (Hospital Geral Waldemar de AlcÃntara - HGWA) and Leachate collected at the output of the stabilization ponds system located at the Metropolitan Sanitary Landfill West of Caucaia - ASMOC and submit to the post-treatment of Submerged Aerated Reactor - SAR. The acute toxicity tests conducted with the leachate indicated that the effluent from ASMOC system showed EC50 of 68%, which could be classified as moderately toxic. Thus, in addition to some physical and chemical parameters that are not complying with the limits defined in the Portaria nÂ. 154/02 of SEMACE, ecotoxicological results confirm the pollution potential of the leachate to be discharged at the Riacho Garoto, which has low dilution capacity. The post-aerobic treatment performed in SAR showed to greatly contribute in reducing the leachate toxicity in terms of physical-chemical and ecotoxicological characteristics, increasing the EC50 value to 95.04%, and showing to be a good post-treatment option. The results obtained with the real industrial influent and effluent from SIDI revealed that the EC50 increased from 18.05% to 61.90%, switching the classification from very toxic to moderately toxic, respectively. However, the SIDI effluent, considering the physico-chemical properties and toxicity found, associated with the high flow rate of treated wastewater, represents a system with a pollutant load that should be further investigated in the receiving water body. Regarding the hospital wastewater, it was observed that the raw wastewater had a high toxicity, with EC50 of 7.27% (very toxic), while the effluent treated by the sequence of UASB and activated sludge showed EC50 of 30.83% (toxic). Therefore, ecotoxicological tests revealed the toxic character of the effluent in terms of in acute toxicity and it can infer the chronic toxicity that such an effluent can cause in the water body, since it may contain high concentrations of drugs, hormones and other micro-pollutants. The synthetic wastewater containing the azo dye RB5 presented EC50 of 23.02%, classified as very toxic. After treatment in the UASB reactor, the EC50 value increased to 40.34%, i.e. there was a toxicity decrease by the anaerobic treatment. In the post-treatment by SBR, a significant reduction of toxicity was found and the effluent could be classified as non-toxic. However, the UV/H2O2 AOP increased the toxicity, in other words the EC50 decreased to 20.17%, being classified as very toxic. The effect of H2O2 concentration on the ecotoxicological test with D. magna was assessed and showed high toxicity of the residual peroxide, in all dilutions tested, causing death of 100% of the exposed organisms. Therefore, the studies indicated that although the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process (AOP) has a good prospect for application on recalcitrant compounds, the peroxide residual has to be carefully monitored, not only because it increases the wastewater COD but also because it increases the effluent toxicity. As a general conclusion of this research, it was possible to show the great importance of acute and chronic ecotoxicological tests for the biomonitoring of pollution sources located in CearÃ, and also for a better understanding of biological and non-biological processes applied to wastewater treatment.
5

Compara??o entre planejamento estat?stico experimental e an?lise dimensional em opera??es de mistura e separa??o para sistema ?leo-?gua

Moraes, Norberto Araujo de 30 September 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T15:01:52Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 NorbertoAM_TESE.pdf: 2336588 bytes, checksum: 940ad1b0befe8c431d2e9fb731a885b6 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-09-30 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / This work aims to determine a better methodology to help predicting some operational parameters to a new design of mixer-settler on treating wastewater produced by petroleum industry, called MDIF (Misturador-Decantador ? Invers?o de Fases/ Mixer-Settler based on Phase Inversion MSPI). The data from this research were obtained from the wastewater treatment unit, called MSPI-TU, installed on a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) of PETROBRAS/UO-RNCE. The importance in determining the better methodology to predict the results of separation and extraction efficiency of the equipment, contributes significantly to determine the optimum operating variables for the control of the unit. The study was based on a comparison among the experimental efficiency (E) obtained by operating MSPI-TU, the efficiency obtained by experimental design equation (Eplan) from the software Statistica Experimental Design? (version 7.0), and the other obtained from a modeling equation based on a dimensional analysis (Ecalc). The results shows that the experimental design equation gives a good prediction of the unit efficiencies with better data reliability, regarding to the condition before a run operation. The average deviation between the proposed by statistic planning model equation and experimental data was 0.13%. On the other hand, the efficiency calculated by the equation which represents the dimensional analysis, may result on important relative deviations (up 70%). Thus, the experimental design is confirmed as a reliable tool, with regard the experimental data processing of the MSPI-TU / Este trabalho objetiva determinar a melhor metodologia para auxiliar na predi??o de vari?veis operacionais de um novo design de misturador-decantador aplicado ao tratamento de ?guas produzidas da ind?stria do petr?leo, que vem sendo denominado de MDIF (Misturador-Decantador ? Invers?o de Fases). Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram obtidos da Unidade de Tratamento de ?guas produzidas, denominada de UT-MDIF, que se encontra instalada em uma das esta??es de tratamento de efluentes (ETE) da PETROBRAS/UORNCE. A import?ncia em determinar a melhor metodologia que permita a predi??o dos resultados das efici?ncias de separa??o e extra??o do equipamento, contribui de forma significativa para otimiza??o das vari?veis operacionais para o controle da unidade. O estudo se baseou na compara??o dos resultados das efici?ncias experimentais (E) obtidas pela UTMDIF, com os resultados das efici?ncias obtidas pela equa??o do modelo do planejamento estat?stico (Eplan), gerado pelo programa Statistica Experimental Design? (vers?o 7.0), e com a utiliza??o de uma equa??o utilizando modelagem com base em an?lise dimensional (Ecalc). Os resultados mostram que a equa??o decorrente do planejamento estat?stico ? capaz de predizer, com boa aproxima??o, os resultados de efici?ncia a serem obtidos com a unidade, possibilitando uma melhor confiabilidade dos dados, no que se refere ? condi??o que antecede uma corrida operacional. O desvio m?dio entre a equa??o proposta e os dados experimentais ? de 0,13%. Por outro lado, a efici?ncia calculada pela equa??o da an?lise dimensional pode apresentar desvios relativos importantes (at? 70%). Desta forma, o planejamento estat?stico experimental se confirma como sendo uma ferramenta confi?vel, no que se refere ao tratamento dos dados experimentais da UT-MDIF

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