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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Incidence of Leukoencephalopathies With Restricted Diffusion On Magnetic Resonance Imaging

DeStefano, Michael William 27 September 2010 (has links)
The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence, causes, and reversibility of leukoencephalopathies demonstrating confluent areas of restricted diffusion on magnetic resonant imaging (DWI+LE). We hypothesized DWI+LE would have a low incidence, and be primarily caused by toxic exposures. We performed a logic sentence based search of the Yale-New Haven MRI database to select for reports indicating restricted diffusion within the cerebral white matter. We examined patients neuroimaging studies and medical record. We identified a total of 35 cases of DWI+LE, which resulted in an overall incidence of 0.2% over the five-year period queried. The medical conditions associated with DWI+LE were as follows: toxic exposure (7), hypoxia with concurrent trauma (7), hypoxia with concurrent toxic exposure (4), hypoxia with concurrent metabolic derangements (4), seizure with concurrent metabolic derangements (2), metabolic derangements (2), antiepileptic therapy (2), hypoxia (1), trauma (1), and unknown (5). The most favorable outcomes were seen in patients with intrathecal methotrexate toxicity, while patients with hypoxia without a lucid interval fared worst. We concluded that DWI+ LE are rare, their etiology diverse, and its reversibility dependant upon the type and severity of the insult.
2

Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy with Autonomic Symptoms and Rippling Muscle Disease : Translational Studies of Two Neurogenetic Diseases

Sundblom, Jimmy January 2011 (has links)
There is a large variety of diseases caused by single-gene mutations. Although most of these conditions are rare, together they impose a significant burden to the population. This thesis describes clinical and genetic studies of two single-gene diseases: 1) Adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic symptoms (ADLD) caused by LMNB1 gene duplications, and characterized by autonomic, pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Spinal cords of patients with ADLD were studied by MRI and found to be thin, with high signal intensity in white matter. Histopathology showed loss of myelinated fibres with some reactive gliosis. DNA samples from four different families with ADLD were obtained, and the LMNB1 gene was screened for duplications. Single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed LMNB1 duplications in all ADLD families. LMNB1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in white blood cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, and increased levels of LMNB1 mRNA and lamin B1 protein could be demonstrated. We concluded that spinal cord atrophy in patients with ADLD is a valuable differential diagnostic sign, and that increased levels of LMNB1 can be detected in peripheral blood. 2) Rippling muscle disease (RMD) is caused by CAV3 gene mutations. Clinical features are percussion-induced muscle mounding, –rapid contractions and undulating muscle contractions (rippling). The CAV3 gene was sequenced in 38 members of a family with RMD. Twenty-two individuals had clinical features of RMD. No muscle weakness was seen. All patients with signs of RMD carried the p.A46T CAV3 mutation, showing that the p.A46T mutation was benign and that the diagnosis can be made clinically. In vitro contracture test results from 10 of the subjects were collected, but no association between pathological test results and RMD was found.
3

Radiological studies of LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy and Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome

Finnsson, Johannes January 2016 (has links)
There are approximately 6000 to 8000 rare diseases, each with a prevalence of less than 1 / 10 000, but in aggregate affecting 6 to 8% of the population. It is important to evaluate disease development and progression to know the natural course of any disease. This information can be utilized in diagnostics and in assessing effects of therapeutic interventions as they become available. This thesis describes the natural clinical history and evolution of imaging findings of two rare diseases over approximately two decades. Papers I, II and III present clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings in LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). MRI was found to be very sensitive in finding pathology in patients with LMNB1-related ADLD, even before the onset of clinical symptoms. However, even patients with widespread MRI changes can have a relatively mild symptomatology and present only slight disturbances in metabolic examinations such as MRS and FDG-PET. This is compatible with relatively intact axons, even as myelin impairment is widespread. Paper IV presents clinical and MRI findings in the brain and musculature in SIL1-positive Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), and describes a new, mild phenotype of the disease with no intellectual disabilities and only slight motor disabilities. With a 19-year-long radiological follow-up, a slow progressive atrophic process in the cerebellum and brainstem could be demonstrated. MRI of the musculature shows early involvement of the quadriceps and gastrocnemii but not the tibialis anterior, progressing to widespread atrophy in the back and upper and lower limbs at the age of 20 years. In the mildest phenotype, the most severely affected muscles were the m gluteus maximus, m sartorius, m peroneus longus, and the lateral head of the m gastrocnemius.
4

Jugular venous reflux and white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

Chung, C.P., Beggs, Clive B., Wang, P.N., Bergsland, N., Shepherd, Simon J., Cheng, C.Y., Ramasamy, D.P., Dwyer, Michael G., Hu, H.H., Zivadinov, R. January 2014 (has links)
yes / To determine whether jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied 12 AD patients 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 17 elderly age- and gender-matched controls. Duplex ultrasonography and 1.5T MRI scanning was applied to quantify cerebral WMCs [T2 white matter (WM) lesion and dirty-appearing-white-matter (DAWM)]. Subjects with severe JVR had more frequently hypertension (p = 0.044), more severe WMC, including increased total (p = 0.047) and periventricular DAWM volumes (p = 0.008), and a trend for increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes (p = 0.067) compared with the other groups. A significantly decreased (65.8%) periventricular DAWM volume (p = 0.01) in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts was detected. There was a trend for increased periventricular and subcortical T2 WMC lesion volumes in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts (p = 0.073). This phenomenon was not observed in either the control or MCI groups. In multiple regression analysis, the increased periventricular WMC lesion volume and decreased DAWM volume resulted in 85.7% sensitivity and 80% specificity for distinguishing between JVR-positive and JVR-negative AD patients. These JVR-WMC association patterns were not seen in the control and MCI groups. Therefore, this pilot study suggests that there may be an association between JVR and WMCs in AD patients, implying that cerebral venous outflow impairment might play a role in the dynamics of WMCs formation in AD patients, particularly in the periventricular regions. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings.

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