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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Comparative impact of low body mass index on patients undergoing transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement

Tang, Diane Choun Houy 14 July 2017 (has links)
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to corroborate recent research demonstrating that patients with low body mass indexes tend to have worse postoperative survival outcomes compared to normal BMI patients. It also intends to compare survival outcomes and postoperative complications in transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement patients to determine which procedure, TAVR or SAVR respectively, is better for this challenging low BMI patient population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center study comparing patient data collected from 2000-2013 at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center. Patients were dividing into three groups on the basis of BMI and aortic valve procedure: low BMI SAVR (BMI < 22 kg/m2; n = 148; 20.36%), normal BMI SAVR (22-25 kg/m2; n = 458; 63.00%), and low BMI TAVR (< 22 kg/m2; n = 121; 16.64%). There is a total of 606 SAVR patients and 121 TAVR patients. To corroborate recent research that low BMI patients tend to fare worse than normal BMI patients, an unadjusted comparison were used to compare baseline demographics and postoperative outcomes of 148 low BMI patients who underwent SAVR with 458 normal BMI patients who underwent isolated SAVR. These cohorts were then compared via a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test for 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years survival outcomes. The 148 low BMI SAVR patients were then compared to 121 low BMI patients who underwent TAVR on baseline demographics and preoperative risk factors. The two cohorts were compared using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and postoperative complications were compared utilizing a multivariable logistic regression after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and STS Scores. RESULTS: The unadjusted analysis of the low BMI and normal BMI SAVR cohorts displayed similar patient demographics and preoperative risk factors. The normal BMI group demonstrated higher EF (55% vs. 51.5%; p = 0.002) and incidence of HLD (47.68% vs. 37.76%; p = 0.038). Conversely, the low BMI cohort had more females (61.49% vs.42.79%; p < 0.001) and individuals with a history of Afib (27.78% vs.16.96%; p = 0.004). As shown in the Kaplan Meier curve, the normal BMI SAVR patients exhibited superior 6 months, 1 year and 3 years survival rates and low BMI was shown to be a significant independent predictor of mortality (HR 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47 – 4.47; p = 0.0009 at 1 year). The two groups had similar postoperative outcomes, however, the low BMI cohort had longer overall hospital stays (8 vs. 6.5 days; p = 0.0003). The low BMI SAVR and TAVR patient cohorts varied significantly on most patient demographics and preoperative risk factors. The low BMI TAVR patients tend to be older (95.04% vs. 55.41% of patients > 75 years old) and had higher STS Scores (10.41 vs. 3.88; p < 0.0001). They also demonstrated significant increases in all the preoperative risk factors excluding DM and prior CVA. The SAVR patients had significantly longer overall hospital stays (8 vs. 6 days; p < 0.0001), more re-exploration for bleeding (5.41% vs. 0.85%; p = 0.0411) and more patients discharged to home (68.24% vs. 50.85%; p = 0.0039) while the TAVR patients demonstrated higher rates of GI bleed (3.39% vs. 0.00%; p = 0.0240) and new PPM (10.17% vs. 0.68%; p = 0.0004). The low BMI SAVR cohort demonstrated better survival rates at 1 year and 3 years and low BMI TAVR was determined to be a significant independent predictor of mortality (HR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30 – 0.88; p = 0.0146 at 1 year). After controlling for specific covariates in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the low BMI SAVR had 1.73 times longer ICU stays, 1.90 times longer hospital stays and the odds of being discharged home was 17% less than the TAVR group (p = 0.0005, <0.0001, 0.5665). CONCLUSION: Although the rates of postoperative complications are fairly similar, patients with low BMIs demonstrated worse survival outcomes when compared to the normal BMI SAVR patients. With the current analysis, low BMI TAVR patients had a significantly worse preoperative profile compared to the corresponding SAVR cohort which explains the worse survival and postoperative outcomes. Despite this, the multivariable analysis showed that the low BMI SAVR patients had longer ICU and hospital stays as well as fewer discharges to home. As this is an ongoing study, steps should be made to balance the preoperative profile such that the low BMI SAVR and TAVR groups are comparable prior to survival and postoperative assessment. However, at the current status, TAVR has proven itself to be the preferred treatment for low BMI patients. / 2018-07-13T00:00:00Z
2

Comparison of Hemodynamic Responses to Acute and Chronic Exercise in Obese and Lean Prehypertensive Men

January 2016 (has links)
abstract: PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise. METHODS: Obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2) and lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2) men with pre-hypertension (PHTN) (systolic BP (SBP) 120 - 139 or diastolic BP (DBP) 80 - 89 mm Hg) were asked to participate in a two-phase trial. Phase 1 assessed differences in post-exercise hypotension between groups in response to an acute exercise bout. Phase 2 consisted of a two-week aerobic exercise intervention at 65-70% of heart rate (HR) max on a cycle ergometer. Primary outcome measures were: brachial BP, central (aortic) BP, cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measured acutely after one exercise session and following two weeks of training. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for baseline resting brachial BP, central BP, age, or VO2 peak (all P > 0.05). At rest, obese PHTN had greater CO compared to lean PHTN (6.3 ± 1 vs 4.7 ± 1 L/min-1, P = 0.005) and decreased SVR compared to lean PHTN (1218 ± 263 vs 1606 ± 444 Dyn.s/cm5, P = 0.003). Average 60-minute post-exercise brachial and central SBP reduced by 3 mm Hg in Lean PHTN in response to acute exercise (P < 0.005), while significantly increasing 4 mm Hg for brachial and 3 mm Hg for central SBP (P < 0.05). SVR had a significantly greater reduction following acute exercise in lean PHTN (-223 Dyn·s/cm5) compared to obese PHTN (-75 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). In lean subjects chronic training reduced brachial BP by 4 mm Hg and central BP by 3 mm Hg but training had no effect on the BP’s in obese subjects. Resting BP reduction in response to training was accompanied by reductions in SVR within lean (-169 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001), while obese experienced increased SVR following training (47 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic response to both acute and chronic exercise training differ between obese and lean individuals. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Exercise Science 2016
3

Two-Year Weight Loss but Not Body Mass Index Predicts Mortality and Disability in an Older Japanese Community-Dwelling Population / 体格指数ではなく2年間の体重減少によって地域在住高齢者の死亡率と介護認定率が予測される

Nishida, Makoto, Marcio 23 March 2020 (has links)
京都大学 / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(人間健康科学) / 甲第22389号 / 人健博第75号 / 新制||人健||5(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院医学研究科人間健康科学系専攻 / (主査)教授 黒木 裕士, 教授 桂 敏樹, 教授 横出 正之 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Human Health Sciences / Kyoto University / DFAM
4

Obesity Cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic Factors and Nosologic Reevaluation

Bhatheja, Samit, Panchal, Hemang B., Ventura, Hector, Paul, Timir K. 01 August 2016 (has links)
Cardiovascular disease in populations with obesity is a major concern because of its epidemic proportion. Obesity leads to the development of cardiomyopathy directly via inflammatory mediators and indirectly by obesity-induced hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery diseases. The aim of this review article is to re-visit the available knowledge and the evidence on pathophysiologic mechanisms of obesity-related cardiomyopathy and to propose its placement into a specific category of myocardial disease.
5

Účinky obezity a metabolického syndromu v průběhu infekce Trypanosoma Cruzi / Effects of obesity on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

Brima, Wunnie January 2016 (has links)
Obesity is very widespread and detrimental to health. Obesity brings with it many changes including heightened immune function, and a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Obesity is also associated with shortened lifespan. The detrimental effects of obesity are linked to the "metabolic syndrome", a broad range of changes in metabolic processes and immune function. As a first approximation, we agree with this formulation but we will then proceed to document some of its weaknesses. (i) Crude mortality rates increase with increasing body mass index (BMI) but as the BMI approaches the normal range, mortality rates reverse (the now classic "J-shaped curve") so that individuals with reduced BMI have elevated mortality. (ii) A multiplicity of medical and surgical conditions have been reported where short term and medium term outcomes are better for overweight patients. These conditions are placed under the heading of "obesity paradox". (iii) The medical community has introduced a binary system for the metabolic syndrome ---- yes, patient has it or no, the patient does not have it, despite the fact that all of the changes that are considered components of the metabolic syndrome are continuous variables. Our work is focused on sharpening focus and improving...
6

Účinky obezity a metabolického syndromu v průběhu infekce Trypanosoma Cruzi / Effects of obesity on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

Brima, Wunnie January 2016 (has links)
Obesity is very widespread and detrimental to health. Obesity brings with it many changes including heightened immune function, and a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Obesity is also associated with shortened lifespan. The detrimental effects of obesity are linked to the "metabolic syndrome", a broad range of changes in metabolic processes and immune function. As a first approximation, we agree with this formulation but we will then proceed to document some of its weaknesses. (i) Crude mortality rates increase with increasing body mass index (BMI) but as the BMI approaches the normal range, mortality rates reverse (the now classic "J-shaped curve") so that individuals with reduced BMI have elevated mortality. (ii) A multiplicity of medical and surgical conditions have been reported where short term and medium term outcomes are better for overweight patients. These conditions are placed under the heading of "obesity paradox". (iii) The medical community has introduced a binary system for the metabolic syndrome ---- yes, patient has it or no, the patient does not have it, despite the fact that all of the changes that are considered components of the metabolic syndrome are continuous variables. Our work is focused on sharpening focus and improving...
7

Sugar, Salt, and Fat: Michelle Obama's Rhetoric Concerning the Let's Move! Initiative, Binary Opposition, Weight Obsession, and the Obesity Paradox

Armentrout, Jenny A. 29 June 2011 (has links)
No description available.

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