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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Eyespot Assembly and Positioning in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Boyd, Joseph Samuel January 2011 (has links)
The eyespot of the biflagellate unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a complex organelle that facilitates directional responses of the cell to environmental light stimuli. The eyespot, which assembles de novo after every cell division and retains a distinctive association with the microtubule cytoskeleton, comprises an elliptical patch of rhodopsin photoreceptors in the plasma membrane and stacks of carotenoid-rich pigment granule arrays in the chloroplast and serves as a model for understanding how organelles are formed and placed asymmetrically in the cell. This study describes the roles of several factors in the assembly and positioning of the eyespot. Two loci, EYE2 and EYE3, define factors involved in the formation and organization of the eyespot pigment granule arrays. Whereas EYE3, a serine/threonine kinase of the ABC1 family, localizes to pigment granules, EYE2 localization corresponds to an area of the chloroplast envelope in the eyespot. These proteins play interdependent roles: EYE2 and the ChR1 photoreceptor co-position in the absence of pigment granules, and the pigment granules are required to maintain the shape and integrity of the EYE2/ChR1 patch. The miniature-eyespot locus MIN2 affects eyespot size and likely regulates the amount of material available for eyespot assembly. The MLT2 locus regulates eyespot size, number, and asymmetry. A novel locus, PEY1, modulates the position of the eyespot on the anterior-posterior axis by affecting microtubule rootlet length. A working model is developed wherein rootlet microtubule-directed photoreceptor localization establishes connections in the chloroplast envelope with EYE2, which directs the site for pigment granule array assembly, and MLT2 is proposed to negatively regulate the levels of eyespot proteins.

Understanding virulence factors of Mycoplasma penetrans: attachment organelle organization and gene expression

Distelhorst, Steven Lindau 28 March 2017 (has links)
No description available.

Mechanisms of Chlamydia manipulation of host cell biology revealed through genetic approaches

Kokes, Marcela January 2015 (has links)
<p>Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen and is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Chlamydia is particularly intriguing from the perspective of cell biology because it is an obligate intracellular pathogen that manipulates host cellular pathways to ensure its proliferation and survival. This is achieved through a significant remodeling of the host cell’s internal architecture from within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion. However, given a previous lack of tools to perform genetic analysis, the mechanisms by which Chlamydia induces host cellular changes remained unclear. Here I present genetic and molecular mechanisms of chlamydial manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and organelles. Using a forward genetics screen, InaC was identified as a necessary factor for the assembly of an F-actin structure surrounding the inclusion. InaC associated with the vacuolar membrane where it recruited Golgi-specific ARF-family GTPases. Actin dynamics and ARF GTPases regulate Golgi morphology and positioning within cells, and InaC acted to redistribute the Golgi to surround the Chlamydia inclusion. These findings suggest that Chlamydia places InaC at the inclusion-cytosolic interface to recruit host ARF GTPases and F-actin to form a platform for rearranging intracellular organelles around the inclusion. The inclusion is also surrounded by the intermediate filament vimentin and the chlamydial protease CPAF cleaves vimentin in vitro. CPAF-dependent remodeling of vimentin occurred selectively in late stages of the infection. In living cells, this cleavage occurred only after a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, suggesting that CPAF cleaves intermediate filaments specifically during chlamydial exit of host cells. In summary, I have implemented recent forward and reverse genetic approaches in Chlamydia to reveal how it employs effector proteins to manipulate the internal organization of cells in novel ways.</p> / Dissertation

Decoding the Function of Ankyrin-B in Organelle Transport

Qu, Fangfei January 2016 (has links)
<p>Organelle transport in eukaryotic cells is regulated by a precisely coordinated activity of phosphoinositide lipids, small GTPases, and molecular motors. Despite the extensive study of functional activities of individual regulators, how these activities promote precise deliveries of particular membrane proteins to specific cellular locations remained unclear. Ankyrin-B, which is previously well recognized as a plasma membrane adaptor that assembles diverse specialized plasma membrane domains, exhibited an unexpected role in intracellular transport. This thesis establishes ankyrin-B as a master integrator of the polarized long range organelle transport via direct interactions with Rab GTPase Activating Protein 1 Like (RabGAP1L), phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and dynactin 4. In Chapter 2, I identified an ankyrin-B death domain binding partner, RabGAP1L, that specifically interacts with ankyrin-B on intracellular organelles and requires ankyrin-B for its proper localization. In Chapter 3, I demonstrated that ankyrin-B is a PI3P-effector in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and promotes the polarized transport of associated organelles in migrating cells in a RabGAP1L-dependent manner. I continued to investigate what membranes/membrane-associated proteins utilize the ankyrin-B/RabGAP1L pathway in Chapter 4 and identified α5β1-integrin as a cargo whose polarized transport and recycling are ankyrin-B-dependent. I further presented that ankyrin-B, through recruiting RabGAP1L to PI3P-positive/Rab22A-associated endosomes containing α5β1-integrin, promotes polarized recycling of α5β1-integrin in migrating mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In collaboration with James Bear (UNC Chapel Hill), we further demonstrated that this ankyrin-B/RabGAP1L-mediated pathway is required for haptotaxis along fibronectin gradients. In Chapter 5, I elucidated the in vivo interaction between ankyrin-B and RabGAP1L. I demonstrated that ankyrin-B specifically interacts with RabGAP1L at long axon tracts in the brain and at costameres in the skeletal muscle. I also show the phenotypic analysis of ankyrin-B floxDD mice as an initial attempt to determine the physiological function of the ankyrin-B death domain in vivo. Together, this thesis dissects an ankyrin-B-mediated molecular mechanism for polarized endosomal trafficking and α5β1-integrin recycling during directional cell migration, and provides new insights into how phosphoinositide lipids, Rab GTPases, and molecular motor activities are coordinated to control the directional transport of specialized membrane cargos.</p> / Dissertation

Regulation of Membrane Fusion Events During Caenorhabditis elegans Spermatogenesis

Washington, Nicole Leanne January 2005 (has links)
FER-1 is required for fusion of specialized vesicles, called membranous organelles, with the sperm plasma membrane during Caenorhabditis elegans spermiogeneis. To investigate the role of FER-1 in membranous organelle fusion, I first examined ten fer-1 mutations and found that they all cause the same defect in membrane fusion. FER-1 and the ferlin protein family are membrane proteins with four to seven C2 domains which commonly mediate Ca2+-dependent lipid-processing events. Most of the fer-1 mutations fall within these C2 domains, showing that they have distinct, non-redundant functions. I found that membranous organelle fusion requires intracellular Ca2+ and that C2 domain mutations alter Ca2+ sensitivity. This suggests that the C2 domains are involved in Ca2+ sensing and further supports their independent function. Using two immunological approaches we found three FER-1 isoforms, two of which may arise from FER-1 by proteolysis. By both light and electron microscopy these FER-1 proteins are localized to membranous organelle membranes. Together, these results suggest that the ferlin family members may share a conserved mechanism to regulate cell-type specific membrane fusion.In Chapter III, I present additional results toward studying the function of FER-1 using several broad-based approaches. First, I present a bioinformatics analysis of FER-1 C2 domains and the preliminary results of their calcium-dependent phospholipid binding capabilities. Second, preliminary interactions found with individual FER-1 functional domains by a yeast-two hybrid screen are discussed. Lastly, I present results from a candidate-gene approach to identify additional regulators of MO fusion, the sperm-specific synaptobrevins.

Studies of macromolecular trafficking across Arabidopsis homografts

Paultre, Danaé Simone Genevieve January 2017 (has links)
Micrografting was used to study the restoration of symplasmic transport at the graft union and to examine the long-distance transport of macromolecules between scion and rootstock. New techniques were established, such as correlative imaging and single-cell analysis in microfluidic devices, to study graft development both in vivo and in vitro. Imaging of Arabidopsis homografts showed that a symplasmic domain develops in the callus stele whose function may be to contain the spread of auxin into the surrounding ground tissue. It was demonstrated, also, that recent reports of organelle transfer at the graft union cannot be explained by the formation of secondary plasmodesmata (PD) at the graft interface. While fused calli did not exchange organelles in vitro, large aggregates of the SIEVE-ELEMENT OCCLUSION RELATED protein fused to YFP (SEOR-YFP; 112 kDa) were unloaded from mature sieve tubes into living cells of the graft partner in vivo, suggesting that vascular remodelling may be a prerequisite for the exchange of organelles at the graft interface. Fusion proteins expressing organelle-targeting signals were found to translocate across the graft junction, unloading into cell files adjacent to the root protophloem. The phloem mobility of a given fusion protein was assessed using bioinformatic and statistical analysis of publicly available data. The size of a protein and its relative abundance in CCs both emerged as defining factors for subsequent phloem transport. The recipient tissue for phloem-unloaded macromolecules was identified as the phloem-pole pericycle (PPP). This cell layer is required to remove macromolecules from the terminus of the protophloem. Induced callose deposition at the PD that connect protophloem SEs to the PPP caused a restriction in unloading and a subsequent arrest in root growth. A non-cell autonomous protein of CC origin, NaKR1-1, is proposed to affect the unloading of macromolecules either by increasing the size exclusion limit (SEL) of PD within the PPP or by enabling a build-up in pressure at the protophloem terminus, due to SUC2 activity, thus allowing phloem unloading.

The dynamics of the MRP1/2 complex and the function of intact MRB1 core for RNA editing in \kur{Trypanosoma brucei}

HUANG, Zhenqiu January 2015 (has links)
This thesis describes the dynamics of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 and 2 (MRP1/2) complex in different cell lines of Trypanosoma brucei under an optimized immobilized condition. This study reveals the influence of RNA on the complex's dynamics. Furthermore, the function of RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) core has been studied via reverse genetic, biochemical and molecular techniques, with its role in RNA editing being proposed.

Mechanisms of regulation of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum contact sites

Couto, Renata Lopes Familiar 28 October 2019 (has links)
No description available.

An explanation for the mysterious distribution of melanin in human skin ‐ a rare example of asymmetric (melanin) organelle distribution during mitosis of basal layer progenitor keratinocytes

Joly-Tonetti, Nicolas, Wibawa, J.I.D., Bell, M., Tobin, Desmond J. 29 June 2018 (has links)
Yes / Background: Melanin is synthesized by melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. When transferred to surrounding keratinocytes it is the key UVR-protective biopolymer responsible for skin pigmentation. Most melanin is observable in the proliferative basal layer of the epidermis, and only sparsely distributed in the stratifying/differentiating epidermis. The latter has been explained, despite formal evidence, to ‘melanin degradation’ in supra-basal layers. Objectives: Our aim was to re-evaluate this currently-accepted basis for melanin distribution in the human skin epidermis, and whether this pattern is altered after a regenerative stimulus. Methods: Normal epidermis of adult human skin, at rest and after tape-stripping, was analysed by a range of (immuno)histochemical and high-resolution microscopy techniques. In vitro models of melanin granule uptake by human keratinocytes were attempted. Results: We propose a wholly different fate for melanin in the human epidermis. Our evidence indicates that the bulk of melanin is inherited only by the non-differentiating daughter cell post mitosis in progenitor keratinocytes, via asymmetric organelle inheritance. Moreover, this preferred pattern of melanin distribution can switch to a symmetric or equal daughter cell inheritance mode under conditions of stress including regeneration. Conclusions: We provide in this preliminary report a plausible and histologically-supportable explanation for how human skin pigmentation is efficiently organized in the epidermis. Steady state epidermis pigmentation may involve much less redox-sensitive melanogenesis than previously thought, and at least some pre-made melanin may be available for re-use. The epidermal-melanin unit may be an excellent example to study organelle distribution via asymmetric or symmetric inheritance in response to micro-environment and tissue demands. / Walgreens Boots Alliance

Insights into transcriptional changes that accompany organelle sequestration from the stolen nucleus of Mesodinium rubrum

Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica, Wisecaver, Jennifer H., Hackett, Jeremiah D., Johnson, Matthew D. January 2015 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Organelle retention is a form of mixotrophy that allows organisms to reap metabolic benefits similar to those of photoautotrophs through capture of algal prey and sequestration of their plastids. Mesodinium rubrum is an abundant and broadly distributed photosynthetic marine ciliate that steals organelles from cryptophyte algae, such as Geminigera cryophila. M. rubrum is unique from most other acquired phototrophs because it also steals a functional nucleus that facilitates genetic control of sequestered plastids and other organelles. We analyzed changes in G. cryophila nuclear gene expression and transcript abundance after its incorporation into the cellular architecture of M. rubrum as an initial step towards understanding this complex system. METHODS: We compared Illumina-generated transcriptomes of the cryptophyte Geminigera cryophila as a free-living cell and as a sequestered nucleus in M. rubrum to identify changes in protein abundance and gene expression. After KEGG annotation, proteins were clustered by functional categories, which were evaluated for over- or under-representation in the sequestered nucleus. Similarly, coding sequences were grouped by KEGG categories/ pathways, which were then evaluated for over- or under-expression via read count strategies. RESULTS: At the time of sampling, the global transcriptome of M. rubrum was dominated (~58-62 %) by transcription from its stolen nucleus. A comparison of transcriptomes from free-living G. cryophila cells to those of the sequestered nucleus revealed a decrease in gene expression and transcript abundance for most functional protein categories within the ciliate. However, genes coding for proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative stress reduction, and several other metabolic pathways revealed striking exceptions to this general decline. CONCLUSIONS: Major changes in G. cryophila transcript expression after sequestration by M. rubrum and the ciliate's success as a photoautotroph imply some level of control or gene regulation by the ciliate and at the very least reflect a degree of coordination between host and foreign organelles. Intriguingly, cryptophyte genes involved in protein transport are significantly under-expressed in M. rubrum, implicating a role for the ciliate's endomembrane system in targeting cryptophyte proteins to plastid complexes. Collectively, this initial portrait of an acquired transcriptome within a dynamic and ecologically successful ciliate highlights the remarkable cellular and metabolic chimerism of this system.

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