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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

High Efficiency High Power Blue Laser by Resonant Doubling in PPKTP

Danekar, Koustubh 08 1900 (has links)
I developed a high power blue laser for use in scientific and technical applications (eg. precision spectroscopy, semiconductor inspection, flow cytometry, etc). It is linearly polarized, single longitudinal and single transverse mode, and a convenient fiber coupled continuous wave (cw) laser source. My technique employs external cavity frequency doubling and provides better power and beam quality than commercially available blue diode lasers. I use a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized infrared (IR) semiconductor laser source with a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber coupled output. Using a custom made optical and mechanical design this output is coupled with a mode matching efficiency of 96% into the doubling cavity. With this carefully designed and optimized cavity, measurements were carried out at various fundamental input powers. A net efficie ncy of 81 % with an output power of 680 mW at 486 nm was obtained using 840 mW of IR input. Also I report an 87.5 % net efficiency in coupling of blue light from servo locked cavity into a single mode PM fiber. Thus I have demonstrated a total fiber to fiber efficiency of 71% can be achieved in our approach using periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP). To obtain these results, all losses in the system were carefully studied and minimized.
2

Highly Efficient Single Frequency Blue Laser Generation by Second Harmonic Generation of Infrared Lasers Using Quasi Phase Matching in Periodically Poled Ferroelectric Crystals

Khademian, Ali 08 1900 (has links)
Performance and reliability of solid state laser diodes in the IR region exceeds those in the visible and UV part of the light spectrum. Single frequency visible and UV laser diodes with higher than 500 mW power are not available commercially. However we successfully stabilized a multi-longitudinal mode IR laser to 860 mW single frequency. This means high efficiency harmonic generation using this laser can produce visible and UV laser light not available otherwise. In this study we examined three major leading nonlinear crystals: PPMgO:SLN, PPKTP and PPMgO:SLT to generate blue light by second harmonic generation. We achieved record high net conversion efficiencies 81.3% using PPMgO:SLT (~500 mW out), and 81.1% using PPKTP (~700 mW out). In both these cases an external resonance buildup cavity was used. We also studied a less complicated single pass waveguide configuration (guided waist size of ~ 5 um compared to ~60 um) to generate blue. With PPMgO:SLN we obtained net 40.4% and using PPKT net 6.8% (110mW and 10.1 mW respectively).
3

Waveguide Sources of Photon Pairs

Horn, Rolf January 2011 (has links)
This thesis describes various methods for producing photon pairs from waveguides. It covers relevant topics such as waveguide coupling and phase matching, along with the relevant measurement techniques used to infer photon pair production. A new proposal to solve the phase matching problem is described along with two conceptual methods for generating entangled photon pairs. Photon pairs are also experimentally demonstrated from a third novel structure called a Bragg Reflection Waveguide (BRW). The new proposal to solve the phase matching problem is called Directional Quasi-Phase Matching (DQPM). It is a technique that exploits the directional dependence of the non-linear susceptiblity ($\chi^{(2)}$) tensor. It is aimed at those materials that do not allow birefringent phase-matching or periodic poling. In particular, it focuses on waveguides in which the interplay between the propagation direction, electric field polarizations and the nonlinearity can change the strength and sign of the nonlinear interaction periodically to achieve quasi-phasematching. One of the new conceptual methods for generating entangled photon pairs involves a new technique that sandwiches two waveguides from two differently oriented but similar crystals together. The idea stems from the design of a Michelson interferometer which interferes the paths over which two unique photon pair processes can occur, thereby creating entanglement in any pair of photons created in the interferometer. By forcing or sandwiching the two waveguides together, the physical space that exists in the standard Micheleson type interferometer is made non-existent, and the interferometer is effectively squashed. The result is that the two unique photon pair processes actually occupy the same physical path. This benefits the stability of the interferometer in addition to miniaturizing it. The technical challenges involved in sandwiching the two waveguides are briefly discussed. The main result of this thesis is the observation of photon pairs from the BRW. By analyzing the time correlation between two single photon detection events, spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) of a picosecond pulsed ti:sapph laser is demonstrated. The process is mediated by a ridge BRW. The results show evidence for type-0, type-I and type-II phase matching of pump light at 783nm, 786nm and 789nm to down converted light that is strongly degenerate at 1566nm, 1572nm, and 1578nm respectively. The inferred efficiency of the BRW was 9.8$\cdot$10$^{-9}$ photon pairs per pump photon. This contrasts with the predicted type-0 efficiency of 2.65$\cdot$10$^{-11}$. This data is presented for the first time in such waveguides, and represents significant advances towards the integration of sources of quantum information into the existing telecommunications infrastructure.
4

Femtosecond near-IR optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled 5-mol. % MgO-doped lithium niobate

Wu, Ping-Tsung 04 September 2006 (has links)
The synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on was periodically poled 5-mol.% MgO-doped lithuium niobate was demonstrated by means of non-critical quasi phase matching. The femtosecond OPO is cable of operating at room temperature and shows no photorefractive damage. The spectrum can be tuned by varying the cavity length up to 70 £gm, the temperature of the nonlinear crystal from room temperature to 150¢J, and the grating periods. The cavity was designed to resonate at 1.33 £gm with bandwidth of 100 nm. The maximum output intensity of the signal is 43 mW with TEM00 mode. The signal slope efficiency is 11%. The spectrum range of the idler is tunable from 1.8 to 2.8 £gm.
5

Waveguide Sources of Photon Pairs

Horn, Rolf January 2011 (has links)
This thesis describes various methods for producing photon pairs from waveguides. It covers relevant topics such as waveguide coupling and phase matching, along with the relevant measurement techniques used to infer photon pair production. A new proposal to solve the phase matching problem is described along with two conceptual methods for generating entangled photon pairs. Photon pairs are also experimentally demonstrated from a third novel structure called a Bragg Reflection Waveguide (BRW). The new proposal to solve the phase matching problem is called Directional Quasi-Phase Matching (DQPM). It is a technique that exploits the directional dependence of the non-linear susceptiblity ($\chi^{(2)}$) tensor. It is aimed at those materials that do not allow birefringent phase-matching or periodic poling. In particular, it focuses on waveguides in which the interplay between the propagation direction, electric field polarizations and the nonlinearity can change the strength and sign of the nonlinear interaction periodically to achieve quasi-phasematching. One of the new conceptual methods for generating entangled photon pairs involves a new technique that sandwiches two waveguides from two differently oriented but similar crystals together. The idea stems from the design of a Michelson interferometer which interferes the paths over which two unique photon pair processes can occur, thereby creating entanglement in any pair of photons created in the interferometer. By forcing or sandwiching the two waveguides together, the physical space that exists in the standard Micheleson type interferometer is made non-existent, and the interferometer is effectively squashed. The result is that the two unique photon pair processes actually occupy the same physical path. This benefits the stability of the interferometer in addition to miniaturizing it. The technical challenges involved in sandwiching the two waveguides are briefly discussed. The main result of this thesis is the observation of photon pairs from the BRW. By analyzing the time correlation between two single photon detection events, spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) of a picosecond pulsed ti:sapph laser is demonstrated. The process is mediated by a ridge BRW. The results show evidence for type-0, type-I and type-II phase matching of pump light at 783nm, 786nm and 789nm to down converted light that is strongly degenerate at 1566nm, 1572nm, and 1578nm respectively. The inferred efficiency of the BRW was 9.8$\cdot$10$^{-9}$ photon pairs per pump photon. This contrasts with the predicted type-0 efficiency of 2.65$\cdot$10$^{-11}$. This data is presented for the first time in such waveguides, and represents significant advances towards the integration of sources of quantum information into the existing telecommunications infrastructure.
6

Cascaded Orientation-Patterned Gallium Arsenide Optical Parametric Oscillator for Improved Longwave Infrared Conversion Efficiency

Feaver, Ryan K. 24 May 2017 (has links)
No description available.
7

Components based on optical fibers with internal electrodes

Myrén, Niklas January 2003 (has links)
<p>The topic of this thesis is development ofdevices fortelecom applications based on poled optical fibers. The focusis on two different specific functions, wavelength conversionand optical switching.</p><p>Optical switching is demonstrated in a poled optical fiberat telecom wavelengths (~1.55 mm). The fiber has two holesrunning along the core in which electrodes are inserted. Thefiber device is made electro-optically active with a polingprocess in which a strong electric field is recorded in thefiber at a temperature of 270 o C. The fiber is then put in onearm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and by applying a voltageacross the two electrodes in the fiber the refractive index ismodulated and the optical signal switched from one output portto the other. So far the lowest switching voltage achieved is~1600 V which is too high for a commercial device, but byoptimizing the design of the fiber and the poling process aswitching voltage as low as 50 V is aimed for.</p><p>A method to deposit a thin silver electrode inside the holesof an optical fiber is also demonstrated. A new way of creatingperiodic electrodes by periodically ablating the silver filmelectrode inside the holes of an optical fiber is also shown.The periodic electrodes can be used to create a quasi-phasematched (QPM) nonlinearity in the fiber which is useful forincreasing the efficiency of a nonlinear process such aswavelength conversion. Poling of a fiber with silver electrodesshowed a huge increase in the nonlinearity. This could be dueto a resonant enhancement caused by silver nanoclusters.</p><p><b>Keywords:</b>Poling, twinhole fiber, fiber electrodes,silver film electrodes, silver diffusion, quasi-phase matching,optical switching, frequency conversion, optical modulation</p>
8

Advanced nano- and microdomain engineering of Rb-doped KTiOPO4 for nonlinear optical applications

Liljestrand, Charlotte January 2017 (has links)
Fine-pitch ferroelectric domain gratings are extensively used for generation of light in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions through quasi-phase matched (QPM) frequency conversion. Sub-μm QPM devices enables demonstration of nonlinear optics with counterpropagating waves, a field of nonlinear optics which remains sparsely explored due to the difficulty of fabricatinghigh quality gratings. In recent years, bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO4 (RKTP) has emerged as a highly promising nonlinear materials for fabrication of fine-pitch QPM devices through periodic electric-field poling. RKTP possesses large optical nonlinearity and high resistance to optical damage, while demonstrating improved material homogeneity and lower ionic conductivity than its isomorphs, which are important features for poling. Although fine-pitch QPM gratings, as well as large aperture QPM devices, have been demonstrated, fabrication of sub-μm high quality QPM devices remains a challenge. The primary aim of this research was to develop a reliable method to fabricate high-quality sub-μm periodically poled RKTP crystals (PPRKTP) and exploit them in novel optical applications. For this purpose, a novel poling method was developed. It was based on periodic modulation of the coercive field through ion exchange, where K+ ions are exchanged with Rb+ in the crystal, to modulate the coercive field and the ionic conductivity. This enables periodic poling of higher quality and with shorter period than ever before. High quality PPRKTP with a period of 755 nm were fabricated and used to demonstrate the first cascaded mirrorless optical parametric oscillator (MOPO), as well as the first MOPO pumped by a Q-switched laser. PPRKTP samples for blue light generation were fabricated, and second harmonic generation (SHG) was investigated with a high power 946 nm fiber laser. Up to 2 W of blue power was demonstrated for bulk samples, where the output power was limited by absorption of the SHG, leading to thermal dephasing of the devices. Laser-written waveguides were fabricated in PPRKTP for the first time, and a record high SHG power of 76 mW was obtained. Finally, the high-temperature stability of ferroelectric domain gratings was investigated. This is of utmost importance when a PPRKTP crystal is used as a seed for crystal growth. It was found that for charged domains walls, the domain-wall motion was highly anisotropic with rapid movement in y-direction while only small movements were observed in the x-direction of the crystal. / Ickelinjära ferroelektriska kristaller med artificiella domängitter med perioder av några mikrometer används idag för generering av ljus i de synliga och nära-infraröda våglängdsområdena, genom kvasifasmatchad (QPM) frekvenskonvertering. Med sub-μm QPM domängitter kan man åstadkomma ickelinjära optiska effekter med motpropagerande parametriska ljusvågor. Detta är ett område av den ickelinjära optiken som fortfarande är tämligen outforskat på grund av svårigheten med att tillverka högkvalitativa domängitter.  Under de senaste åren har Rb-dopat KTiOPO4 (RKTP) blivit ett mycket lovande ickelinjärt material för tillverkning av QPM-gitter med mycket korta perioder genom periodisk elektrisk fält polning. RKTP kristallen har en hög optisk ickelinejäritet och den tål höga optiska intensiteter, samtidigt som materialet har bättre materialhomogenitet och lägre jonledningsförmåga än vad dess isomorfa kristaller har. De två senare egenskaperna har visat sig viktiga för att få en lyckad polning. Fastän QPM-gitter med kort periodicitet, liksom QPM-gitter med stor apertur, har demonstrerats, är tillverkningen av högkvalitativa QPM-kristaller med sub-µm perioder fortfarande en utmaning. Det primära syftet med denna avhandling var att utveckla en pålitlig metod för att tillverka högkvalitativa sub-μm periodiskt polade RKTP kristaller (PPRKTP) och utnyttja dem i nya optiska tillämpningar. I detta syfte utvecklades en ny polningsmetod. Den baseras på periodiskt jonutbyte, där K+ joner byts mot Rb+ i kristallen, vilket resulterar i en samtidig modulation av materialets koerciva fält och jonledningsförmåga. Detta möjliggör i sin tur periodisk polning av högre kvalitet och med kortare perioder än någonsin tidigare har uppnåtts. Högkvalitativa PPRKTP kristaller med en period på 755 nm tillverkades och användes för att demonstrera den första kaskaderade spegelfria optiska parametriska oscillatorn (MOPO), liksom den första MOPO processen pumpad av en Q-switchad laser. Vidare utvecklades PPRKTP-kristaller för generering av blått ljus via frekvensdubbling. Dessa utvärderades med hjälp av en högeffekts-fiberlaser vid 946 nm. Upp till 2 W av blått ljus erhölls för bulkkristallerna. Uteffekten begränsades av absorption av det blåa frekvensdubblade ljuset, vilket ledde till urfasning i QPM-gittret p.g.a. termiska effekter. Laserskrivna vågledare tillverkades sedan i PPRKTP för första gången, och en rekordhög effekt på 76 mW erhölls via frekvensdubbling. Slutligen undersöktes stabiliteten hos de periodiskt polade domängitterna vid höga temperaturer. Det är viktigt att domängittrena är stabila när PPRKTP kristallerna används som ympämne för kristalltillväxt. Det visade sig att instabila domänväggar flyttade sig mycket anisotropt, med en snabb rörelse i kristallens y-riktning och en långsam rörelse i kristallens x-riktning. / <p>QC 20170519</p>
9

Nonlinear response in engineered optical materials

Strömqvist, Gustav January 2012 (has links)
Material and structure engineering are increasingly employed in active optical media,in this context defined as media capable of providing laser or/and optical parametric gain. For laser materials, the main aim of the engineering is to tailor the absorption and emission cross sections in order to optimise the laser performance. At the same time, the engineering also results in a collateral modification of the material’s nonlinear response. In the first part of this work, the nonlinear index of refraction is characterised for two crystallographic forms of laser-ion doped and undoped double-tungstate crystals. These laser crystals have broad gain bandwidths, in particular when doped with Yb3+. As shown in this work, the crystals also have large Kerr nonlinearities, where the values vary significantly for different chemical compositions of the crystals. The combination of a broad gain bandwidthand a high Kerr nonlinearity makes the laser-ion doped double tungstates excellent candidates to employ for the generation of ultrashort laser pulses by Kerr-lens modelocking. The second part of the work relates to the applications of engineered second-order nonlinear media, which here in particular are periodically-poled KTiOPO4 crystals. Periodic structure engineering of second-order nonlinear crystals on a submicrometre scale opens up for the realisation of novel nonlinear devices. By the use of quasi-phase matching in these structures, it is possible to efficiently downconvert a pump wave into two counterpropagating parametric waves, which leads to a device called a mirrorless optical parametric oscillator. The nonlinear response in these engineered submicrometre structures is such that the parametric wave that propagates in the opposite direction of the pump automatically has a narrow bandwidth, whereas the parametric wave that propagates with the pump essentially is a frequency-shifted replica of the pump wave. The unusual spectral properties andthe tunabilities of mirrorless optical parametric oscillators are investigated. / QC 20120330
10

Nanosecond tandem optical parametric oscillators for mid-infrared generation

Henriksson, Markus January 2007 (has links)
<p>This thesis discusses a new scheme for generating radiation in the mid infrared spectral region, especially the 3.5-5 µm range. The scheme uses established Nd<sup>3+</sup>-lasers at 1.06 µm and down conversion in nonlinear optical crystals. The down conversion is made by two optical parametric oscillators (OPO) in series. The second OPO is a classical OPO using a zink germanium phosphide (ZGP) crystal. ZGP is the best nonlinear material available for the 4-8 µm spectral range, but it is absorbing below 2 µm. The new development presented in this thesis is the OPO used to convert the 1.06 µm laser radiation to a suitable OPO pump near 2 µm.</p><p>The OPO uses a type I quasi phase-matched crystal, which accesses high nonlinearities and avoids walk-off. The problem with type I OPOs close to degeneracy is the broad bandwidth of the generated radiation, which reduces the efficiency of a second OPO. This has been solved with a spectrally selective cavity using a volume Bragg grating output coupler. Unlike other bandwidth limiting schemes this introduces no intracavity losses and thus efficient OPO operation is achievable.</p><p>Narrow linewidth (~0.5 nm) OPO operation has been achieved with periodically poled LiNbO<sub>3</sub> (PPLN) and periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) while locking the signal wavelength at 2008 nm and simultaneously generating an idler at 2264 nm. A high average power PPLN OPO with 36 % conversion efficiency and 47 % slope efficiency is reported. Operation very close to degeneracy at 2128 nm with the narrowband signal and idler peaks separated by 0.6 nm was demonstrated in a PPKTP OPO. Both the signal at 2008 nm and the combined signal and idler around 2128 nm from the PPKTP OPOs have been used to show efficient pumping of a ZGP OPO. The maximum conversion efficiency from 1 µm to the mid-IR demonstrated is 7 % with a slope efficiency of 10 %. This is not quite as high as what has been presented by other authors, but the experiments reported here have not shown the optimum efficiency of the new scheme. Relatively simple improvements are expected to give a significant increase in conversion efficiency.</p>

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