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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Optimizing Test Pattern Generation Using Top-Off ATPG Methodology for Stuck–AT, Transition and Small Delay Defect Faults

Gill, Arjun 03 October 2013 (has links)
The ever increasing complexity and size of digital circuits complemented by Deep Sub Micron (DSM) technology trends today pose challenges to the efficient Design For Test (DFT) methodologies. Innovation is required not only in designing the digital circuits, but also in automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) to ensure that the pattern set screens all the targeted faults while still complying with the Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) memory constraints. DSM technology trends push the requirements of ATPG to not only include the conventional static defects but also to include test patterns for dynamic defects. The current industry practices consider test pattern generation for transition faults to screen dynamic defects. It has been observed that just screening for transition faults alone is not sufficient in light of the continuing DSM technology trends. Shrinking technology nodes have pushed DFT engineers to include Small Delay Defect (SDD) test patterns in the production flow. The current industry standard ATPG tools are evolving and SDD ATPG is not the most economical option in terms of both test generation CPU time and pattern volume. New techniques must be explored in order to ensure that a quality test pattern set can be generated which includes patterns for stuck-at, transition and SDD faults, all the while ensuring that the pattern volume remains economical. This thesis explores the use of a “Top-Off” ATPG methodology to generate an optimal test pattern set which can effectively screen the required fault models while containing the pattern volume within a reasonable limit.
2

Automated Test Grading and Pattern Selection for Small-Delay Defects

Yilmaz, Mahmut January 2009 (has links)
<p>Timing-related defects are becoming increasingly important in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (ICs). Small delay variations induced by crosstalk, process variations, power-supply noise, as well as resistive opens and shorts can potentially cause timing failures in a design, thereby leading to quality and reliability concerns. All these effects are noticeable in today's technologies and they are likely to become more prominent in the next-generation process technologies~\cite{itrs2007}.</p><p>The detection of small-delay defects (SDDs) is difficult because of the small size of the introduced delay. Although the delay introduced by each SDD is small, the overall impact can be significant if the target path is critical, has low slack, or includes many SDDs. The overall delay of the path may become larger than the clock period, causing circuit failure or temporarily incorrect results. As a result, the detection of SDDs typically requires fault excitation through least-slack paths. However, widely-used automatic test-pattern generation (ATPG) techniques are not effective at exciting small delay defects. On the other hand, the usage of commercially available timing-aware tools is expensive in terms of pattern count inflation and very high test-generation times. Furthermore, these tools do not target real physical defects.</p><p>SDDs are induced not only by physical defects, but also by run-time variations such as crosstalk and power-supply noise. These variations are ignored by today's commercial ATPG tools. As a result, new methods are required for comprehensive coverage of SDDs.</p><p>Test data volume and test application time are also major concerns for large industrial circuits. In recent years, many compression techniques have been proposed and evaluated using industrial designs. However, these methods do not target sequence- or timing-dependent failures while compressing the test patterns. Since timing-related failures in high-performance integrated circuits are now increasingly dominated by SDDs, it is necessary to develop timing-aware compression techniques.</p><p>This thesis addresses the problem of selecting the most effective test patterns for detecting SDDs. A new gate and interconnect delay-defect probability measure is defined to model delay variations for nanometer technologies. The proposed technique intelligently selects the best set of patterns for SDD detection from a large pattern set generated using timing-unaware ATPG. It offers significantly lower computational complexity and it excites a larger number of long paths compared to previously proposed timing-aware ATPG methods. It is shown that, for the same pattern count, the selected patterns are more effective than timing-aware ATPG for detecting small delay defects caused by resistive shorts, resistive opens, process variations, and crosstalk. The proposed technique also serves as the basis for an efficient SDD-aware test compression scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is highlighted for industrial circuits.</p><p>In summary, this research is targeted at the testing of SDDs caused by various underlying reasons. The proposed techniques are expected to generate high-quality and compact test patterns for various types of defects in nanometer ICs. The results of this research are expected to provide low-cost and effective test methods for nanometer devices, and they will lead to higher shipped-product quality.</p> / Dissertation
3

Pseudofunctional Delay Tests For High Quality Small Delay Defect Testing

Lahiri, Shayak 2011 December 1900 (has links)
Testing integrated circuits to verify their operating frequency, known as delay testing, is essential to achieve acceptable product quality. The high cost of functional testing has driven the industry to automatically-generated structural tests, applied by low-cost testers taking advantage of design-for-test (DFT) circuitry on the chip. Traditional at-speed functional testing of digital circuits is increasingly challenged by new defect types and the high cost of functional test development. This research addressed the problems of accurate delay testing in DSM circuits by targeting resistive open and short circuits, while taking into account manufacturing process variation, power dissipation and power supply noise. In this work, we developed a class of structural delay tests in which we extended traditional launch-on-capture delay testing to additional launch and capture cycles. We call these Pseudofunctional Tests (PFT). A test pattern is scanned into the circuit, and then multiple functional clock cycles are applied to it with at-speed launch and capture for the last two cycles. The circuit switching activity over an extended period allows the off-chip power supply noise transient to die down prior to the at-speed launch and capture, achieving better timing correlation with the functional mode of operation. In addition, we also proposed advanced compaction methodologies to compact the generated test patterns into a smaller test set in order to reduce the test application time. We modified our CodGen K longest paths per gate automatic test pattern generator to implement PFT pattern generation. Experimental results show that PFT test generation is practical in terms of test generation time.

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