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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation

Wang, Zheng 2010 May 1900 (has links)
Delay testing is used to detect timing defects and ensure that a circuit meets its timing specifications. The growing need for delay testing is a result of the advances in deep submicron (DSM) semiconductor technology and the increase in clock frequency. Small delay defects that previously were benign now produce delay faults, due to reduced timing margins. This research focuses on the development of new test methods for small delay defects, within the limits of affordable test generation cost and pattern count. First, a new dynamic compaction algorithm has been proposed to generate compacted test sets for K longest paths per gate (KLPG) in combinational circuits or scan-based sequential circuits. This algorithm uses a greedy approach to compact paths with non-conflicting necessary assignments together during test generation. Second, to make this dynamic compaction approach practical for industrial use, a recursive learning algorithm has been implemented to identify more necessary assignments for each path, so that the path-to-test-pattern matching using necessary assignments is more accurate. Third, a realistic low cost fault coverage metric targeting both global and local delay faults has been developed. The metric suggests the test strategy of generating a different number of longest paths for each line in the circuit while maintaining high fault coverage. The number of paths and type of test depends on the timing slack of the paths under this metric. Experimental results for ISCAS89 benchmark circuits and three industry circuits show that the pattern count of KLPG can be significantly reduced using the proposed methods. The pattern count is comparable to that of transition fault test, while achieving higher test quality. Finally, the proposed ATPG methodology has been applied to an industrial quad-core microprocessor. FMAX testing has been done on many devices and silicon data has shown the benefit of KLPG test.

Fault modeling, delay evaluation and path selection for delay test under process variation in nano-scale VLSI circuits

Lu, Xiang 12 April 2006 (has links)
Delay test in nano-scale VLSI circuits becomes more difficult with shrinking technology feature sizes and rising clock frequencies. In this dissertation, we study three challenging issues in delay test: fault modeling, variational delay evaluation and path selection under process variation. Previous research of fault modeling on resistive spot defects, such as resistive opens and bridges in the interconnect, and resistive shorts in devices, lacked an accurate fault model. As a result it was difficult to perform fault simulation and select the best vectors. Conventional methods to compute variational delay under process variation are either slow or inaccurate. On the problem of path selection under process variation, previous approaches either choose too many paths, or missed the path that is necessary to be tested. We present new solutions in this dissertation. A new fault model that clearly and comprehensively expresses the relationship between electrical behaviors and resistive spots is proposed. Then the effect of process variations on path delays is modeled with a linear function and a fast method to compute coefficients of the linear function is also derived. Finally, we present the new path pruning algorithms that efficiently prune unimportant paths for test, and as a result we select as few as possible paths for test while the fault coverage is satisfied. The experimental results show that the new solutions are efficient and accurate.

Built-In Self Test (BIST) for Realistic Delay Defects

Tamilarasan, Karthik Prabhu 2010 December 1900 (has links)
Testing of delay defects is necessary in deep submicron (DSM) technologies. High coverage delay tests produced by automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) can be applied during wafer and package tests, but are difficult to apply during the board test, due to limited chip access. Delay testing at the board level is increasingly important to diagnose failures caused by supply noise or temperature in the board environment. An alternative to ATPG is the built-in self test (BIST). In combination with the insertion of test points, BIST is able to achieve high coverage of stuck-at and transition faults. The quality of BIST patterns on small delay defects is an open question. In this work we analyze the application of BIST to small delay defects using resistive short and open models in order to estimate the coverage and correlate the coverage to traditional delay fault models.

Low Cost Power and Supply Noise Estimation and Control in Scan Testing of VLSI Circuits

Jiang, Zhongwei 2010 December 1900 (has links)
Test power is an important issue in deep submicron semiconductor testing. Too much power supply noise and too much power dissipation can result in excessive temperature rise, both leading to overkill during delay test. Scan-based test has been widely adopted as one of the most commonly used VLSI testing method. The test power during scan testing comprises shift power and capture power. The power consumed in the shift cycle dominates the total power dissipation. It is crucial for IC manufacturing companies to achieve near constant power consumption for a given timing window in order to keep the chip under test (CUT) at a near constant temperature, to make it easy to characterize the circuit behavior and prevent delay test over kill. To achieve constant test power, first, we built a fast and accurate power model, which can estimate the shift power without logic simulation of the circuit. We also proposed an efficient and low power X-bit Filling process, which could potentially reduce both the shift power and capture power. Then, we introduced an efficient test pattern reordering algorithm, which achieves near constant power between groups of patterns. The number of patterns in a group is determined by the thermal constant of the chip. Experimental results show that our proposed power model has very good correlation. Our proposed X-Fill process achieved both minimum shift power and capture power. The algorithm supports multiple scan chains and can achieve constant power within different regions of the chip. The greedy test pattern reordering algorithm can reduce the power variation from 29-126 percent to 8-10 percent or even lower if we reduce the power variance threshold. Excessive noise can significantly affect the timing performance of Deep Sub-Micron (DSM) designs and cause non-trivial additional delay. In delay test generation, test compaction and test fill techniques can produce excessive power supply noise. This can result in delay test overkill. Prior approaches to power supply noise aware delay test compaction are too costly due to many logic simulations, and are limited to static compaction. We proposed a realistic low cost delay test compaction flow that guardbands the delay using a sequence of estimation metrics to keep the circuit under test supply noise more like functional mode. This flow has been implemented in both static compaction and dynamic compaction. We analyzed the relationship between delay and voltage drop, and the relationship between effective weighted switching activity (WSA) and voltage drop. Based on these correlations, we introduce the low cost delay test pattern compaction framework considering power supply noise. Experimental results on ISCAS89 circuits show that our low cost framework is up to ten times faster than the prior high cost framework. Simulation results also verify that the low cost model can correctly guardband every path‟s extra noise-induced delay. We discussed the rules to set different constraints in the levelized framework. The veto process used in the compaction can be also applied to other constraints, such as power and temperature.

A Study on Performance Binning in Error Resilient Circuits

Nilamboor, Sanjay N. 30 June 2015 (has links)
No description available.

Pseudofunctional Delay Tests For High Quality Small Delay Defect Testing

Lahiri, Shayak 2011 December 1900 (has links)
Testing integrated circuits to verify their operating frequency, known as delay testing, is essential to achieve acceptable product quality. The high cost of functional testing has driven the industry to automatically-generated structural tests, applied by low-cost testers taking advantage of design-for-test (DFT) circuitry on the chip. Traditional at-speed functional testing of digital circuits is increasingly challenged by new defect types and the high cost of functional test development. This research addressed the problems of accurate delay testing in DSM circuits by targeting resistive open and short circuits, while taking into account manufacturing process variation, power dissipation and power supply noise. In this work, we developed a class of structural delay tests in which we extended traditional launch-on-capture delay testing to additional launch and capture cycles. We call these Pseudofunctional Tests (PFT). A test pattern is scanned into the circuit, and then multiple functional clock cycles are applied to it with at-speed launch and capture for the last two cycles. The circuit switching activity over an extended period allows the off-chip power supply noise transient to die down prior to the at-speed launch and capture, achieving better timing correlation with the functional mode of operation. In addition, we also proposed advanced compaction methodologies to compact the generated test patterns into a smaller test set in order to reduce the test application time. We modified our CodGen K longest paths per gate automatic test pattern generator to implement PFT pattern generation. Experimental results show that PFT test generation is practical in terms of test generation time.

Maximizing Crosstalk-Induced Slowdown During Path Delay Test

Gope, Dibakar 2011 August 1900 (has links)
Capacitive crosstalk between adjacent signal wires in integrated circuits may lead to noise or a speedup or slowdown in signal transitions. These in turn may lead to circuit failure or reduced operating speed. This thesis focuses on generating test patterns to induce crosstalk-induced signal delays, in order to determine whether the circuit can still meet its timing specification. A timing-driven test generator is developed to sensitize multiple aligned aggressors coupled to a delay-sensitive victim path to detect the combination of a delay spot defect and crosstalk-induced slowdown. The framework uses parasitic capacitance information, timing windows and crosstalk-induced delay estimates to screen out unaligned or ineffective aggressors coupled to a victim path, speeding up crosstalk pattern generation. In order to induce maximum crosstalk slowdown along a path, aggressors are prioritized based on their potential delay increase and timing alignment. The test generation engine introduces the concept of alignment-driven path sensitization to generate paths from inputs to coupled aggressor nets that meet timing alignment and direction requirements. By using path delay information obtained from circuit preprocessing, preferred paths can be chosen during aggressor path propagation processes. As the test generator sensitizes aggressors in the presence of victim path necessary assignments, the search space is effectively reduced for aggressor path generation. This helps in reducing the test generation time for aligned aggressors. In addition, two new crosstalk-driven dynamic test compaction algorithms are developed to control the increase in test pattern count. The proposed test generation algorithm is applied to ISCAS85 and ISCAS89 benchmark circuits. SPICE simulation results demonstrate the ability of the alignment-driven test generator to increase crosstalk-induced delays along victim paths.

Delay Test Scan Flip-Flop c(DTSFF) design and its applications for scan based delay testing

Xu, Gefu, Singh, Adit D. January 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Auburn University, 2007. / Abstract. Vita. Includes bibliographic references (p.107-111).

Automated Test Grading and Pattern Selection for Small-Delay Defects

Yilmaz, Mahmut January 2009 (has links)
<p>Timing-related defects are becoming increasingly important in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (ICs). Small delay variations induced by crosstalk, process variations, power-supply noise, as well as resistive opens and shorts can potentially cause timing failures in a design, thereby leading to quality and reliability concerns. All these effects are noticeable in today's technologies and they are likely to become more prominent in the next-generation process technologies~\cite{itrs2007}.</p><p>The detection of small-delay defects (SDDs) is difficult because of the small size of the introduced delay. Although the delay introduced by each SDD is small, the overall impact can be significant if the target path is critical, has low slack, or includes many SDDs. The overall delay of the path may become larger than the clock period, causing circuit failure or temporarily incorrect results. As a result, the detection of SDDs typically requires fault excitation through least-slack paths. However, widely-used automatic test-pattern generation (ATPG) techniques are not effective at exciting small delay defects. On the other hand, the usage of commercially available timing-aware tools is expensive in terms of pattern count inflation and very high test-generation times. Furthermore, these tools do not target real physical defects.</p><p>SDDs are induced not only by physical defects, but also by run-time variations such as crosstalk and power-supply noise. These variations are ignored by today's commercial ATPG tools. As a result, new methods are required for comprehensive coverage of SDDs.</p><p>Test data volume and test application time are also major concerns for large industrial circuits. In recent years, many compression techniques have been proposed and evaluated using industrial designs. However, these methods do not target sequence- or timing-dependent failures while compressing the test patterns. Since timing-related failures in high-performance integrated circuits are now increasingly dominated by SDDs, it is necessary to develop timing-aware compression techniques.</p><p>This thesis addresses the problem of selecting the most effective test patterns for detecting SDDs. A new gate and interconnect delay-defect probability measure is defined to model delay variations for nanometer technologies. The proposed technique intelligently selects the best set of patterns for SDD detection from a large pattern set generated using timing-unaware ATPG. It offers significantly lower computational complexity and it excites a larger number of long paths compared to previously proposed timing-aware ATPG methods. It is shown that, for the same pattern count, the selected patterns are more effective than timing-aware ATPG for detecting small delay defects caused by resistive shorts, resistive opens, process variations, and crosstalk. The proposed technique also serves as the basis for an efficient SDD-aware test compression scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is highlighted for industrial circuits.</p><p>In summary, this research is targeted at the testing of SDDs caused by various underlying reasons. The proposed techniques are expected to generate high-quality and compact test patterns for various types of defects in nanometer ICs. The results of this research are expected to provide low-cost and effective test methods for nanometer devices, and they will lead to higher shipped-product quality.</p> / Dissertation

Refactoring-based statistical timing analysis and its applications to robust design and test synthesis

Chung, Jae Yong, 1981- 11 July 2012 (has links)
Technology scaling in the nanometer era comes with a significant amount of process variation, leading to lower yield and new types of defective parts. These challenges necessitate robust design to ensure adequate yield, and smarter testing to screen out bad chips. Statistical static timing analysis (SSTA) en- ables this but suffers from crude approximation algorithms. This dissertation first studies the underlying theories of timing graphs and proposes two fundamental techniques enhancing the core statistical timing algorithms. We first propose the refactoring technique to capture topological correlation. Static timing analysis is based on levelized breadth-first traversal, which is a fundamental graph traversal technique and has been used for static timing analysis over the past decades. We show that there are numerous alternatives to the traversal because of an algebraic property, the distributivity of addition over maximum. This new interpretation extends the degrees of freedom of static timing analysis, which is exploited to improve the accuracy of SSTA. We also propose a novel operator for computing joint probabilities in SSTA. In many SSTA applications, this is very common but is done using the max operator which results in much error due to the linear approximation. The new operator provides significantly higher accuracy at a small cost of run time. Second, based on the two fundamental studies, this dissertation devel- ops three applications. We propose a criticality computation method that is essential to robust design and test synthesis; The proposed method, combined with the two fundamental techniques, achieves drastic accuracy improvement over the state-of-the-art method, demonstrating the benefits in practical ap- plications. We formulate the statistical path selection problem for at-speed test as a gambling problem and present an elegant solution based on the Kelly criterion. To circumvent the coverage loss issue in statistical path selection, we propose a testability driven approach, making it a practical solution for coping with parametric defects. / text

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