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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The effect of music on submaximal cycling

Schie, Nicola Alison 01 November 2006 (has links)
Student Number : 9601456A - MSc research report - School of Therapeutic Sciences - Faculty of Science / INTRODUCTION: Athletes frequently report training to music yet there have been relatively few studies that have addressed the benefit of exercising with music. PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of popular music on submaximal cycling. METHOD: Volunteer men and women (N=30), aged between 18 and 40 years, underwent an initial familiarisation session. Part of this session involved the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (V02max). This was then followed by two twenty-minute submaximal cycling sessions, both at 80% of maximal oxygen consumption. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Group A cycled without any music and Group B cycled with music for the first submaximal cycling session. A few days later the subjects underwent the same testing procedure, however this time group A cycled to music and group B cycled without music. Subjects served as their own control. During the submaximal procedure heart rate, Borg Scale and lactate responses were assessed. Subjects completed a post-test questionnaire once both submaximal cycling sessions were completed. The differences between the sessions with and without music with respect to heart rate, Borg Scale and change in lactate were analysed using an appropriate analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the two-period crossover design adjusting for relevant baselines. Testing was set at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: It was found that listening to music, while cycling, resulted in no significant changes in physiological variables (change in lactate concentration and heart rate). The average, as well as the instantaneous two-minute intervals of the 10-point Borg scale also yielded no significant difference. However, 66.7% of the subjects, according to the post-test questionnaire, perceived the cycling session with music to be easier than the session without music. CONCLUSION: Listening to music, while cycling, may allow individuals to alter their overall, subjective perception of cycling. According to the post-test questionnaire, subjects perceived their overall experience of cycling with music to be easier than cycling without music. This could suggest that cycling to music could act as a positive distracter and motivating force that could thereby increase adherence to training, allowing the cyclist to train longer and harder and thus in the long run perform better in races. However, from a physiological viewpoint, listening to music, while performing submaximal cycling, resulted in no physiological benefit.
2

Resolubilidade e irresolubilidade de espaços topológicos / Resolvable and irresolvable topological spaces

Boero, Ana Carolina 09 March 2007 (has links)
O principal objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um estudo sistemático da teoria dos espaços topológicos resolúveis e irresolúveis. Enfocaremos diversas propriedades inerentes aos mesmos, incluindo uma exposição meticulosa de técnicas utilizadas na construção de espaços topológicos irresolúveis e sem pontos isolados. Dado um cardinal \\kappa > 1, exibiremos exemplos de espaços topológicos que são \\kappa-resolúveis, mas que não são \\kappa^{+}-resolúveis. Mostraremos, ainda, que se um espaço topológico for n-resolúvel, para todo número natural n, o mesmo será \\omega-resolúvel. Provaremos, contudo, que se \\lambda é um cardinal tal que \\omega < cf(\\lambda) = \\lambda, existe um espaço topológico que é \\mu-resolúvel, para todo cardinal \\mu < \\lambda, mas que não é \\lambda-resolúvel. O cerne desta dissertação refere-se à construção, em ZFC, de um subespaço enumerável, denso e submaximal de 2^c. / The main purpose of this work is to study the theory of resolvable and irresolvable topological spaces. We shall introduce many properties of these spaces and we shall give special attention to some techniques used in the construction of irresolvable topological spaces without isolated points. Given a cardinal \\kappa > 1, we will present some examples of topological spaces which are \\kappa-resolvable, but not \\kappa^{+}-resolvable. Besides, we will show that if a topological space is n-resolvable, for every natural number n > 1, then it is \\omega-resolvable too. Nevertheless, we shall prove that if \\lambda is a cardinal with \\omega < cf(\\lambda) = \\lambda, there is a topological space which is \\mu-resolvable, for each cardinal \\mu < \\lambda, but that is not \\lambda-resolvable. The backbone of this dissertation is the construction, in ZFC, of a countable, dense and submaximal subspaces of 2^c.
3

Resolubilidade e irresolubilidade de espaços topológicos / Resolvable and irresolvable topological spaces

Ana Carolina Boero 09 March 2007 (has links)
O principal objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um estudo sistemático da teoria dos espaços topológicos resolúveis e irresolúveis. Enfocaremos diversas propriedades inerentes aos mesmos, incluindo uma exposição meticulosa de técnicas utilizadas na construção de espaços topológicos irresolúveis e sem pontos isolados. Dado um cardinal \\kappa > 1, exibiremos exemplos de espaços topológicos que são \\kappa-resolúveis, mas que não são \\kappa^{+}-resolúveis. Mostraremos, ainda, que se um espaço topológico for n-resolúvel, para todo número natural n, o mesmo será \\omega-resolúvel. Provaremos, contudo, que se \\lambda é um cardinal tal que \\omega < cf(\\lambda) = \\lambda, existe um espaço topológico que é \\mu-resolúvel, para todo cardinal \\mu < \\lambda, mas que não é \\lambda-resolúvel. O cerne desta dissertação refere-se à construção, em ZFC, de um subespaço enumerável, denso e submaximal de 2^c. / The main purpose of this work is to study the theory of resolvable and irresolvable topological spaces. We shall introduce many properties of these spaces and we shall give special attention to some techniques used in the construction of irresolvable topological spaces without isolated points. Given a cardinal \\kappa > 1, we will present some examples of topological spaces which are \\kappa-resolvable, but not \\kappa^{+}-resolvable. Besides, we will show that if a topological space is n-resolvable, for every natural number n > 1, then it is \\omega-resolvable too. Nevertheless, we shall prove that if \\lambda is a cardinal with \\omega < cf(\\lambda) = \\lambda, there is a topological space which is \\mu-resolvable, for each cardinal \\mu < \\lambda, but that is not \\lambda-resolvable. The backbone of this dissertation is the construction, in ZFC, of a countable, dense and submaximal subspaces of 2^c.
4

PRECOOLING AND RUNNING ECONOMY

Winke, Molly Rebecca 01 January 2007 (has links)
Precooling, or a reduction in core temperature (Tc) has been demonstrated to be a potent enhancer of endurance running performance, however there is no known mechanism for this improvement. By holding the exercise workload constant, changes in variables such as running economy (RE), heart rate, and ventilation (VE) can be determined as a result of precooling. Improved running economy, or a reduced oxygen cost of a specific workload, is linked to improved exercise performance. Purpose: To determine the changes in flexibility, RE, heart rate, VE, and Tc during running at a constant workload following cool water immersion and to determine any sex-specific responses. Methods: Fourteen well-trained runners (8 males and 6 females) completed four treadmill runs at a sex-specific velocity (8.0 mph for females and 8.6 mph for males). The first two runs served as accommodation trials. The third and fourth runs were preceded by either cool water immersion (24.8oC) for 40 minutes or quiet sitting. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, Tc, VE, and flexibility were measured during both experimental trials. Results: Running economy did not change as a result of the precooling treatment, whereas Tc and heart rate were reduced by 0.4oC and 5 beats per minute, respectively. Minute ventilation was reduced in the female subjects only (1.4 liters/min). Sex differences were apparent in Tc, heart rate, VE, and flexibility response. Conclusion: While the precooling procedure was effective in reducing Tc and heart rate, RE did not change. Thus, improvements in RE cannot explain the dramatic enhancements of endurance running performance that often occur post-cooling. Differences between male and female subjects in response to precooling were identified, most notably in VE.
5

Perceived Submaximal Leg Extension Forces of Young Adult Males

Ludke, Andrew William 08 1900 (has links)
The purpose was to examine actual force (AF) productions of males for accuracy during leg extensions when given a random desired force (DF) ranging from 10-90% of maximal force (MF). Thirty males ranging from 18 to 30 years of age (M = 21.99 + 3.04), who had no previous experience with the test equipment, went through 9 randomly ordered submaximal efforts followed by a maximal effort. Correlations between AF and DF were high (r > .79) and test-retest was consistent between AF (r = .87) and MF (r = .90). Participants consistently undershot DF on both test and retest from 20-90% and overshot DF only at 10%. Power functions revealed exponents of less than 1, indicating that AF grows slower then DF for both test .70 (.95 CI = .63 - .77) and retest .66 (.95 CI = .60 - .73). The results replicate a prior study by Jackson, Martin, Koziris, Ludtke, and Dishman (2001) that used incremental rather than random increases in DF.
6

En jämförande studie av två submaximala cykelergometertest för beräkning av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga (VO2max)

Holstensson, Simon, Christiansson Rosén, John January 2015 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an important predictor for cardiovascular health. VO2max is often calculated using submaximal tests in clinic. Ekblom-Bak (EB-test) test is a new submaximal cycle ergometer test for calculating VO2max based on differences in heart frequency between two different workloads. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the correlation and agreement between the two methods for calculating VO2max; Åstrand cycle test (Å-test) and EB-test. A secondary aim was also to examine VO2max of physiotherapy students in Uppsala. METHODS: The study design was descriptive and comparative. 30 subjects aged 20-30 were recruited by convenience sampling. Both tests were performed during the same session. Agreement and correlation between the two tests was calculated through paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficients respectively. RESULTS: Calculated VO2max for the subjects was on average 3.65 L/min, 52.03 ml/kg/min (EB-test) and 3.38 L/min, 47.97 ml/kg/min (Å-test). The differences between the two tests were statistically significant for both L/min (p = 0.01) and ml/kg/min (p = 0.009). The correlation between the two tests was r = 0.76 (L/min) and r = 0.59 (ml/kg/min) respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows a statistically significant difference between the two submaximal cycle ergometer tests for calculating VO2max. The difference between the two tests is clinically significant and should be considered upon use. Both tests should be used consistently upon evaluating different treatments. Further research in the area is needed.
7

Estimating VO2max Using a Personalized Step Test

Webb, Catherine 27 March 2012 (has links) (PDF)
The purpose of this study was to develop a personalized step test and a valid regression model that used non-exercise data and data collected during the step test to estimate VO2max in males and females 18 to 30 years of age. All participants (N= 80) successfully completed a step test with the starting step rate and step height being determined by the self-reported perceived functional ability (PFA) score and participant's height, respectively. All participants completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) to measure VO2max. Multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following equation (R = 0.90, SEE = 3.43 mL/kg/min): 45.938 + 9.253(G) - 0.140(KG) + 0.670(PFA) + 0.429(FSR) - 0.149(45sRHR) to predict VO2max (mL/kg/min) where: G is gender (0=female;1=male), KG is body mass in kg, PFA is the sum of the two PFA questions, FSR is the final step rate (step-ups/min), and 45sRHR is the recovery heart rate 45 seconds following the conclusion of the step test. Each independent variable was significant (p < 0.05) in predicting VO2max and the resulting regression equation accounted for roughly 83% (R2=0.8281) of the shared variance of measured VO2max. Based on the standardized B-weights, gender (0.606) explained the largest proportion of variance in VO2max values followed by PFA (0.315), body mass (-0.256), FSR (-0.248), and the 45sRHR (-0.238). The cross validation statistics (RPRESS = 0.88, SEEPRESS = 3.57 (mL/kg/min-1) show minimal shrinkage in the accuracy of the regression model. This study presents a relatively accurate model to predict VO2max from a submaximal step test that is convenient, easy to administer, and individualized.
8

Metodvalidering av Umeå CARE Protocol : Individanpassad dosering av extern träningsintensitet / Method validation of Umeå CARE Protocol : Individulized dose of external exercise intensity

Pettersson, Axel, Lundin, Philip January 2024 (has links)
Bakgrund: Träningsintolerans innebär ofta svårigheter med att uppnå lämlig dosering av fysisk träning. Buffalo Concussion Protocol (BCP) är en metod som rekommenderar arbete vid 80% av maximal hjärtfrekvens för träning. Utmaningen med denna metod är att anpassa träning individuellt. UMEÅ CARE Protocoll ämnar att utveckla detta genom att ge mer individanpassade råd kring dosering av extern träningsintensitet baserat på hjärtfrekvensen vid arbete på ergometercykel och löpband.  Syfte: Validera överensstämmelsen mellan förväntad hjärtfrekvens från Umeå Bike Care Test (UBCT) och uppmätt hjärtfrekvens under sex minuters arbete på ergometercykel samt löpband. Vidare var syftet att analysera skillnader i subjektivt upplevd ansträngning mellan sex minuters testerna på cykel och löpband. Metod: Tio friska deltagare genomförde ett stegrat arbetsprov på ergometercykel för att fastställa brytpulsen. Extern intensitet beräknades baserat på hjärtfrekvens, effekt och estimerat syreupptag. Därefter utfördes varsitt sex minuters test på cykel samt löpband. Dokumentation av hjärtfrekvens och skattning av upplevd ansträngning enligt Borgs RPE skala 6-20 utfördes under samtliga testmoment. Överensstämmelse mellan förväntad hjärfrekvens och den uppmätta under test på cykel och löpband analyserades genom Bland-Altman plots. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test användes för jämföra hur förväntad och uppmätt hjärtfrekvens skiljde sig från varandra vid sex minuters test på cykel samt löpband. Samt för att jämföra upplevd ansträngning på sex minuters testerna på cykel och löpband.   Resultat: Cykeltestet visade god överensstämmelse där skillnaden mellan förväntad hjärtfrekvens och uppmätt hjärtfrekvens inte var signifikant (0,385) till skillnad från löpband (p=0,045). Bland Altman-plots påvisade en större större spridning bland testpersonerna vid test på ergometercykel än på löpband. Skillnaden mellan sex minuters testerna sett till upplevd ansträngning (RPE) var signifikant (P=0,037) där genomsnittligt så skattades sex minuters test på ergometercykel som mer ansträngande. Det varierade storti gradering av upplevd ansträngning mellan testpersonerna.  Slutsats: Överensstämmelsen mellan förväntad och uppmätt hjärtfrekvens korrelerade bättre för test på cykel än på löpband. Skillnader mellan testerna var signifikanta sett till upplevd ansträngning på sex minuters tester på cykel och löpband. Grad av upplevd ansträngning varierade mellan testpersonerna.
9

Heart rate variability profiles of Special Olympics athletes at rest, during submaximal exercise, and in recovery.

St.John, Laura 01 May 2017 (has links)
The change in R-R intervals between adjacent heartbeats is referred to as Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV data provides information regarding an individual’s Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), specifically the ANS’s two branches, the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS). The HRV of a healthy, well-conditioned heart is large at rest, while low HRV is associated with adverse health outcomes such diabetes, heart disease and early mortality. There has been a substantial amount of HRV research conducted with typically developing individuals. One group who is greatly underrepresented in research is individuals with intellectual disabilities. Currently, no studies have been undertaken with Special Olympics athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to create HRV profiles at rest, during submaximal exercise, and at recovery of adult Special Olympic athletes. The study also sought to examine the impact that Down syndrome, age, sex, and medication on HRV profiles. The current study found that although heart rate responded appropriately during the three testing conditions (rest, exercise, recovery) the athletes were sympathetically dominated across all three conditions, indicating an imbalance between the SNS and the PNS. In addition, male and female athletes were significantly different with regards to low frequency and high frequency power. It is possible that anxiety or excitement about the testing influenced some athletes, and future research should examine how additional protocol familiarization could impact the HRV profiles within this population. Additionally, more research with larger sample sizes is needed to more fully understand the impact that age, etiology of intellectual disability, and medication use may be having on HRV profiles. / Graduate
10

Sex Differences in Submaximal Exercise Tests Correlation with Coronary Cineangiography in 133 Patients

CROW, RICHARD S., DAHL, JAMES C., SIMONSON, ERNST, YAMAUCHI, KAZUNOBU 01 1900 (has links)
No description available.

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