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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
141

Experimental Investigation of Bubble Lateral Motion in Shear Flow

Ke Tang (5930894) 03 January 2019 (has links)
In two-phase flow, the void fraction and its distribution are two major factors describing the characteristic of flow patterns. Better understanding of void fraction distribution in two-phase flow would help improve safety and efficiency in the nuclear industry as the heat transfer process is significantly affected by the void distribution in nuclear reactor fuel bundles. Lift force is proposed to explain the lateral migration of bubbles in the shear flow (Feng & Bolotnov, 2017, Lucas & Tomiyama, 2011, Akio Tomiyama, Tamai, Zun, & Hosokawa, 2002). However, the mechanism of lift force is unclear and the research on lift force is limited.<div><br></div><div>An experimental investigation is performed on the lift force of single bubble in weak linear shear flow field in water. In addition, characteristics of bubble motion including bubble terminal velocity, aspect ratio and oscillation amplitude are studied and comparisons are made with existing models.<br></div><div><br></div><div>It was found that the model proposed by Tomiyama et al. (A. Tomiyama, Celata, Hosokawa, & Yoshida, 2002) has the best prediction of bubble terminal velocity with introduction of a tuning factor in consideration of the asymmetric deformation of bubble. Bubble aspect ratio is found to significantly affect its terminal velocity, and a new model is proposed to best fit the experiment data. It is also observed that the shear rate magnitude has no influence on bubble aspect ratio in this study. Oscillation was observed for all the bubbles in this experiment. Oscillation amplitude scattered widely and it was difficult to correlate it only with the bubble equivalent diameter. In terms of lift force, positive lift coefficient was observed for small size bubbles and transits to negative value with growing size. Due to the high Reynolds number of flow and low viscosity of water, widely scattered data is found in the results. Although the accurate prediction of lift coefficient is difficult to obtain in the experiment, the lift coefficient transition trend is given and agrees with many other research. In addition, this research provides a database for further lift coefficient investigation.<br></div>
142

Semi-infinite and finite bubble propagation in the presence of a channel-depth perturbation

Franco Gomez, Andres January 2018 (has links)
The two-phase flow displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a confined environment leads to a viscous fingering instability commonly encountered in natural systems, for example, in flows through porous media or pulmonary airways. The classical study of viscous fingering has been conducted in rectangular channels of high aspect ratio (large channel width/height), known as Hele-Shaw channels where a unique, steady symmetric, semi-infinite bubble (finger) emerges. In this Journal Format thesis, the propagation of semi-infinite (open) and finite (closed) air bubbles is considered in Hele-Shaw channels where thin, axially-uniform occlusions are introduced. This configuration is known to generate symmetric, asymmetric and oscillatory modes with complex interactions and rich behaviour. Numerical results of finger propagation using a depth-averaged model in these constricted channels are found to be in quantitative agreement with experimental results once the aspect ratio reaches a value of $\alpha\geq40$ and capillary numbers below $Ca\leq 0.012$. The same evolution of the bifurcation scenario between multiple modes is found, however, it occurs for decreasing values of occlusion height as the value of aspect ratio is increased that the system exhibits sensitivity to small but finite depth-variations. The numerical simulations reveal multiple-tipped unstable symmetric solutions which interact with the single symmetric mode at vanishing occlusion heights resulting in stabilisation of the asymmetric and oscillatory modes. Moreover, deviations from the single symmetric mode are predicted when depth-variations of order of the roughness of the channel walls ($\sim 1$ $\mu$m) are introduced for larger aspect ratios of $\alpha\geq 155$. The propagation of finite bubbles is studied in a channel with constant aspect ratio of $\alpha=30$ and where the height of the occlusion, termed rail, is $1/40$ of the channel height. For bubble diameters of the order of the rail width, a tongue-shaped stability boundary for symmetric (on-rail) propagation is encountered so that for flow rates marginally larger than a critical value, a narrow band of bubble sizes can propagate (stably) over the rail while bubbles of other sizes segregate to the side of the rail. The numerical depth-averaged model is adapted for bubble propagation and captures in qualitative agreement the experimental observations. Time-dependent calculations are additionally performed, showing that on-rail bubble propagation is the result of a non-trivial dynamical interaction between capillary and viscous forces.
143

Two-phase flow properties upscaling in heterogeneous porous media

Franc, Jacques 18 January 2018 (has links) (PDF)
The groundwater specialists and the reservoir engineers share the same interest in simulating multiphase flow in soil with heterogeneous intrinsic properties. They also both face the challenge of going from a well-modeled micrometer scale to the reservoir scale with a controlled loss of information. This upscaling process is indeed worthy to make simulation over an entire reservoir manageable and stochastically repeatable. Two upscaling steps can be defined: one from the micrometer scale to the Darcy scale, and another from the Darcy scale to the reservoir scale. In this thesis, a new second upscaling multiscale algorithm Finite Volume Mixed Hybrid Multiscale Methods (Fv-MHMM) is investigated. Extension to a two-phase flow system is done by weakly and sequentially coupling saturation and pressure via IMPES-like method.
144

Experimental and CFD simulation investigations into fouling reduction by gas-liquid two-phase flow for submerged flat sheet membranes

Ndinisa, Nkosinathi Vincent, Chemical Sciences & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Submerged flat sheet membranes are mostly used in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment. The major problems for these modules are concentration polarization and subsequent fouling. By using gas-liquid two-phase flow, these problems can be ameliorated. This thesis aimed to optimize the use of gas-liquid two-phase flow as a cleaning mechanism for submerged flat sheet membrane. The effect of various hydrodynamic factors such as airflow rate, nozzle size, nozzle geometry, intermittent bubbling, intermittent filtration, channel gap width, feed concentration and membrane baffles were investigated for model feed materials (yeast suspensions and mixed liquor from activated sludge plants). Insights into mechanisms by which two-phase flow reduces fouling for submerged flat sheet membranes were obtained by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Experiments conducted showed that an optimal airflow rate exists beyond which no further flux enhancement was achieved. Fouling reduction increased with nozzle size at constant airflow. Nozzles of equal surface area but different geometries performed differently in terms of fouling reduction. Bubble size distribution analyses revealed that the percentage of larger bubbles and bubble rise velocities increased with the airflow rate and nozzle size. Thus the results of this study suggest that the effectiveness of two-phase flow depends on the bubble size. CFD simulations revealed that average shear stress on the membrane increased with airflow rate and bubble size and further indicated that an optimal bubble size possible exists. Using intermittent filtration as an operating strategy was found to be more beneficial than continuous filtration. This study also showed the importance of the size of the gap between the submerged flat sheet membranes. Increasing the gap from 7 mm to 14 mm resulted in an increase in fouling by about 40% based on the rate of increase in suction pressure (dTMP/dt). Finally, this is the first study which investigated the effect of baffles in improving air distribution across a submerged flat sheet membrane. It was found that baffles decreased the rate of fouling at least by a factor of 3.0 based on the dTMP/dt data.
145

The two-phase plane turbulent mixing layer / by Duncan Estcourt Ward

Ward, Duncan Estcourt January 1986 (has links)
One microfilm reel (16 mm.) in pocket / Bibliography: leaves 194-201 / xiii, 212, 6 leaves, [9] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. / Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1987
146

Microgravity flow pattern identification using void fraction signals

Valota, Luca 29 August 2005 (has links)
Knowledge of the two-phase flow state is fundamental for two-phase flow system design and operation. In traditional two-phase flow studies, the flow regime refers to the physical location of the gas and liquid in a conduit. Flow configuration is important for engineering correlations of heat and mass transfer, pressure drop, and wall shear. However, it is somewhat subjective since it is mostly defined by experimental observation, resulting in an approximate and equivocal definition. Thus, there is need for a better, objective flow regime identification. The void fraction is a key parameter in monitoring the operating state of a two-phase system and several tools have been developed in order to measure it. The purpose of this study is to use the void fraction and other parameters of the system to achieve a model for flow pattern identification. Recently, an experimental program using the Foster-Miller two-phase flow test bed and Creare Inc. capacitance void fraction sensors was conducted in the microgravity environment of the NASA KC-135 aircraft. Several data types were taken for each phase, such as flow rate, superficial velocity, density and transient void fraction at 100Hz. Several analytical approaches were pursued, including a statistical approach of the fluctuation of the void fraction, Martinelli analysis, and Drift Flux analysis, in order to reach a model for flow pattern identification in microgravity conditions. Several parameters were found to be good flow pattern identifiers such as the statistical moments variance and skewness, Signal -to- noise ratio (SNR), Half Height Value (HHV) and Linear Area Difference (LAD). Moreover, relevant conclusions were achieved using the Martinelli parameter and the Drift Flux model in microgravity conditions. These results were compared with the basic literature.
147

Investigation of Two-phase Microchannel Flow and Phase Equilibria in Micro Cells for Applications to Enhanced Oil Recovery

Foroughi, Hooman 21 August 2012 (has links)
The viscous oil-water hydrodynamics in a microchannel and phase equilibria of heavy oil and carbon dioxide gas have been investigated in connection with the enhanced recovery of heavy oil from petroleum reservoirs. The oil-water flow was studied in a circular microchannel made of fused silica with an I.D. of 250 µm. The viscosity of the silicone oil (863 mPa.sec) was close to that of the gas-saturated heavy oil in reservoirs. The channel was always initially filled with the oil. Two different sets of experiments were conducted: continuous oil-water flow and immiscible displacement of oil by water. For the case of continuous water and oil injection, different types of liquid-liquid flow patterns were identified and a flow pattern map was developed based on Reynolds, Capillary and Weber numbers. Also, a simple correlation for pressure drop of the two phase system was developed. In the immiscible displacement experiments, the water initially formed a core-annular flow pattern, i.e. a water core surrounded by a viscous oil film. The initially symmetric flow became asymmetric with time as the water core shifted off centre and also the waves at the oil-water interface became asymmetric. A linear stability analysis for core-annular flow was also performed. A characteristic equation which predicts the growth rate of perturbations as a function of the core radius, Reynolds number, and viscosity and density ratios of the two phases was developed. Also, two micro cells for gas solubility measurements in oils were designed and constructed. The blind cell had an internal volume of less than 2 ml and the micro glass cell had a volume less than 100 µl. By minimizing the cell volume, measurements could be made more quickly. The CO2 solubility was determined in bitumen and ashphaltene-free bitumen samples to show that ashphaltene has a negligible effect on CO2 solubility.
148

A general theory of flooding implementing the cuspoid catastrophe

Lafi, Abd Y. 06 June 1990 (has links)
The flooding phenomenon can be defined as the maximum attainable flow condition beyond which the well defined countercurrent flow pattern can no longer exist. Thus the countercurrent flow limit (CCFL) or the flooding limit may be thought of as the flow condition at which the strong interaction between the two phases occurs. Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding and analyzing the flooding transition in many fields. For example; the flooding phenomenon is one of the important phenomena encountered in the safety analysis of light water reactors (pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors). Accurate predictions of flooding behavior are particularly important in the assessment of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performance. Currently, the postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is considered the design basis accident. A physical understanding of the flooding phenomenon will help assess core refill during the course of a LOCA. Understanding the physical mechanisms of the flooding phenomenon might help establish more reliable equations and correlations which accurately describe the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. The models can provide best-estimate capability to the design codes used in the evaluation of ECCS performance. The primary concern of this study was to: 1. Understand the physical mechanisms involved in the flooding phenomenon in order to derive a suitable analytical model. 2. Show that the combination of: a. Linear Instability Theory b. Kinematic Wave Theory c. Catastrophe Theory can provide a general model for flooding phenomenon. The theoretical model derived using the aforementioned combination of theories indicates good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. Comparisons have been made using a large volume of air-water flooding data. / Graduation date: 1991
149

Investigation of Two-phase Microchannel Flow and Phase Equilibria in Micro Cells for Applications to Enhanced Oil Recovery

Foroughi, Hooman 21 August 2012 (has links)
The viscous oil-water hydrodynamics in a microchannel and phase equilibria of heavy oil and carbon dioxide gas have been investigated in connection with the enhanced recovery of heavy oil from petroleum reservoirs. The oil-water flow was studied in a circular microchannel made of fused silica with an I.D. of 250 µm. The viscosity of the silicone oil (863 mPa.sec) was close to that of the gas-saturated heavy oil in reservoirs. The channel was always initially filled with the oil. Two different sets of experiments were conducted: continuous oil-water flow and immiscible displacement of oil by water. For the case of continuous water and oil injection, different types of liquid-liquid flow patterns were identified and a flow pattern map was developed based on Reynolds, Capillary and Weber numbers. Also, a simple correlation for pressure drop of the two phase system was developed. In the immiscible displacement experiments, the water initially formed a core-annular flow pattern, i.e. a water core surrounded by a viscous oil film. The initially symmetric flow became asymmetric with time as the water core shifted off centre and also the waves at the oil-water interface became asymmetric. A linear stability analysis for core-annular flow was also performed. A characteristic equation which predicts the growth rate of perturbations as a function of the core radius, Reynolds number, and viscosity and density ratios of the two phases was developed. Also, two micro cells for gas solubility measurements in oils were designed and constructed. The blind cell had an internal volume of less than 2 ml and the micro glass cell had a volume less than 100 µl. By minimizing the cell volume, measurements could be made more quickly. The CO2 solubility was determined in bitumen and ashphaltene-free bitumen samples to show that ashphaltene has a negligible effect on CO2 solubility.
150

The thermocapillary flow effects on a free surface deformation during solidification

Chan, Cheng-Yu 28 July 2010 (has links)
This study uses the Phase-field method to simulate the transient thermal current of the metal surface heated and molten by a massing energy. The flow field uses a two-dimension module, considered with the mass conservation equation, momentum equation, energy equation and level-set equation, to solve for the distribution in whole domain, including the interface, of temperature, velocity, pressure and level-set number. We ignore the effect of concentration diffusion, but consider about the effect of heat translation on the flow field. Finally the results will display the flows of air around molten area forced by buoyancy which is caused by high temperature, and the flows in molten area forced by thermocapillary which is caused by temperature gradient.

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