The aim of this study was to measure the effects of video self-modelling on three children with dog fears aged between 7 and 13 years old. The study also aimed to teach these three children appropriate dog safety techniques and dog body language identification skills which they could use in everyday life. All three participants were recruited through school newsletters. The three participants attended two meetings with the researcher to discuss their dog fears and what they wanted to achieve from taking part in the study. Videos of each participant were then created to depict the participants being within the same environment as a dog while acting calm and displaying coping skills. Participants were also given hypothetical scenarios of where they may encounter a dog and were asked to rate their fear level. A book was created to teach the participants how to read a dog’s body language and how to behave around dogs. Participants viewed their videos and read their books for two weeks. They then went back to the same setting of the video with a real life dog and were asked to rate their fear levels for the same hypothetical scenarios. Results showed an overall decrease in reported fear levels in two of the three participants, with the third participants showing variable fear levels. It can be concluded that the video along with the book had positive effects on the participants’ fear levels and knowledge about dog behaviour. One major limitation of this study is whether the video or the book alone or a combination of both was responsible for the participants’ results and behaviour changes.
Being able to read at a fluent rate has many advantages to the individual in both educational and wider social contexts throughout life. To be a fluent reader means that the individual can sustain high accuracy while reading at a rate appropriate to the material and the setting, and implies the development of automaticity in the cognitive processes involved in reading. Fluency has not, however, been the focus of much research. In this study an observational learning technique - feedforward video self modelling (FFVSM) - was used to improve children’s reading fluency. Eleven primary school children aged between 72 and 108 months, 4 girls and 7 boys, viewed edited video footage of themselves seemingly reading a difficult text at a fluent rate six times over a two week period. The results showed that the majority of the children improved their reading fluency, comprehension and accuracy, as well as their reader self-perception (a proxy measure of self-efficacy). These positive results suggest that FFVSM could be a rapid, cost effective intervention to be used within educational settings to promote fluent reading.
An investigation into the effects of video self-modelling on the fear responses of children with autism.Mulholland, Jordan January 2015 (has links)
The aim of this project is to establish whether video self-modelling is an effective approach in decreasing fear responses in children with ASD aged between five and 15 years. Participants were recruited through a flyer that was posted in the Autism New Zealand Canterbury newsletter and the Autism in New Zealand Facebook page. Three participants were recruited who were aged 11 to 12 years, who had a diagnosis of ASD and a fear. This study used a single-case, AB design replicated across the three participants. The participants met with the researcher to discuss their fear and what the study entailed. Baseline measures were obtained and videos were created to depict the child being in the same environment as their feared stimulus. Participants watched their videos for a two-week period then the baseline measures were repeated twice. Two out of the three participants showed some increase in steps achieved in their fear hierarchies. A similar pattern was found with the self-reported levels of fear, one participant showed a decrease in post intervention measure, the second showed variability and the third was not able to complete the intervention due to his extreme fear response. The results of this study reflect some of the literature, which suggest that while VSM can result in rapid learning, in some cases it may not work for all participants and individual differences can account for some of this variability. Due to the variation in the results and individual differences, it is difficult to determine the effects of this type of intervention for fears and phobias in children with ASD. Limitations on this study included the number of participants, as a larger number would have provided more data on the effects of VSM for different participants and the amount of time that was allocated to complete the study.
Using Video Modelling and Video Self-Modelling to Teach a Group of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities to Make Point of Sales Electronic TransactionsDanna, Kate January 2015 (has links)
The ability to make purchases in community settings is highly advantageous as it allows individuals freedom of choice and the ability to function within their own community. Independence and autonomy is especially important for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID’s), however prerequisite knowledge of money concepts required for making cash purchases may be too complex for individuals with cognitive challenges. The use of EFTPOS cards to make purchases is a comparatively easy process with limited prerequisite skills required therefore, is an ideal starting point for teaching purchasing skills to individuals with cognitive challenges. Video modelling (VM) and video self-modelling (VSM) procedures have shown to be effective and efficient instructional techniques for teaching various skills to individuals with ID’s however, research on the effectiveness and efficiency of these procedures with individuals with Down syndrome (DS) or with EFTPOS purchases is minimal. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of VM and VSM interventions in teaching independent EFTPOS purchasing skills to 6 young adults with DS using a non-concurrent within-participant design. The results indicates that both VM and VSM interventions were effective and efficient as all 6 participants exhibited increases in task acquisition with the introduction of the intervention, and 5 of the 6 were able to consistently use their EFTPOS cards to purchase chosen items throughout intervention and follow-up generalisation probes (2 weeks postintervention). Therefore, this study suggests both VM and VSM may be equally effective for teaching young adults with DS EFTPOS purchasing skills in community stores.
Gilchrist, Elizabeth Marie Cleland
Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA) arises from the real or anticipated performance of an oral presentation. People with PSA experience an increase in Heart Rate (HR), negative self- focused thoughts and observable behaviours such as, trembling or non-fluent speech. In this study Video Self-Modelling (VSM), an intervention based on observational learning, was used to increase performance fluency and decrease cognitive, behavioural, and physiological anxiety. Ten high school students with high PSA participated from an English class in a New Zealand school. Video self-models were created for each student through editing to depict confident speaking and then viewed by the students 5 to 8 times over a fortnight. Results indicated from pre-intervention to post-intervention that all students decreased their level of behavioural anxiety. Seven of the ten students decreased their level of self-reported speech anxiety and six students self-reported more positive thoughts about public speaking. There was a decrease in HR for two of the four students, who wore HR monitors during the study. These results suggest that VSM could be used as an intervention, within a high school setting, to reduce anxiety and improve public speaking performance.
Enhancing oral comprehension and emotional recognition skills in children with autism: A comparison of video self modelling with video peer modellingKoretz, Jasmine May January 2007 (has links)
Video modelling has been shown to be an effective intervention with autistic individuals as it takes into account autistic characteristics of those individuals. Research on video self modelling and video peer modelling with this population has shown both are effective. The purpose of this study was to replicate past findings that video modelling is an effective strategy for autistic individuals, and to compare video self modelling with video peer modelling, to determine which is more effective. The studies here used multiple baselines with alternating treatments designs with 6 participants across two target behaviours; emotional recognition and oral comprehension. The first compared the video modelling methods and found neither method increased the target behaviours to criterion, for 5 out of the 6 participants. For 1 participant the criterion was only reached for the video self modelling condition for the target behaviour 'oral comprehension'. The second study first examined the effectiveness of video self modelling and video peer modelling with supplementary assistance for 4 participants. Second, it examined a new peer video for a 5th participant, and third, it compared the two video modelling methods (with supplementary assistance). Results indicated 1 participant reached the criterion in both video modelling conditions, 1 participant showed improvements and 2 participants never increased responding. This study indicated that clarity of speech produced by the peer participant in the peer video, may have contributed to a participant's level of correct responding. This is because a new peer video used during the second study dramatically increased this participants responding. Intervention fidelity, generalisation and follow-up data were examined. Measures of intervention fidelity indicated procedural reliability. Generalisation was unsuccessful across three measures and follow-up data indicated similar trends to intervention. Only video self modelling effects remained at criterion during follow-up. Results are discussed with reference to limitations, future research and implications for practice.
Maguire, James Vincent
Individuals with dyslexia have an unexpected difficulty learning to read. This difficulty produces other effects, such as poor reading attitudes, meaning many choose not to read. Reading is a valuable source of information and entertainment, therefore individuals with dyslexia require better reading support. This study attempted to develop an intervention to improve reading attitudes using video self-modelling (VSM). VSM involves individuals watching carefully created videos of themselves correctly performing target behaviours. During this 1 month intervention, 14 participants (13 male and 1 female) aged 9-14 who had dyslexia were asked to watch a weekly video of themselves silently reading one of four types of material: academic digital, academic print, recreational digital or recreational print. The participants’ reading attitudes and ability were measured before and after the intervention using the Survey of Adolescent Reading Attitudes and the Wide Range Achievement Test–Fourth Edition, respectively. Their reading habits and affect while reading (as a proxy measure of reading attitudes) were monitored during the intervention using a daily reading diary. This study did not detect any systematic or reliable changes in reading habits, affect while reading, reading attitudes and reading skills. This may have been due to limitations in the procedure, or it is possible that VSM cannot affect attitudes and that reading attitudes alone do not have a strong influence on ability. Consequently, future research should use VSM to help individuals with dyslexia by focusing on specific reading skills, such as phonological awareness.
The effects of using video self-modelling and an IPad application on self-efficacy and acquisition of basic math skills in Year 5 studentsTechaphulphol, Kanta January 2014 (has links)
This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of video self-modelling (VSM) and the iPad application (Fast Fact Math, FFM) interventions on a group of Year 5 students to increase their knowledge of basic number facts. This study also aimed to measure the intervention group’s self-efficacy levels (Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales, PALS) before and following the interventions. Participants were drawn from a decile 9 primary school in a suburban area (teaches Year 1 to Year 6). The Test (pre-, mid-, and post-test phases) were administered by a class teacher to all Year 5 students. Following consultation with the teacher, eight students whose scores fell below the 25th percentile were invited to participate in the study. The intervention group took a specific level test to ascertain their basic number facts performance on all four operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division). The videos and the FFM app were personalised to each intervention group’s members in an effort to elicit from the errors that they made on specific level test. At the completion of each intervention sessions, session probes were conducted. Meanwhile, the researcher gave a self-efficacy test (PALS) to the participants before and following intervention phases. Results showed that, although more than half of the intervention group increased their basic number fact performance level following the interventions, their overall self-efficacy rating on PALS did not change. Results also showed that VSM is a time-efficient and rapid learning method to use with the intervention group as opposed to the iPad app, which took two times longer to complete a session. Further areas of study are suggested.
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