19 December 2012
Current approaches to sex trafficking appear to be neither very successful in stopping sex trafficking nor, more importantly, very effective in helping those women for whom it is intended. Rather, the overwhelming focus on the issue of prostitution obscures the more fundamental issue of providing relevant assistant to trafficked women. The theoretical debates among academics and feminist activists do not delve sufficiently deep enough into this issue, while the policy discussions and the resulting international policy reflect the moral positions of abolitionist activists and policy-makers regarding the unacceptability of prostitution as a legitimate income-generating activity— a debate that is distinct from the issue of sex trafficking. I will argue that existing national anti-sex trafficking policies in India and Nepal, the regional policy for the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation, and the United Nations Trafficking Protocol are ineffective because they reflect an association of sex trafficking with prostitution. A more effective policy would dissociate sex trafficking from moral judgments about prostitution. This can be accomplished by applying a feminist ethic of care as a methodology and as a political practice. Trafficked women emerge from a context of complex life histories and decision-making processes. Anti-sex trafficking governance structures are meant to provide care for trafficked women. As a methodology, an ethic of care would employ a critical moral ethnography to distill the experiences and articulated needs of trafficked women in order to show whether this is being accomplished and, if not, why. As a political practice, it can use the information that its methodology necessitates to provide guidance on how these governance structures might best be designed to provide care for trafficked women.
Pimpin' ain't easy? : the lives of pimps involved in street prostitution in the United States of AmericaDavis, Holly Rebecca January 2014 (has links)
The pimp serves as an iconic ghetto hero who stands in street cultures as a figure that represents defiance, anti-establishment angst, and victorious criminality (Funches & Marriott 2002; Horton-Stallings, 2003). The American pimp has been brought into mainstream American culture through 1960’s literature, 1970’s Blaxploitation films, 1980’s hip hop and more recently, documentaries, films, books, music and television. The word ‘pimp’ has found its way into mainstream usage and popular caricatures of the pimp can be found in everything from Halloween costumes to ‘pimp and ho’ themed college parties. Despite being highly visible within mainstream culture, this character is still enigmatic as pimps are an underresearched population. Thus this thesis aims to uncover and unveil the lives and experiences of pimps involved in illegal prostitution to produce a more panoramic understanding of prostitution and an unexplored segment of major players within it. This thesis investigates the experiences and narratives of pimps involved in illegal, predominately street, prostitution in the USA. This research project stands to offer in-depth insight into the experiences of pimps in the United States within this unique subcultural context. In order to fill that literature gap, this research interviewed pimps and gathered data that explored how and why individuals become pimps, their personal histories, how they maintain their position as pimps, how pimps pimp, and the motivations for exit and/or retirement from The Game (the world of prostitution and pimping). More than just a managerial position, the role of the pimp also embraces a lifestyle with special rules, fashions and activities that create a unique and complex underground, criminal community. Rather than just presenting pimps as violent exploiters or ghetto heroes, this thesis examined the language of pimping, their orientation to their roles, the relationship between pimping and the surrounding communities and mainstream society, and explored this criminal career as a social role as well as career. With their childhood experiences of life in American ghettos leading to regular exposure to pimps and favorable impressions of illicit, underground careers, respondents came to ‘choose’ pimping as their career trajectory in their teens. Once dedicated to becoming pimps, many pimps underwent training with older pimps and later gained acceptance within the street community to earn their positions and status as pimps. When established within The Game, they started to practice ‘pimpology’ (pimp ideology) and to firmly establish their skills and methods of pimping. Two substantive chapters within this thesis are dedicated to addressing pimpology: pimpology covers the core processes, social connections and methods of management that are vital for a pimps success and survival in The Game. The aim of these chapters is to explore how pimps function as individuals, with the women who work for them, within their peer networks, and within their communities while they are actively pimping. And finally, exit from pimping will be explored. Issues such as age, exhaustion, family, health, drug addiction, trauma, imprisonment, law enforcement crackdowns and social betrayal all also act as further incentives for pimps to ‘hang up their pimp hat.’ This research has uncovered new themes and trends within the narratives of this hidden, underground subcultural population and offers great insights into the ‘career cycles’ of pimps. This project stands to fill a major gap within prostitution research as current literature lacks the perspectives and voices of pimps themselves. Within this research, a nuanced approach offers a unique view of the pimp and their complex roles and relationships within The Game. As an understudied population, pimps have rarely been the focus of academic inquiry; thus this research stands to contribute new perspectives, insights and data on a population that has remained enigmatic and well hidden from academic exploration for decades.
Human Trafficking: the Gap between International regulation and Enforcement / Human Trafficking: the Gap between International Regulation and EnforcementLeech, Tasha Nicole January 2014 (has links)
The goal of this thesis is to provide insight as to why the number of trafficking cases and convictions is still relatively low compared to the total volume of trafficking occurring, even though the trade is increasingly addressed by international law. Through a study of trafficking itself, a summary of current international legislation, and an analysis of the implementation of said legislation this thesis will show that the gap between legislation and enforcement can be partially accounted for by a widespread failure by states to adequately address the demand for trafficked persons in their national legislation. While this is far from a complete explanation of the problem it is an important piece of the puzzle.
Getting out: A Qualitative Exploration of the Exiting Experience Among Former Sex Workers and Adult Sex Trafficking VictimsJanuary 2014 (has links)
abstract: Sexual exploitation is a problem faced by women victimized by sex trafficking and are involved in the commercial sex industry as a result of limited employment options. Negative consequences associated with engaging in sex work in the United States include violent victimization, physical and mental health problems, addiction, isolation from positive social support, and economic instability. These consequences make exiting difficult, and recently Baker, Williamson, and Dalla (2010) created an integrated prostitution exiting model to help explain the exiting process, accounting for the impact of these consequences and identifying the role that failed exiting attempts play in leading women to a final exit. Currently, much remains unknown regarding the usefulness of the model and researchers have yet to explore the process of exiting from the perspective of former sex workers. This dissertation examines the process of exiting commercial sex work from the perspective of 19 adult women who exited the sex industry and had not engaged in sex work for at least two years. The goal of the study was to compare findings from these interviews to Baker et al.'s (2010) integrated model and to further understand the experience of exiting sex work. A narrative approach to data collection was taken (Wells, 2011), and individual interviews were conducted with each participant in order to elicit narratives about their experiences exiting sex work. A phenomenological approach was utilized to analyze the data (van Manen, 1990), and five overarching themes encompassing 21 subthemes emerged as key findings. Many of these themes supported the stages of Baker et al.'s (2010) model, including the experience of becoming disillusioned with the prostitution lifestyle as a precursor to successfully exiting, the likelihood that women will attempt to exit and then re-enter sex work a number of times before finally exiting, and the presence of specific barriers that inhibited the exiting process. Additional themes emerged, offering new information about the importance of involving former sex workers in treatment, the role that children, customers, and other relationships play in helping or hindering the exiting process, and the development of resiliency among women undergoing the exiting process. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Social Work 2014
abstract: Male victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking have been neglected in research literature, and little is known about the experiences of male victims of sex trafficking and sex trading. This research study aims to explore the experiences of male sex trafficking and sex trading in a large urban southwestern city to identify incidences, available resources, and needed services for male sex traders. Research was conducted at a drop-in center for homeless youth ages 18-24 in a large urban city in the southwest. A total of 13 males between the ages of 18 and 24 were interviewed. The results of this study revealed that male sex trafficking does exist among the homeless youth population, that childhood sexual victimization appears to be a precursor to sex trading later in life, that there are limited resources for males that participate in sex trading, and that more research needs to be done within this population. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Social Work 2014
17 October 2014
This thesis is a content analysis of news about sex trafficking published in the US from 2001 to 2013. The focus of the research is the portrayal of sex traffickers in the news. The project discovered that in the news, the public image of sex traffickers is overwhelmingly people of color who are described to be violent, deceptive and forcible. In addition, sex traffickers are portrayed to make sense of the simplistic representation of powerless female trafficking victims. The portrayal of sex traffickers in the news is simplistic and is driven by the state's response to sex trafficking: punishment of sex traffickers.
01 June 2016
This qualitative study sought to explore the personal experiences of those who have been victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking (DMST), the challenges they faced as they transitioned into survivors, and the factors they attributed to their resiliency. DMST victims are among the marginalized populations enduring social injustices within our communities. Social workers seek to serve these individuals, and yet they are just one part of the system of helping professionals that will encounter these victims. The interactions that DMST victims have with each entity of the system makes a difference in the recovery process as they become a survivor. Much of the research that had previously been conducted focused on the therapist’s perspective of DMST as experienced through their own therapeutic relationships with the victims. In contrast, the primary goal of this research was to focus on the perspective of those who had been victims of DMST so those in the helping professions can more effectively help these individuals. In order to achieve such goals it is essential to build a foundation of knowledge. This involves providing educational aspects to understand the scope of the problem and the dynamics of the trafficking relationship. In the case of this research, the victims themselves provide the knowledge that was gained through their participation. In addition, the research participants were able to express their perspective of both effective and ineffective aspects of their recovery, as well as what modifications could be made to improve the experiences of those who have been DMST victims in the process of becoming a survivor. Despite the differences in the experiences of the participants, this research revealed major themes in terms of dysfunctional family dynamics in childhood, a lack of recognition of the signs of trafficking, a lack of appropriate recovery services, and provided insight into helpful strategies that could be implemented to improve the process as these individuals transition from victim to survivor. The personal experiences within the specific themes and categories provide beneficial knowledge for those involved in the helping professions as they encounter victims of DMST.
McDonald, Lora Ann
01 January 2018
Human trafficking is a transnational crime that allows traffickers to abuse victims physically and mentally, as well as stripping them of their human rights. The United Nations theory of human security and Mendelsohn's theory of victimology provided a conceptual framework to examine the harm that people endure from human trafficking. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explain how human trafficking threatens the security of people and communities. Reviewing data from the Department of State concerning trafficking led to the investigation of youth exploitation, the use of technology in advancing the growth of human trafficking, the health concerns of victims of communities, and the possible uses of money made by traffickers. The primary guiding question for this study asked, "How does human trafficking threaten the safety of people who live in communities and the security of those communities throughout the United States? Data were collected from articles and current information published by government agencies, news media, and non-governmental organizations. Data were analyzed after coding for themes and patterns using Braun and Clarke's 6-step thematic analysis procedure. Findings indicate that victims live in fear, have lost their lives, are operating in plain sight but not recognized as victims, and endanger people living in local communities. The implications for positive social change include recommendations for collaboration among all stakeholders at the local level where traffickers operate in vulnerable communities, increase training of local law enforcement and healthcare personnel in identifying victims properly, and the development of awareness programs that reach people in local communities.
Pierce, Howard Wilson
01 January 2017
Human sex trafficking is a significant issue in the modern world. The International Labor Organization has estimated that 4.5 million people are the victims of forced commercial sexual exploitation worldwide. The United States' laws on human sex trafficking can be found in 22 U.S.C. -§7104 Prevention of Trafficking, and promulgate the strategy of prevention of trafficking, protection of trafficking victims, and punishment of traffickers. Under the terms of 22 U.S.C. -§7104, federal contractors can be penalized if any of their employees or subcontractor employees engage in a commercial sex act. The reliance on the private sector to curb sex trafficking through federal contracts is a nuance, and there is a gap in the literature regarding the Congressional rationale for creating a federal contract policy that places federal contractors in the position of being liable for the off-duty activities of their employees. This research question focused on understanding this shift in usage of federal contract policy to influence individual behavior expressed in this Act. A content analysis of documents was performed which relied on official U.S. government documentation, including transcripts of Congressional hearings. The findings indicate that the legislation was a tactical response to a pair of scandals involving U.S. personnel overseas, combined with a belief in money as a motivating force, international political factors, and moral certainty among elected officials that the Federal Government had to 'do something.' Positive social change was addressed in the process of this study by providing greater insight into the legislative thought process regarding federal procurement related statutes, and by providing future reformers with additional information regarding effective legislative strategies.
04 November 2020
Although human trafficking was not a new concept, it gained increased attention across the United States and Canada in the first two decades of the 21st century. To better understand the Canadian anti-trafficking movement, this thesis analyzed the discourse on the topic in six local and national daily newspapers between 2008 and 2018. The goal of this thesis was to investigate the emergence of human trafficking as a social problem. Using social constructionism as a point of departure, a critical discourse analysis was conducted in NVivo of the quotes made by human trafficking experts in Canadian media. The results of this analysis suggest that an Unofficial Christian Coalition emerged in Canada, which – assisted by the media – led a moral crusade against human trafficking and pushed for the adoption of restrictive sex work legislation in Canada.
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