Gresham, Anne Ellen
01 January 2015
Human trafficking, domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST), and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are complex and multifaceted occurrences in the United States. As the numbers of youth ensnared in sexually exploitive situations increase, organizations and communities are called upon to address the ramifications of this abuse; little research was located, however, that examined collaborative networks and partnerships that address victim identification and mitigation of DMST and CSEC. The purpose of this qualitative single case study was to determine whether strategic partnerships existed within the community under investigation. The theoretical framework was environmental theory, as first described by Florence Nightingale; the conceptual framework was centered on collaborative networks. Research questions focused on victim identification and organizational strategies for collaboration and mitigation of sex trafficking. The research population was composed of 8 individuals working in organizations in a metropolitan area on the West Coast that served victims of DMST and CSEC. Data obtained from interviews were coded, compared, and analyzed for major and emergent themes. Findings indicated that, in the effort to identify victims, these 8 individuals needed to consider all children involved in prostitution as victims and not criminals. Further, their efforts toward mitigation needed to center on widespread education across the broader social spectrum of the issues with DMST and CSEC. These workers identified strategies identified to address DMST and CSEC included the "5 Ps": prevention, protection, prosecution, partnership, and policy. These findings may inform organizations and policy makers about how to make informed decisions about the needs and challenges of addressing sexually exploited youth.
THE FIGHT AGAINST COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF MINORS EXAMINING NGO AND GOVERNMENT COLLABORATIONS IN COSTA RICA. WHAT CAN WE LEARN?Lövstedt, Sara January 2015 (has links)
Kommersiell Sexuell Exploatering av Barn (KSEB) är ett ökande globalt problem,vilket är särskilt tydligt utvecklingsländer med en växande turistnäring. CostaRica har gjort omfattande insatser i det förebyggande arbetet mot dessa brott, menstudier visar att dessa ansträngningar är otillräckliga, särskilt rörande hjälpinsatsertill offer. KSEB har fått betydande uppmärksamhet under de senaste åren ochfrivilligorganisationer har anslutit sig till kampen mot dessa brott. Syftet meddenna studie är att förstå de nuvarande utmaningarna som frivilligorganisationeroch Costa Ricas regering står inför, i kampen att hjälpa offren och bekämpaKSEB, samt att undersöka samarbetet mellan Costa Ricas regering ochfrivilligorganisationer som arbetar för att förhindra dessa brott. Dessa frågor harbesvarats genom kvalitativa intervjuer med frivilligorganisationer och statligaorganisationer under en fältstudie i Costa Rica. Resultaten visar att det störstahindret i kampen mot KSEB är bristen på medvetenhet om förekomsten av dessabrott tillsammans med finansiella hinder i det förebyggande arbetet. Resultatrörande hindren av hjälp till offer visar att diskrepanser på hur hjälpen skaförmedlas är det allvarligaste problemet. Utöver detta saknas det fungerandeåteranpassningsprogram. När det gäller samarbete, visar resultaten attkommunikationen och samarbetet totalt sett är tillfredsställande. Det finns dock entydlig brist på organisatorisk samordning och resultaten visar att regeringen ärovetande om de frivilligorganisationer i landet som arbetar med att förhindradessa brott, vilket utpekades som ett stort hinder för samarbetet. / Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) is an increasing global issue, which is especially evident in developing countries with growing tourist industries. Costa Rica has made extensive efforts in the prevention work against these crimes, however, there is evidence that these efforts are insufficient, especially in terms of assisting victims. CSEC has received substantial attention over the last few years and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) has joined the fight against these crimes. The aim of this study is to understand the current challenges NGOs and the government is facing in helping victims and combatCSEC, as well as to investigate the collaboration between the Costa Ricangovernment and NGOs who work within counter-trafficking departments. Byusing a qualitative approach during a field study in Costa Rica, the questions ofissue has been answered by interviewing NGOs and government officials abouttheir experiences. The results show that the largest obstacle in combating CSEC isthe lack of awareness about the prevalence of these crimes along with financialstruggles in the prevention work. Moreover, the results regarding challenges inhelping victims was embedded in discrepancies on how to assist the victims,along with a lack of reintegration programs. Regarding collaboration, the resultsshow that the communications and collaboration is overall satisfying. However,there is a clear lack of organizational coordination and counter-trafficking NGOsare not known to the government, which is pointed out as major challenges interms of collaboration.
Thompson, Chelsea L
01 January 2014
In this thesis, I problematize the United States’ response to the global phenomenon characterized as human trafficking. The framing of trafficking as policy issue takes place in the context of politicized claims about the nature and prevalence of trafficking, its relation to the sex industry, and the kind of response that is required. U.S. anti-trafficking policy was built and shaped in the context of fears about immigration, global labor, and the sex industry. As a result, trafficking has been used to justify oppressive domestic reactions such as border crackdown, scrutiny of immigrant and sex worker communities, and victim “protection” that barely differs from prosecution. The United States has also leveraged anti-trafficking measures such as the policy prescriptions in the Trafficking in Persons Report and sanctions for countries that fall in the bottom tier to build a global response to trafficking that suits the hegemony of the United States rather than the needs of vulnerable populations. Through the government-subsidized “rescue industry”—an army of U.S.-based NGO’s and humanitarian groups—the United States has effectively exported an imperialistic response to trafficking based on Christian ethics and neoliberal economics around the world. These policies are distinctly out of touch with the experiences and needs of the supposed “victims of trafficking,” those attempting to survive at the bottom of global capitalist labor markets. As a result, I characterize anti-trafficking as a form of structural violence, and emphasize the need for an alternative movement that addresses the actual problems experienced by global laborers and the complicity of the United States in creating the conditions for labor exploitation.
[en] TRAVESTI PROSTITUTION IN BRAZIL: READING AGENCY AND SOVEREIGNTY THROUGH DISSIDENT SEXUALITIES / [pt] PROSTITUIÇÃO TRAVESTI NO BRASIL: LENDO AGÊNCIA E SOBERANIA POR MEIO DE SEXUALIDADES DISSIDENTESAMANDA ALVARES FERREIRA 29 May 2018 (has links)
[pt] Prostituição Travesti no Brasil: lendo agência e soberania por meio de sexualidades dissidentes investiga as subjetividades marginalizadas de travestis no contexto brasileiro para analisar discursos no âmbito local e internacional. Conduzo uma crítica de discursos sobre tráfico sexual e prostituição, apontando para a naturalização de normas de gênero que impedem o entendimento sobre experiências que excedem o binário prostituta versus vítima do tráfico. Para fazê-lo, analiso, por meio de uma perspectiva foucaultiana e queer butleriana, as subjetividades travestis que se constituem justamente no bojo das práticas de prostituição. Proponho, nesta lógica, que essas experiências permitem tanto sua resistência quanto sujeição às regulações de gênero que são legíveis. Por fim, apresento uma crítica à formação de uma sociedade biopolítica no Brasil: apontando que um poder soberano predomina em fazer morrer estes corpos ininteligíveis, para que se permita o fazer viver de subjetividades consideradas normais em termos de gênero, raça e classe. Isso abre a possibilidade de refletir o Estado brasileiro que nega sua queerness ao procurar se adequar aos discursos de homonormatividade e de defesa da comunidade LGBTTQI que surgem no âmbito internacional, mas ainda permite que se exerça um poder soberano sobre corpos transexuais não-ideiais. / [en] Travesti Prostitution in Brazil: reading agency and sovereignty through dissident sexualities investigates the marginalised subjectivities of travestis within the Brazilian context, to analyse discourses both in the local and international realm. I conduct a critique of discourses on sex-trafficking and prostitution, pointing to the naturalisation of gender norms that hinders an understanding of experiences that exceed the binary prostitute versus trafficking victim. To do so, I analyse, through a foucauldian and butlerian queer perspective, travestis subjectivities that constitute themselves precisely in the field of prostitution practices. I propose, therefore, that these experiences allow both resistance and subjection to gender regulations that are legible in the preset society. Finally, I present a critique to the formation of a biopolitical society in Brazil: pointing that a sovereign power predominates in making die these unintelligible bodies, so that subjectivities considered normal in gender, race, and class terms can be made live. This opens the possibility of reflecting on how the Brazilian state denies its queerness as it tries to adequate itself to homonormative speeches, as well as to discourses of defense of LGBTTQI community, that emerge in the international realm, but still allows that a sovereign power is exercised over non-ideal transsexual bodies.
O tráfico internacional de pessoas para fim de exploração sexual e a questão do consentimento / Sex trafficking and the issue of consentThais de Camargo Rodrigues 02 May 2012 (has links)
A presente dissertação, pautada no direito penal mínimo e no princípio da dignidade humana, discorre sobre o tráfico internacional de pessoas para fim de exploração sexual, tendo em vista o consentimento da vítima maior e capaz. Para tanto, foi feita uma análise introdutória do direito penal sexual e da prostituição, buscando identificar o bem jurídico tutelado hodiernamente sem a influência de conteúdo estritamente moral, pois no tráfico de pessoas deve prevalecer a proteção da liberdade sexual. Foram examinados os principais acordos internacionais afeitos à matéria, em especial o Protocolo de Palermo, e também a legislação de países como Alemanha, Portugal, Espanha, Itália, Estados Unidos e Argentina. Neste contexto, fez-se uma leitura crítica da legislação brasileira (mormente o art. 231 do Código Penal), que está em falta com a agenda internacional por se limitar a tutelar o tráfico internacional quando se trata de exploração de índole sexual. Além disso, o dispositivo se mostra falho em sua essência, por não enxergar o tráfico como um fenômeno, um processo delitivo complexo e multifacetado. À ineficácia legislativa se soma a insuficiência das políticas públicas nesta seara para o efetivo enfrentamento do tráfico de pessoas, visando a sua prevenção, punição e também a proteção às vítimas. / This paper which is based on the principles of minimum criminal law and human dignity, talks about the international human trafficking for sexual purposes, considering the consent of the adult and capable victim. For this, a preliminary analysis of the criminal sex and prostitution law was made, in order to identify the legal protected property, without the influence of the strictly moral context, because the protection of sexual freedom shall prevail in human trafficking. This paper also evaluates the more important international treaties with regard to this issue, with special regard to the Palermo Protocol as well as the legislation of countries such as Germany, Portugal, Spain, Italy, United States of America and Argentina. A comparative analyses of the Brazilian law was developed (Article 231 of the Brazilian Criminal Code), concluding that the Brazilian law is more restricted than the international rules, because it legislates that Human trafficking is only for sexual purposes and does not consider any other. Besides that, the aforementioned article has a flaw as it does not consider the traffic as a phenomenon, a complex and multifaceted wrongful process. The inefficient Brazilian legislative process is attributed to the insufficiency of public policies in this area to effectively face human trafficking, focusing on its prevention and punishment as well as the protection of the victims.
Hotell: en distributionskanal för sextrafficking / Hotels: a distrubution channel for sextraffickingHugosson, Jennie, Ahlberg, Madeleine January 2019 (has links)
Vår studie belyser hur hotellverksamheter arbetar med social hållbarhet kopplat till sextrafficking. Studien undersöker hur hotellen arbetar förebyggande mot sextrafficking, vilka utmaningar personalen upplever i verksamheten sett till förebyggandet av sextrafficking samt hur Corporate social responsibility (CSR) används i verksamheten kopplat till sextrafficking. Vårt syfte är att undersöka hur svenska hotellföretag arbetar med ärenden kring sextrafficking i sin verksamhet. För att möjliggöra detta genomförde vi intervjuer med åtta informanter anställda på tre olika hotell. Kriterierna för hotellen var följande: medelstora hotell (100–250 rum), belägna i en stad i mellansverige och att en ansvarig chef kunde ställa upp på expertintervju. Expertinformanten valde en eller flera i personalen från receptionen, restaurangen eller housekeeping som informanter till kvalitativa intervjuer. Huvudbegreppen som lyfts fram är sextrafficking och CSR. Det finns mycket forskning kring sextrafficking och CSR, men dessa fenomen satt i samma kontext alltså hur förebyggande av sextrafficking är en del av CSR visar att en teoretisk lucka finns. Utöver att använda sig av CSR finns olika certifieringar och checklistor som kan underlätta ett förebyggande arbete. Dock är det upp till ledningen eller chefer att implementera dessa arbetssätt för att arbeta mot sextrafficking. Studien visar att hotellen vidtar åtgärder för att förebygga sextrafficking, men det sker på olika nivåer och olika aktivt. Resultatet av studien visar att hotellen letar efter spår i bokningar från externa kanaler när de får en misstanke. Informanterna konstaterar även att personalen agerar på misstänkta fall utifrån den svenska lagen mot sexköp som är en skyddsaspekt för att vidta åtgärder mot sextrafficking. Utmaningar för personalen är olika typer av profilering av gäster, bristen på utbildning, tyst kunskap, och digitalisering som tar bort mötet med gäster. Informanterna belyser att polisen är en viktig resurs samt andra hotellaktörer på platsen. Resultatet visar att hotellen arbetar med CSR och har lokala samarbeten för att förebygga sextrafficking. / Our study highlights how hotels work with social sustainability linked to sex-trafficking. The study examines how the hotels work preventatively against sex-trafficking, what challenges they experience in the business and how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is used in the businesses linked to sextrafficking. The aim of the study is to investigate how Swedish companies in the hotel industry take measures to prevent sex-trafficking of people. To enable this, we conducted interviews with eight respondents employed at three different hotels. The criteria for the selected hotels were as follows: Medium size hotels (100 – 250 rooms), located in a city in central Sweden and that a responsible manager could provide an expert interview. The managers from the expert interviews chose one or more staff from reception, restaurant or housekeeping as respondents to the qualitative interviews. The main concepts highlighted are sex-trafficking and CSR. There is a lot of research on sex-trafficking and CSR as two separate terms, but these phenomena set in the same context show that there is a theoretical gap on how sex trafficking can be prevented as part of CSR. In addition to using CSR, there are different certifications and checklists that can facilitate preventative work. However, it is up to the management or managers to implement these working methods to work against sex trafficking. The study shows that the hotels take measures to prevent sex-trafficking, but it is done at different levels and the work is done differently. The results of the study show that the hotels look for different traces in the bookings coming from external channels. These traces help staff identify suspicions even before the guest arrives. The respondents also note that the Swedish law against sex purchases is a protection aspect to act on suspicious cases. Challenges identified by the companies are different types of profiling of guests, lack of education, tacit knowledge, and digitization that takes away the meeting with guests. The hotels highlight that the police and other hotels on the site are an important resource. The results also show that the hotels work with CSR and have local collaborations to prevent sextrafficking.
Belin, Donna Sue
01 January 2015
In spite of a paradigm shift redefining domestic minors trafficked through prostitution as victims instead of criminal offenders, many police officers experience uncertainty in the way they evaluate the nature of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and assess the culpability status of prostituted minors. This problem often results in revictimizing children and hindering their ability to access needed services. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore police officers' perceptions of minors engaged in prostitution and derive an understanding of the experiences, beliefs, and values that underlie these perceptions. The study also focused on how these factors influence police decision making regarding DMST. Attribution theory provided the framework. Participants included 4 police detectives assigned to a youth sex trafficking unit in a large city in the western region of the United States. Data were derived from individual interviews and significant documents. Coding and category construction were utilized to analyze single cases, and content analysis was used to analyze documents. Through cross-case analysis, data from all cases and sources were examined for common themes and discrepancies. The study's findings indicated all respondents perceived minors involved in prostitution as victims and that police empathy influenced perceptions and police decision making. The results of the study will potentially facilitate positive social change through advancing a deeper awareness of the nature of DMST and informing law enforcement policy and practices.
Iroanya, Richard Obinna
This study examined and analysed human trafficking as a security issue using South Africa and Mozambique as country case studies. Information gathered through documentary analysis methodology is relied upon to develop a conceptual framework of human trafficking and security. The link between trafficking and security is evaluated based on the conceptualisation of trafficking in the Palermo Protocol as well as the criteria for declaring social phenomena security threats, as articulated by the UN and several scholars. Through global and national overviews of human trafficking, its patterns, extent and enabling conditions are identified and analysed. In South Africa and Mozambique, human trafficking has domestic and international dimensions and is facilitated by several factors. However, factors facilitating domestic trafficking do not necessarily facilitate international trafficking in South Africa. The opposite is however, the case in the Mozambican context. An analysis of global, regional, and national counter trafficking measures, shows that the national security implications of human trafficking are not explicitly addressed. Trafficking involves national border violations; organised crime; corruption, and physical violence which have implications for security at all levels. Consequently, recommendations are made for the explicit securitisation of trafficking as well as the demonstration of sufficient political will to combat it. Regional and international co-operation is also considered necessary to combat trafficking, as well as prosecution of offenders and the introduction of poverty alleviating measures. / Thesis (DPhil)--University of Pretoria, 2014. / tm2015 / Political Sciences / DPhil / Unrestricted
Human trafficking is an ever-growing crime in this century. It is estimated that there are 29.8 million slaves around the world today - 16.36% of which are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The sub-Saharan region is a region in which human trafficking is combatted ineffectively due to a lack of food, lack of access to education, lack of post-education opportunities and lack of proper legislation. This thesis explores the environment in which human trafficking is taking place in sub-Saharan Africa, and proposes potential changes that will theoretically disallow human trafficking to take place in the region. The only way in which an environment conducive to trafficking in persons will ever change is through establishing partnerships amongst governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international organizations. Through the analysis of case law from the United Nations Human Trafficking Case Law Database, data from the World Bank, the United States State Department Trafficking in Persons Reports, the United Nations Global Reports on Human Trafficking, and various reports from NGOs, this thesis evaluates the approaches taken by various governments in sub-Saharan Africa to change the environment in which human trafficking thrives. Through raising awareness of the environment of sub-Saharan Africa, and by describing three ways in which human trafficking can be combatted effectively, such as the use of food, education, and the law, this thesis contributes not only to the legal discipline, but also to helping combat trafficking in persons effectively throughout the world. / B.A. / Bachelors / Legal Studies / Health and Public Affairs
SEX TRAFFICKING AND ETHNICITY: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF ETHNIC NETWORKS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR PROSTITUTION IN ITALYMANCUSO, MARINA 24 February 2014 (has links)
Questa tesi ha come scopo quello di investigare la relazione tra etnicità, modalità di commissione del crimine e struttura relazionale di differenti reti etniche coinvolte nella tratta per sfruttamento sessuale. E’ realizzata un’analisi di due reti criminali dell’Africa occidentale e di due dei Balcani mediante l’applicazione di due metodi: la crime script analysis e l’analisi di rete. I risultati ottenuti sono stati uniti per capire come le relazioni tra gli individui sono distribuite all’interno della cornice criminale. Da ultimo, i casi studio sono stati comparati per verificare se esiste una relazione tra etnicità e tratta per sfruttamento sessuale, anche indipendentemente dall’ambito di sfruttamento. I risultati mostrano che l’etnicità ha un impatto sulla tratta per sfruttamento sessuale. In particolare, influenza il modus operandi e le caratteristiche socio-biografiche degli attori che operano nelle reti impegnate nello stesso ambito di sfruttamento. Se sono considerati differenti ambiti di sfruttamento, messi in atto sia dallo stesso che da differenti gruppi etnici, l’etnicità non sembra influenzare né le modalità di commissione del crimine né le caratteristiche dei soggetti. Infatti, anche l’ambito di sfruttamento indoor/outdoor sembra essere rilevante. Al contrario, la struttura relazionale e la relazione tra questa e le modalità di commissione del crimine non sembrano essere influenzate dall’etnicità. / This thesis aims at investigating the relationship among ethnicity, modalities of crime commission and relational structure of different ethnic networks involved in sex trafficking. A case study analysis of two West African and two Balkan networks is carried out by the adoption of two methods: crime script analysis and social network analysis. A merger of the results obtained in these analyses is performed in order to understand how relationships among individuals are distributed within the criminal framework. Finally, the case studies are compared to verify whether a relationship exists between ethnicity and sex trafficking, also apart from the field of exploitation. The results show that ethnicity has an impact on sex trafficking. In particular, it influences modi operandi and the socio-biographical characteristics of the members of the networks operating in the same field of exploitation. If different fields of exploitation are considered, both carried out by same or different ethnic groups, ethnicity appears to affect neither the modalities of crime commission nor the features of the people. Indeed, also the outdoor/indoor exploitation context seems to be relevant. Conversely, the relational structure and the relation between the latter and the modalities of crime commission do not seem to be affected by ethnicity.
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