Actions for Increasing an Organization’s UX Maturity / Handlingar som kan öka en organisations UX-mognadMöller, Josefine January 2018 (has links)
User experience (UX) design is becoming increasingly crucial for developing successful software today. It can determine whether or not users stay engaged with a product or service and it can also affect the time spent completing tasks which can make a large difference to employees when they try to get their job done. It is therefore important that organizations have their users in mind when developing software and that there is a maturity for UX and user-centered work. Since there are organizations where UX is not highly valued and where the maturity for UX is low it is interesting to find out what can be done to increase the UX work within these organizations, which was the aim of this thesis. The problem was addressed by studying a specific organization that expressed difficulty getting UX work to fit in their working routines, partly due to the fact that they were also working with agile software development. The organization’s maturity for UX was evaluated using Nielsen’s UX maturity model which is a model that describes eight different stages of UX maturity. Data was collected through a survey where questions were based on the UX maturity model and was then followed up with five semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the highest level of maturity yet reached within the organization was stage four, where there is a budget and plan for UX in some projects and where some teams have defined UX roles. A lower level of maturity could also be identified for some teams. Based on these findings, actions for how the organization can increase their UX maturity were discussed. These actions were concluded to be: plan for UX, find a way to show UX results, meet with real users, have UX professionals lead the way and structure UX work to fit with agile processes. / Användarupplevelsen (UX) är ytterst viktig vid utvecklingen av framgångrika produkter. En bra användarupplevelse kan vara avgörande för om användaren väljer att fortsätta använda en produkt eller tjänst. Den kan också ha en påverkan på tiden som det tar för en användare att slutföra en uppgift vilket kan göra stor skillnad för effektiviteten hos t.ex. anställda. Det är därför av vikt att system utvecklas med användaren i fokus och att det finns en mognad för UX och användar-centrerat arbete inom organisationer. Eftersom att det finns organisationer där användarupplevelsen inte värderas högt och där UX-mognaden är låg så är det intressant att ta reda på vad som kan göras för att denna UX-mognad ska öka. Målet med den här masteruppsatsen var att ta reda på just det. I det här arbetet studerades en specifik organisation som upplevde svårigheter med att få användar-centrerat arbete att passa ihop med deras övriga arbetsrutiner, bl.a. agil utveckling. Organisationens UX-mognad utvärderades med hjälp utav Nielsens UX-mognads modell som är en modell som beskriver åtta steg av UX-mognad. Data samlades in genom en enkät som var baserad på den här mognadsmodellen samt fem stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultaten visade att den högsta mognadsgraden som hittills hade uppnåtts inom organisationen var steg fyra, där det finns UX-budget och planering för UX i vissa projekt och där vissa team har utnämnda UX-roller. En lägre mognadsgrad kunde även identifieras för vissa team. Baserat på resultaten diskuterades fem stycken handlingar fram som kan bidra till en ökad UX-mognad för organisationen. Dessa handlingar var: planera för UX, hitta sätt att visa UX-resultat, träffa riktiga användare, låt de med UX-kompetens visa vägen samt strukturera UX-arbetet så att det passar med agila arbetsprocesser.
Gillo Nilsson, Catherine, Karlsson, Daniel
The objective of the study was to generate a ‘theory’/ ‘hypothesis’ on the important factors to focus on in implementing agile project methods in globally distributed teams. Using the grounded theory method, five key categories emerged from the so-called theoretical sampling, which entails the joint collection of data, coding and analysis. The study involved 33 individuals in four different companies, three in the Philippines and one in Sweden. The data collected for this thesis consisted of individual interviews in the Philippines and Sweden (Sept-Dec 2014), focus group sessions, observations of formal agile practices and experiences in the substantive area, conducted in the Philippines during the period Sept-Nov 2014. The following five key categories emerged as the main concerns of the individuals involved in implementing agile project methods in globally distributed teams in software development projects: (i) Working Communication, (ii) Self-organizing Teams, (iii) People-centric organization, (iv) Continuous Learning and (v) Sustaining Infrastructure. The respondents meant that these concerns should be addressed and resolved in such a way that the implementation of Agile project methods would resemble the case of a collocated Agile project team. The key categories, their fundamental characteristics and the subconcepts behind them were presented and analyzed in relation to the empirical data.The analysis included reported incidents and direct citations from the respondents, focus groups and from observations during the field study, in order to shed light on the process used to arrive to the categories, as well as explain the characteristics of the concepts in the emerging ‘grounded hypothesis’.
Larusdottir, Marta K.
The objective of this thesis is to obtain knowledge regarding how effective user centred evaluation methods are and how user centred evaluations are conducted by IT professionals. This will be achieved by exploring user centred evaluation in experimental and practical settings. The knowledge gained in these studies should inspire suggestions for further research and suggestions for improvements on the user centred evaluation activity. Two experimental studies were conducted. One compares the results from using three user centred evaluation methods, and the other examines two factors while conducting heuristic evaluation. The results show that the think-aloud evaluation method was the most effective method in finding realistic usability problems of the three methods. The number of critical problems found during think-aloud evaluation increases, if heuristic evaluation is conducted prior to the think-aloud evaluations. Further, two studies of user centred evaluation in practical settings were performed. The IT professionals participating in those studies were using the software development process Scrum to plan their work. The results show that user centred evaluation is infrequently conducted in Scrum projects, compared to testing activities like acceptance testing. The main type of evaluation is qualitative. Few participants measure user performance or use surveys to gather quantitative results on the usability and the user experience. IT professionals get feedback from users in an informal way and gather informal feedback from peers. Many participants use a mixture of methods for gathering feedback on their work. The outcome of this thesis shows that IT professionals should be encouraged to include users whenever possible when evaluating software, for example by using the think-aloud method. Using heuristic evaluation prior to conducting think-aloud evaluations is also recommended. In addition, IT professionals are encouraged to evaluate their software in an informal way frequently, rather than waiting for the right time to conduct a thorough quantitative evaluation. To advance this field further, researchers who want to improve the evaluation activity for the IT professionals should study how user centred evaluation methods could be combined in an efficient way and how the use of qualitative evaluation methods could be made more effective. / QC 20120522
02 November 2005
Agile software development challenges the traditional way of software development and project management. In rapidly changing environments, changing requirements and tight schedule constraints require software developers to take a different approach toward the process of software development. However, beyond a few case studies, surveys and studies focused on specific practices such as pair programming, the effectiveness and applicability of agile methods have not been established adequately. The objective of my research is to improve the understanding of and gain insights into these issues. For this purpose, I develop a system dynamic simulation model that considers the complex interdependencies among the variety of practices used in agile development. The model is developed on the basis of an extensive review of the literature as well as quantitative and qualitative data collected from real projects in seven organizations. The development of the model was guided by dynamic hypotheses on customer involvement, refactoring and quality of design. The model was refined and validated using data from independent projects. The model helps in answering important questions on the impact of customer behavior, cost of making changes and economics of pair programming. Experimentation with the model suggests that the cost of change is not constant; instead, its value changes cyclically and increases towards the later phase of development. Also, the results of simulation show that with no pair programming, fewer tasks are delivered and it costs more to deliver a task when compared to development with pair programming. Further, customer behavior has a major impact on project performance. The quality of customer feedback is found to be very critical to the successful of an agile software development project. The primary contribution of this research is the simulation model of agile software development that can be used a tool to examine the impact of agile practices and management policies on critical project variables including project scope, schedule, and cost. This research provides a mechanism to study agile development as a dynamic system of practices rather than using a static view and in isolation. The results from this study are expected to be of significant interest to practitioners of agile methods by providing them a simulation environment to examine the impact of their practices, procedures and management policies.
Agile Software Development in Sweden : A quantitative study of developers’ satisfaction and their attitude towards agile thinking / Agil systemutveckling i Sverige : En kvantitativ undersökning kring utvecklares belåtenhet och deras attityd till agilt tänkandeFransson, Oskar, af Klercker, Patrick January 2005 (has links)
<p>På senare tid har agila systemutvecklingsmetoder trätt fram på marknaden, metoder som värderar flexibilitet, kundmedverkan och fokus på utvecklingsteamet och fungerande mjukvara snarare än fokus på utvecklingsverktygen och dokumentation. Vi vet dock inte vilken typ av systemutvecklingsmetod som verkligen är bättre än den andra. Den här uppsatsen består av en historisk översikt av systemutvecklingsmetoder och en undersökning kring graden av belåtenhet med olika typer av systemutvecklingsmetoder och attityden till de agila värderingarna. Genom en kvantitativ studie har svenska organisationer som utövar systemutveckling tillfrågats angående detta. Resultaten är inte helt säkra, men anspelar på att utövare av mer traditionella systemutvecklingsmetoder var något mer nöjda med sin metod än utövare av agila metoder var, men de agila utövarna var istället mer nöjda med hur deras metod hjälper dem med att tillgodose kundernas behov och önskemål än de traditionella utövarna var. Båda typerna av systemutvecklare var mer positiva till de agila värderingarna än deras motsatser, men de agila metodutövarna var positiva till en större utsträckning.</p> / <p>Recent times have seen the emergence of agile software development methods, valuing flexibility, customer collaboration, and focus on the development team and working software rather than focus on tools and documentation. What is unknown is which type of software development method is really better than the other. This thesis consists of a historical overview of software development methods and an investigation of the level of satisfaction with different types of software development methods and the attitude towards the agile values. Through a quantitative study, Swedish software development organizations have been heard regarding these issues. The results, although not fully statistically supported, indicate that practisers of more traditional software development methods were slightly more satisfied with their methods than practisers of agile methods were, but the agile method practisers were instead more satisfied with how their method helped them in satisfying their customers’ wants and needs than the traditional method practisers were. Both types of software developers were more positive towards the agile values than their counterparts, but the practisers of agile software development methods were so to a greater extent.</p>
Srirangarajan, Ananth. Lall, Pradeep, Umphress, David A.,
Thesis--Auburn University, 2009. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (p. 39-41).
Towards a framework for improving software development process mediated with CMMI goals and agile practices /Pikkarainen, Minna. January 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (doctoral)--University of Oulu, 2008. / Includes bibliographical references. Also available on the World Wide Web.
Fälth, Karin, Svahn, Linda
Syftet med arbetet var att ta reda på om den ökade tidsåtgången som parprogrammeringen leder till uppvägs av de fördelar som den genererar i jämförelse med enskild programmering där arbetet delas mellan två programmerare och sedan integreras. I arbetet presenteras resultatet från en enkätundersökning som sju personer från fyra olika företag i Sverige har besvarat. Samtliga personer som besvarat enkäten har arbetat både med enskild programmering och parprogrammering. Vårt arbete bidrar till forskningsområdet programvaruteknik som intresserar sig för mjukvaruutvecklingsmetoder. På senare tid har detta forskningsområde också intresserat sig för lättrörlig mjukvaruutveckling där utvecklingsmetoden Extreme Programming (XP) ingår. XP tillämpar parprogrammering och är en mjukvaruteknisk metod som har att göra med klassisk mjukvaruteknik som bl.a. utgår ifrån kodkvalite och samspel mellan utvecklare. (Rittenbruch m.fl, 2002) I den litteratur vi läst har det presenterats en undersökning som gjorts i USA om parprogrammering. I den konstaterades att detta arbetssätt ger en ökad tidsåtgång och det framkom också ett antal fördelar med att programmera i par. Vi har utgått ifrån tidsåtgången och fördelarna när vi gjorde vår enkätundersökning. Vi fann att vår undersökning styrker de fördelar som finns med parprogrammering, men däremot bekräftar inte undersökningen att tidsåtgången ökar. Samtliga i undersökningen tycker att kodkvalitén förbättrats, dvs bättre struktur och design samt mindre fel på koden. Sammanhållningen och kommunikationen har blivit bättre och fler programmerare är involverade i samma kod. Detta innebär att projektgruppen inte påverkades så mycket när en person lämnar projektet. Det har också framkommit att parprogrammering inte är lämpligt att använda vid enklare uppgifter.
Li, Xian, Cao, Qian
Context. Agile software development mainly focuses on value creation, and the first principle of theAgile Manifesto is to deliver a valuable software to customers. In spite of the great significance of value,there are few studies investigated what value is from the perspective of industry practitioners. Objectives. In this study we perform a replication study about value definitions, usage, andmeasurements in China and make a comparative analysis with the similar study did in Sweden. Theprimary objectives of this study are to: a) identify value aspects from Chinese software organizations;b) list and describe activities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, and also with the measurements;c) find the similarities and differences between China and Sweden. Methods. The data was collected by using the semi-structured interviews from 30 participants in 20Chinese agile software development organizations. We utilized the content analysis and the Statisticsmethods to analyze the 30 data points. Results. The participants identified 18 value aspects and prioritized them, and the value aspects wereanalyzed by domains and roles. The three most important value aspects are the Delivery process w.r.t.time, Organization, and Team members; different domain focused on different value aspects; the projectmanager concerned more about the Delivery process w.r.t. time, Organization, and Team members,while the product owners focused more on Customer satisfaction. Then, we list and described theactivities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, described some methods and strategies tomeasure/assure/evaluate them. Most of the activities were related to agile practices and the mostactivities were used to achieve the Delivery process w.r.t. time. Finally, we presented the similaritiesand differences between those value results from China and Sweden, the most important difference isthat the Swedish participants put the Customer value perspective at the first place, while Chineseparticipants would like to balance the value between Customer and Internal Business. Conclusions. We concluded that: 1) the Chinese participants thought that the key success factor of asoftware product was to delivery it with high quality to customers on time; 2) the main activities toachieve value were related to agile practices, and some participants used some tools to assure projectprocess; 3) For better communications and collaborations between Chinese and Swedish softwarecompanies, we recommend: a) for Chinese companies, they need to i) concern more about Customerperspective than before; ii) understand the core concepts of agile methods and their using contexts forflexible application; iii) transfer from traditional organization architecture to project-based organizationarchitecture; b) for Swedish companies, they need to i) focus more on Internal business perspective; ii)use some tools and methods to achieve their value aspects; iii) find a suitable way to collaborate betweenagile teams and non-agile teams.
Software quality assurance in scrum projects: a case study of development processes among scrum teams in South AfricaKoka, Andile January 2015 (has links)
Thesis Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Technology in Information Technology in the Faculty of Informatics and Design at the Cape Peninsula University of Technonlogy / The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in business has evolved to such an extent that many organizations (if not all) rely on Information Technology (IT) systems to better manage their processes, get competitive advantage, improve performance (efficiency and effectiveness), provide quality services on time and most importantly to keep customers happy. This has changed the way people communicate and conduct businesses, lowering processing cost, time and improving a return on investment. Therefore, high quality software systems are essential. Organizations adopt Agile Scrum methodologies in order to develop applications that help them to obtain a return on investment quickly, to improve customer satisfaction and to maintain competitive advantage. However, the IT industry is yet to develop error-free software that meets the expected quality standards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the extent to which software quality assurance measures can be understood and applied to maximize the quality of software projects developed under Scrum methodology. A qualitative research method informed by an interpretive approach was used to collect and analyse data. Following the purposive sampling technique, five Scrum teams operating in different environments and two academics from one academic institution were interviewed. Structuration Theory (ST) was then used as an analytical framework to analyse data and to improve the understanding of Scrum practices and related quality assurance (QA) processes. Drawing on the major terms of ST, the contextual terrain of the Scrum development process was mapped. It reflected that rules are important aspects of Scrum functions. However, rules are not as strictly applied as in the traditional methodologies. The developer skill, project type and size have a direct influence on the practice/s. In Scrum, rules are flexible in that they can be modified to meet the environment and conditions of the team. Equally significant are resources, most particularly, time and the human resources in the form of developers and Scrum leaders. Otherwise, unit testing, user acceptance testing, close collaboration and code reviews were perceived as the most important practices in Scrum projects. In view of the findings, recommendations can be summed up into 4 main points; (1) that to ensure quality assurance in Scrum, Scrum teams, especially team leaders, should enforce compliance to standards, regardless of time pressures and tight deadlines; (2) It seems that the practice of working with the client to test final products as a quality assurance mechanism is working for all parties. This practice is encouraged and must be maintained; (3) Code reviews must be enforced, and that organisations invest in resources including the constant training of developers; (4) Project product owners, project managers, team leaders and business analysts should regularly meet with the user to verify requirements prior to the implementation phase. Active stakeholder involvement can minimize development costs and time.
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