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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Infrastructure logicielle multi-modèles pour l'accès à des services en mobilité / Multi-model software infrastructure for the access to services in mobility

Bocquet, Aurélien 01 December 2008 (has links)
Les intergiciels sont aujourd'hui incontournables lorsqu'il s'agit de développer des applications réparties. Chaque conception requiert des outils adaptés et performants. De plus, leur contexte de déploiement nécessite des mécanismes particuliers afin de s'y adapter. Pour cela, les intergiciels proposent des modèles de programmation et de communication différents, fournissant des moyens de communication efficaces dans certaines situations. En mobilité, l'interopérabilité devient inévitable, et le contexte varie. Cette thèse traite des impératifs d'un intergiciel en mobilité. Nous proposons ainsi une approche multi-modèles, basée sur les travaux actuels dans ce domaine, et présentant des concepts novateurs. Cette approche se compose d'un modèle de programmation générique et d'une combinaison de modèles de communication. Des politiques d'adaptation définissent les règles de combinaison des modèles en fonction d'observations du contexte, et des mécanismes d'adaptation dynamique permettent de prendre en compte en temps réelle contexte, et de reconfigurer le système pendant son exécution. Nous avons validé notre approche au travers d'une application concrète aux problèmes engendrés par l'utilisation d'un proxy Internet à bord des trains: le développement d'un greffon multi-modèles a illustré et justifié notre approche, et l'évaluation de ce greffon a montré les bénéfices de celle-ci face aux changements de contexte. Nous avons également conçu et développé notre infrastructure logicielle multi-modèles, proposant tous les concepts cités, et permettant ainsi de profiter des bénéfices de notre approche multi-modèles. / The middlewares are nowadays unavoidable when developing dlstributed applications. Every design needs adapted and efficient· tools. ln addition, their context of deployment needs special mechanisms in order to adapt to it. To do so, the middlewares offer different programming and communication models, supplying efficient ways to communicate in some situations. ln mobility, interoperability becomes unavoidable, and the context changes. This thesis deals with the requirements of a middleware in mobility. We thus propose a multi-model approach, based on the current works in this domain, and presenting innovative concepts. This approach is composed by a generic programming model and by a combination of communication models. Adaptation policies define the rules of combination of models, regarding context observations and dynamic adaptation mechanisms allow to handle the context in realtime, and to reconfigure the system when it is running. Our approach has been validated through a concrete application to problems caused by the use of an embedded Intemet proxy in trains: the design and development of a mufti-model graft iIIustrated and justified our approach, and the evaluation of this graft demonstrated the benefits of this approach via-a-vis the changes of context. We also designed and developed our multi-model software infrastructure, proposing ail these concepts, and thus allowing to benefit from our multi-model approach.
2

La pensée de Hanshan Deqing (1546-1623) : une lecture bouddhiste des textes confucéens et taoïstes / Hanshan Deqing’s thought (1546-1623) : a Buddhist interpretation of the Confucian and Taoist classics

Hiu, Yunyan 07 November 2014 (has links)
Hanshan Deqing 憨山德清 (1546-1623), est l’un des « Quatre moines bouddhistes éminents » de la fin de dynastie Ming, en Chine qui avaient pris conscience de l’importance et de la nécessité d’une conciliation entre les trois enseignements chinois que sont le bouddhisme, le confucianisme et le taoïsme. Ses annotations du Zhuangzi, du Daode jing, de l’Invariable Milieu et de La Grande Étude demeurent très importantes pour l’étude des tentatives de syncrétisme des trois enseignements. Il fut en effet le premier moine à avoir rédigé autant de commentaires des classiques taoïstes et confucéens afin de montrer que de nombreuses idées de ces deux enseignements d’origine chinoise sont similaires à celles de la pensée bouddhiste. Il est aussi l’auteur d’une dissertation qui démontre la possibilité du rapprochement entre les trois enseignements, tout en maintenant la précellence du bouddhisme. En étudiant de près tous ses commentaires non-bouddhistes et sa dissertation à propos des trois enseignements, nous avons constaté que le moine avait transformé la pensée taoïste et la pensée confucéenne en des doctrines quasi bouddhistes, proches tantôt du Grand Véhicule, tantôt du Petit Véhicule, en fonction des passages examinés. Certains concepts bouddhistes sont très récurrents dans ses commentaires non-bouddhistes. Hanshan Deqing montre que les auteurs des classiques taoïstes et confucéens qu’il annote avaient déjà pressenti l’importance des concepts qui sont au cœur de la pensée bouddhiste et permettent d’atteindre l’illumination ou de conduire des pratiques sotériologiques. À travers ces commentaires, on décèle l’intention de Hanshan Deqing : porter à la connaissance des lettrés, des taoïstes, voire des adeptes bouddhistes eux-mêmes, les procédures permettant d’accéder à l’Éveil, pour ensuite aider d’autres êtres à sortir de leur égarement et de leur attachement au monde. / Hanshan Deqing 憨山德清 (1546-1623) is one of the “Four Eminent Buddhist monks” of the late Ming dynasty in China who realized the importance and the necessity of the reconciliation between the three Chinese philosophies: Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. His annotations of the Zhuangzi, of the Daode jing, of the Doctrine of the Mean, of the Great Learning are of seminal importance in the attempt to fusion the three philosophies. He was indeed the first monk to have written so many commentaries of the Taoist and the Confucian classics in order to show that numerous thoughts of these two philosophies originating from China are similar to the ones of Buddhism. He is also the writer of a dissertation that demonstrates the possibility of establishing bridges between the three philosophies, even if he considers Buddhism as superior. Studying closely all his non-Buddhist commentaries and his dissertation about the three philosophies, we noticed that the monk had transformed the Taoist thought and the Confucian thought nearly into Buddhist doctrines, sometimes close to the Mahāyāna, sometimes close to the Hīnayāna, depending on the examined passages. Some Buddhist concepts are very recurrent in his non-Buddhist commentaries. Hanshan Deaing points out that the writers of the Taoist and Confucian classics that he annotates had already sensed the importance of the concepts which are at the heart of the Buddhist mind and enable to reach the enlightenment or the realization of the soteriological practices.Through these commentaries, we can discover Hanshan Deqing’s intention: to make the lettered persons, the Taoists or even the Buddhist disciples themselves aware of the procedures allowing them to reach the Awakening and then to help others beings to be released from their blindness and their attachment to the world.
3

Gossamer: A Lightweight Approach to Using Multicore Machines

Roback, Joseph Anthony January 2010 (has links)
The key to performance improvements in the multicore era is for software toutilize the newly available concurrency. Consequently, programmers will have tolearn new programming techniques, and software systems will have to be able tomanage the parallelism effectively. The challenge is to do so simply, portably,and efficiently.This dissertation presents a lightweight programming framework called Gossamerthat is easy to use, enables the solution of a broad range of parallelprogramming problems, and produces efficient code. Gossamer supports task andrecursive parallelism, iterative parallelism, domain decomposition, pipelinedcomputations, and MapReduce computations. Gossamer contains (1) a set ofhigh-level annotations that one adds to a sequential program to specifyconcurrency and synchronization, (2) a source-to-source translator that producesan optimized program, and (3) a run-time system that provides efficient threadsand synchronization. The annotation-based programming model simplifies writingparallel programs by allowing the programmer to concentrate on the applicationand not the extensive bookkeeping involved with concurrency and synchronization;moreover, the annotations never reference any particulars of the underlyinghardware.
4

MAISA - Maintenance of semantic annotations / MAISA - Maintenance des annotations sémantiques

Cardoso, Silvio Domingos 07 December 2018 (has links)
Les annotations sémantiques sont utilisées dans de nombreux domaines comme celui de la santé et servent à différentes tâches notamment la recherche et le partage d’information ou encore l'aide à la décision. Les annotations sont produites en associant à des documents digitaux des labels de concepts provenant des systèmes d’organisation de la connaissance (Knowledge Organization Systems, ou KOS, en anglais) comme les ontologies. Elles permettent alors aux ordinateurs d'interpréter, connecter et d'utiliser de manière automatique de grandes quantités de données. Cependant, la nature dynamique de la connaissance engendre régulièrement de profondes modifications au niveau du contenu des KOS provoquant ainsi un décalage entre la définition des concepts et les annotations. Une adaptation des annotations à ces changements est nécessaire pour garantir une bonne utilisation par les applications informatiques. De plus, la quantité importante d’annotations affectées rend impossible une adaptation manuelle. Dans ce mémoire de thèse, nous proposons une approche originale appelée MAISA pour résoudre le problème de l'adaptation des annotations sémantiques engendrée par l’évolution des KOS et pour lequel nous distinguons deux cas. Dans le premier cas, nous considérons que les annotations sont directement modifiables. Pour traiter ce problème nous avons défini une approche à base de règles combinant des informations provenant de l’évolution des KOS et des connaissances extraites du Web. Dans le deuxième cas, nous considérons que les annotations ne sont pas modifiables comme c’est bien souvent le cas des annotations associées aux données des patients. L’objectif ici étant de pouvoir retrouver les documents annotées avec une version du KOS donnée lorsque l’utilisateur interroge le système stockant ces documents avec le vocabulaire du même KOS mais d’une version différente. Pour gérer ce décalage de versions, nous avons proposé un graphe de connaissance représentant un KOS et son historique et un mécanisme d’enrichissement de requêtes permettant d’extraire de ce graphe l’historique d’un concept pour l’ajouter à la requête initiale. Nous proposons une évaluation expérimentale de notre approche pour la maintenance des annotations à partir de cas réels construits sur quatre KOS du domaine de la santé : ICD-9-CM, MeSH, NCIt et SNOMED CT. Nous montrons à travers l’utilisation des métriques classiques que l’approche proposée permet, dans les deux cas considérés, d’améliorer la maintenance des annotations sémantiques. / Semantic annotations are often used in a wide range of applications ranging from information retrieval to decision support. Annotations are produced through the association of concept labels from Knowledge Organization System (KOS), i.e. ontology, thesaurus, dictionaries, with pieces of digital information, e.g. images or texts. Annotations enable machines to interpret, link, and use a vast amount of data. However, the dynamic nature of KOS may affect annotations each time a new version of a KOS is released. New concepts can be added, obsolete ones removed and the definition of existing concepts may be refined through the modification of their labels/properties. As a result, many annotations can lose their relevance, thus hindering the intended use and exploitation of annotated data. To solve this problem, methods to maintain the annotations up-to-date are required. In this thesis we propose a framework called MAISA to tackle the problem of adapting outdated annotations when the KOS utilized to create them change. We distinguish two different cases. In the first one we consider that annotations are directly modifiable. In this case, we proposed a rule-based approach implementing information derived from the evolution of KOS as well as external knowledge from the Web. In the second case, we consider that the annotations are not modifiable. The goal is then to keep the annotated documents searchable even if the annotations are produced with a given KOS version but the user used another version to query them. In this case, we designed a knowledge graph that represent a KOS and its successive evolution and propose a method to extract the history of a concept and add the gained label to the initial query allowing to deal with annotation evolution. We experimentally evaluated MAISA on realistic cases-studies built from four well-known biomedical KOS: ICD-9-CM, MeSH, NCIt and SNOMED CT. We show that the proposed maintenance method allow to maintain semantic annotations using standard metrics.
5

Enrichissement et peuplement d’ontologie à partir de textes et de données du LOD : Application à l’annotation automatique de documents / Ontology enrichment and population from texts and data from LOD : Application to automatic annotation of documents

Alec, Céline 26 September 2016 (has links)
Cette thèse traite d'une approche, guidée par une ontologie, conçue pour annoter les documents d'un corpus où chaque document décrit une entité de même type. Dans notre contexte, l'ensemble des documents doit être annoté avec des concepts qui sont en général trop spécifiques pour être explicitement mentionnés dans les textes. De plus, les concepts d'annotation ne sont représentés au départ que par leur nom, sans qu'aucune information sémantique ne leur soit reliée. Enfin, les caractéristiques des entités décrites dans les documents sont incomplètes. Pour accomplir ce processus particulier d'annotation de documents, nous proposons une approche nommée SAUPODOC (Semantic Annotation Using Population of Ontology and Definitions of Concepts) qui combine plusieurs tâches pour (1) peupler et (2) enrichir une ontologie de domaine. La phase de peuplement (1) ajoute dans l'ontologie des informations provenant des documents du corpus mais aussi du Web des données (Linked Open Data ou LOD). Le LOD représente aujourd'hui une source prometteuse pour de très nombreuses applications du Web sémantique à condition toutefois de développer des techniques adaptées d'acquisition de données. Dans le cadre de SAUPODOC, le peuplement de l'ontologie doit tenir compte de la diversité des données présentes dans le LOD : propriétés multiples, équivalentes, multi-valuées ou absentes. Les correspondances à établir, entre le vocabulaire de l'ontologie à peupler et celui du LOD, étant complexes, nous proposons un modèle pour faciliter leur spécification. Puis, nous montrons comment ce modèle est utilisé pour générer automatiquement des requêtes SPARQL et ainsi faciliter l'interrogation du LOD et le peuplement de l'ontologie. Celle-ci, une fois peuplée, est ensuite enrichie(2) avec les concepts d'annotation et leurs définitions qui sont apprises grâce à des exemples de documents annotés. Un raisonnement sur ces définitions permet enfin d'obtenir les annotations souhaitées. Des expérimentations ont été menées dans deux domaines d'application, et les résultats, comparés aux annotations obtenues avec des classifieurs, montrent l'intérêt de l'approche. / This thesis deals with an approach, guided by an ontology, designed to annotate documents from a corpus where each document describes an entity of the same type. In our context, all documents have to be annotated with concepts that are usually too specific to be explicitly mentioned in the texts. In addition, the annotation concepts are represented initially only by their name, without any semantic information connected to them. Finally, the characteristics of the entities described in the documents are incomplete. To accomplish this particular process of annotation of documents, we propose an approach called SAUPODOC (Semantic Annotation of Population Using Ontology and Definitions of Concepts) which combines several tasks to (1) populate and (2) enrich a domain ontology. The population step (1) adds to the ontology information from the documents in the corpus but also from the Web of Data (Linked Open Data or LOD). The LOD represents today a promising source for many applications of the Semantic Web, provided that appropriate techniques of data acquisition are developed. In the settings of SAUPODOC, the ontology population has to take into account the diversity of the data in the LOD: multiple, equivalent, multi-valued or absent properties. The correspondences to be established, between the vocabulary of the ontology to be populated and that of the LOD, are complex, thus we propose a model to facilitate their specification. Then, we show how this model is used to automatically generate SPARQL queries and facilitate the interrogation of the LOD and the population of the ontology. The latter, once populated, is then enriched (2) with the annotation concepts and definitions that are learned through examples of annotated documents. Reasoning on these definitions finally provides the desired annotations. Experiments have been conducted in two areas of application, and the results, compared with the annotations obtained with classifiers, show the interest of the approach.
6

Annotationen / Annotations

January 2009 (has links)
Annotationen zu den Büchern: - Die Agnellis. Die heimlichen Herrscher Italiens - Die Außen- und Friedenspolitik des Heiligen Stuhls - Moralkommunikation der Macht, politische Konstruktion sozialer Kohäsion im Wohlfahrtsstaat
7

Annotationen / Annotations

January 2009 (has links)
Annotationen
8

The Effect of Different Presentation Formats of Hypertext Annotations on Cognitive Load, Learning and Learner Control

Yao, Yuanming 29 August 2006 (has links)
This dissertation study was intended to verify whether the positive effects of the roll-over annotation presentation format on reducing cognitive load and enhancing vocabulary and comprehension of 5th-grade children (Morrison, 2004) can be extended to college students' learning from a web-delivered text. In order to answer this research question, relevant constructs, such as cognitive load, learner control and learning, have been examined in this experimental study of 149 undergraduate students in a state university at College of Education. No single effect of annotation presentation format on cognitive load was found, but an interaction effect on cognitive load was revealed between annotation presentation formats and pre-existing knowledge in this study of online education, similar to the interaction effect between annotation presentation formats and learners' reading experience found in traditional textbook learning (Yeung, Jin and Sweller, 1998; Yeung, 1999). Besides, students' computer experience also had a significant impact on their perceived cognitive load. One more key finding from this study was that the embedded annotation presentation format generated the least learner control, significantly different from other annotation presentation formats. In conclusion, an adaptive approach to the design of annotation presentation formats is recommended, for example, individual differences including learners' familiarity with content should be considered along with different annotation presentation formats so as to reduce learners' overall cognitive load. Additionally, learners' computer experience should be examined when hypertext annotations are used. Finally, choices of annotation presentation formats should be well-conceived to balance cognitive load, learning, and learner control. / Ph.D. / Department of Educational Research, Technology and Leadership / Education / Instructional Technology/Media
9

Mapping a Dataflow Programming Model onto Heterogeneous Architectures

Sbirlea, Alina 06 September 2012 (has links)
This thesis describes and evaluates how extending Intel's Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model can address the problem of hybrid programming with high performance and low energy consumption, while retaining the ease of use of data-flow programming. The CnC model is a declarative, dynamic light-weight task based parallel programming model and is implicitly deterministic by enforcing the single assignment rule, properties which ensure that problems are modelled in an intuitive way. CnC offers a separation of concerns by allowing algorithms to be expressed as a two stage process: first by decomposing a problem into components and specifying how components interact with each other, and second by providing an implementation for each component. By facilitating the separation between a domain expert, who can provide an accurate problem specification at a high level, and a tuning expert, who can tune the individual components for better performance, we ensure that tuning and future development, such as replacement of a subcomponent with a more efficient algorithm, become straightforward. A recent trend in mainstream desktop systems is the use of graphics processor units (GPUs) to obtain order-of-magnitude performance improvements relative to general-purpose CPUs. In addition, the use of FPGAs has seen a significant increase for applications that can take advantage of such dedicated hardware. We see that computing is evolving from using many core CPUs to ``co-processing" on the CPU, GPU and FPGA, however hybrid programming models that support the interaction between multiple heterogeneous components are not widely accessible to mainstream programmers and domain experts who have a real need for such resources. We propose a C-based implementation of the CnC model for enabling parallelism across heterogeneous processor components in a flexible way, with high resource utilization and high programmability. We use the task-parallel HabaneroC language (HC) as the platform for implementing CnC-HabaneroC (CnC-HC), a language also used to implement the computation steps in CnC-HC, for interaction with GPU or FPGA steps and which offers the desired flexibility and extensibility of interacting with any other C based language. First, we extend the CnC model with tag functions and ranges to enable automatic code generation of high level operations for inter-task communication. This improves programmability and also makes the code more analysable, opening the door for future optimizations. Secondly, we introduce a way to specify steps that are data parallel and thus are fit to execute on the GPU, and the notion of task affinity, a tuning annotation in the specification language. Affinity is used by the runtime during scheduling and can be fine-tuned based on application needs to achieve better (faster, lower power, etc.) results. Thirdly, we introduce and develop a novel, data-driven runtime for the CnC model, using HabaneroC (HC) as a base language. In addition, we also create an implementation of the previous runtime approach and conduct a study to compare the performance. Next, we expand the HabaneroC dynamic work-stealing runtime to allow cross-device stealing based on task affinity. Cross-device dynamic work-stealing is used to achieve load balancing across heterogeneous platforms for improved performance. Finally, we implement and use a series of benchmarks for testing the model in different scenarios and show that our proposed approach can yield significant performance benefits and low power usage when using a hybrid execution.
10

Using online annotations in collaborative reading activities with elementary-aged Taiwanese learners of English

Yu, Li-Tang 24 October 2014 (has links)
Because little was known about second language online collaborative reading, this study explored the application of an online annotation affordance, analyzing the processes and products of how Taiwanese schoolchildren used notetaking and sharing functions to develop their English reading comprehension. Fifth-grade students (N = 83) from three English classes were randomly assigned to three reading conditions: read-only (i.e., individual reading without making any annotation), individual annotation (i.e., making annotations for their own use), and collaborative annotation (i.e., making and sharing annotations on their reading experience with others while reading) for three reading sessions. Data sources included a background survey, reading comprehension tests (free recall and cued recall), reading affect surveys, students’ annotations, text-based stimulated recall protocols, and a survey about the frequency of online support consultation. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the reading groups in their free recall and cued recall performance, their reading enjoyment and engagement, and their perceptions of the reading activity’s helpfulness for reading comprehension. Despite the lack of overall significant difference in reading affect, the collaborative annotation group increased their affect levels across the reading sessions, and significantly raised enjoyment levels between first and second sessions. Supplementary analyses found that the relationship between the amount of annotation and students’ reading comprehension scores was positive but did not reach a statistically significant level. Additionally, the more often the participants consulted online resources, the lower were their cued recall scores. As for the functions served by students’ annotations, nine categories were identified. The most prevalent function for the individual annotation group was “Translations,” whereas “Responses to Peers” was the most frequent category for the collaborative annotation group. The amount of interaction with peers was positively associated with cued recall scores and negatively associated with amount of use of translation annotations. Analysis of processes revealed that students were different in how they read online and used annotations. Students provided multifaceted reasons for why they did or did not make annotations and reply to peers while reading, and for why they liked or disliked the online reading activities. / text

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