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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Developmental hormones in adult and embryonic forms of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

Crosby, T. January 1987 (has links)
No description available.
2

A study on the ecology of the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus complex with special reference to the eastern province of Zambia

Berkvens, Dirk Lodewijk January 1990 (has links)
No description available.
3

Transovarial transmission efficiency of Babesia bovis by Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus

Howell, Jeanne Marie, January 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Washington State University, May 2007. / Includes bibliographical references.
4

A Combined functional genomics and in silico approach for the identification of anti-Rhipicephalus vaccine candidates

Van Zyl, W.A. (Willem Andries) January 2013 (has links)
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation of livestock with R. microplus and R. decoloratus occurs. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of an anti-tick vaccine. Using microarray technology, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In addition, results from another study were used and a reverse vaccinology pipeline was devised to identify putative novel vaccine candidates. Using a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising 13 477 R. microplus sequences, 2476 genes were found to be shared between the two abovementioned tick species. In addition, 136 were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly over-represented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. With vaccine design in mind, considering genes that are expressed in the midgut of both tick species, 6730 genes were identified and of these, 1224 are predicted to contain membrane-spanning helices. One major limitation to anti-tick vaccine discovery in the past has been a lack of candidates to evaluate, combined with limited knowledge of the transcriptome of R. microplus. This study identified a large pool of transcripts that are expressed in the midgut of both R. microplus and R. decoloratus adult females. Of these, those that are expressed in larvae, nymphs and the midgut were identified in another study and an in silico pipeline was used to predict membrane-bound protective antigens using an alignment-free approach, which led to the identification of seven proteins that were predicted to be both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and more likely than Bm86 to be protective antigens. Finally, epitopes were predicted and corresponding synthetic peptides were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), resulting in the identification of three epitopes that are recognized to a greater extent than previously published Bm86 epitopes, when using murine serum raised against membrane proteins from the midgut of R. microplus. These results are significant because novel R. microplus proteins that are also present in R. decoloratus were identified. Trials using recombinant protein are under way and this will ultimately validate the experimental methodology discussed in this dissertation. Finally, regardless of whether the next-generation anti-tick vaccine has been discovered, this study also led to the identification of novel reference genes that can be used for real-time PCR experiments. / Dissertation (MSc)--University of Pretoria, 2013. / gm2014 / Biochemistry / Unrestricted
5

EVALUATION OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE FOR BIOPESTICIDE CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK ECTOPARASITES

Diana Leemon Unknown Date (has links)
THESIS ABSTRACT Current control strategies for livestock ectoparasites are limited by problems associated with chemical resistance and residues. Fungal biopesticides could provide an alternative control without these problems. However, a strategic approach is needed to first evaluate the suitability of selected fungal isolates for fungal biopesticide development. Two ectoparasites of significance to cattle and sheep are the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) and the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedmann). The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin) was evaluated for its potential to control these livestock ectoparasites. The growth characteristics of 30 isolates of M. anisopliae were investigated. Radial growth measurements were used to identify vigorous isolates that grew well at 30C and were capable of growing at 35C. A qualitative assessment of sporulation capacity further refined the candidate isolate group. A possible nutritive role of oil in the formulation was also investigated. However, there was no clear support for the theory that oil as a formulation additive could boost the germination and growth of the fungal conidia in vitro. Quantal response bioassays were conducted with cattle ticks and sheep blowflies using a range of conidial doses of three different isolates of M. anisopliae and different methods of inoculation. Ticks were either dosed with 2 µl or immersed in the conidial doses. Blowflies were either dosed with 2 µl of the conidial doses or fed conidia mixed with sugar. Probit analyses were carried out on the mortality data to compare the virulence of these isolates to ticks and blowflies and look for indications of different virulence mechanisms employed by M. anisopliae isolates when invading these hosts. One isolate (ARIM16) showed high virulence to both hosts killing 95 % of ticks after two days and 88 (±2) % of blowflies after four days. Strikingly different mortality patterns indicated quite different virulence mechanisms operating when M. anisopliae invades ticks or blowflies. The mortality pattern seen with ticks suggested that the number of conidia adhering per unit area of the cuticle was more important for rapid tick death than the total number of conidia contacting the entire tick surface. Blowflies fed conidia mixed with food died rapidly after an initial lag phase regardless of dose. Microscopic investigations were carried out to resolve the basis of the virulence patterns observed. The spatial and temporal aspects of the invasion of ticks and blowflies by M. anisopliae isolate ARIM16 were investigated with different types of microscopy. The scanning electron microscope and stereo light microscope were used to record surface changes and events and the compound light microscope revealed internal changes. Two distinctly different patterns of invasion were found in ticks and blowflies. Fungal conidia germinated on the surface of ticks then hyphae simultaneously penetrated into the tick body and grew across the tick surface. There was extensive fungal degradation of the tick cuticle with a preference for the outer endocuticle. While large numbers of conidia adhered to the surface of blowflies, no conidia were recorded germinating on external surfaces. One germinating conidium was seen in the entrance to the buccal cavity. Investigations of the fly interior revealed a higher density of hyphal bodies in the haemolymph surrounding the buccal cavity than in haemolymph from regions of the upper thorax. This pattern suggested that fungal invasion of the blowfly is through the buccal cavity. Plentiful extracellular mucilage was seen around the hyphae on ticks, and crystals of calcium oxalate were seen amongst the hyphae on the surface of ticks and in the haemolymph of blowflies killed by M. anisopliae isolate ARIM16. It was considered that cattle ticks are more suited for control with fungal biopesticides than adult blowflies. Three field trials were conducted over twelve months to assess the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae to parasitic stages of R. microplus on dairy heifers under different environmental conditions. Two isolates were selected based on their high optimal growth temperature (30oC), good conidial production characteristics and ability to kill adult engorged ticks in the laboratory in minimum time. Conidia were formulated in an oil emulsion and applied using a motor driven spray unit. Surface temperatures of selected animals were monitored, as were the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Unengorged ticks sampled from each animal immediately after treatment were incubated under laboratory conditions to assess the efficacy of the formulation and application. Egg production by engorged ticks collected in the first 3 days after treatment was monitored. Side counts of standard adult female ticks were conducted daily, before and after treatment to assess the performance of the fungus against all tick stages on the animals. At each trial the formulation caused 100% mortality in unengorged ticks that were removed from cattle and cultured under laboratory conditions. A significant reduction in egg production was recorded for engorged ticks collected in the three days post treatment. In the field, the fungal formulation had an inconsistent effect on ticks, which might be due to the influence of environmental temperature and humidity.
6

EVALUATION OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE FOR BIOPESTICIDE CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK ECTOPARASITES

Diana Leemon Unknown Date (has links)
THESIS ABSTRACT Current control strategies for livestock ectoparasites are limited by problems associated with chemical resistance and residues. Fungal biopesticides could provide an alternative control without these problems. However, a strategic approach is needed to first evaluate the suitability of selected fungal isolates for fungal biopesticide development. Two ectoparasites of significance to cattle and sheep are the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) and the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedmann). The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin) was evaluated for its potential to control these livestock ectoparasites. The growth characteristics of 30 isolates of M. anisopliae were investigated. Radial growth measurements were used to identify vigorous isolates that grew well at 30C and were capable of growing at 35C. A qualitative assessment of sporulation capacity further refined the candidate isolate group. A possible nutritive role of oil in the formulation was also investigated. However, there was no clear support for the theory that oil as a formulation additive could boost the germination and growth of the fungal conidia in vitro. Quantal response bioassays were conducted with cattle ticks and sheep blowflies using a range of conidial doses of three different isolates of M. anisopliae and different methods of inoculation. Ticks were either dosed with 2 µl or immersed in the conidial doses. Blowflies were either dosed with 2 µl of the conidial doses or fed conidia mixed with sugar. Probit analyses were carried out on the mortality data to compare the virulence of these isolates to ticks and blowflies and look for indications of different virulence mechanisms employed by M. anisopliae isolates when invading these hosts. One isolate (ARIM16) showed high virulence to both hosts killing 95 % of ticks after two days and 88 (±2) % of blowflies after four days. Strikingly different mortality patterns indicated quite different virulence mechanisms operating when M. anisopliae invades ticks or blowflies. The mortality pattern seen with ticks suggested that the number of conidia adhering per unit area of the cuticle was more important for rapid tick death than the total number of conidia contacting the entire tick surface. Blowflies fed conidia mixed with food died rapidly after an initial lag phase regardless of dose. Microscopic investigations were carried out to resolve the basis of the virulence patterns observed. The spatial and temporal aspects of the invasion of ticks and blowflies by M. anisopliae isolate ARIM16 were investigated with different types of microscopy. The scanning electron microscope and stereo light microscope were used to record surface changes and events and the compound light microscope revealed internal changes. Two distinctly different patterns of invasion were found in ticks and blowflies. Fungal conidia germinated on the surface of ticks then hyphae simultaneously penetrated into the tick body and grew across the tick surface. There was extensive fungal degradation of the tick cuticle with a preference for the outer endocuticle. While large numbers of conidia adhered to the surface of blowflies, no conidia were recorded germinating on external surfaces. One germinating conidium was seen in the entrance to the buccal cavity. Investigations of the fly interior revealed a higher density of hyphal bodies in the haemolymph surrounding the buccal cavity than in haemolymph from regions of the upper thorax. This pattern suggested that fungal invasion of the blowfly is through the buccal cavity. Plentiful extracellular mucilage was seen around the hyphae on ticks, and crystals of calcium oxalate were seen amongst the hyphae on the surface of ticks and in the haemolymph of blowflies killed by M. anisopliae isolate ARIM16. It was considered that cattle ticks are more suited for control with fungal biopesticides than adult blowflies. Three field trials were conducted over twelve months to assess the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae to parasitic stages of R. microplus on dairy heifers under different environmental conditions. Two isolates were selected based on their high optimal growth temperature (30oC), good conidial production characteristics and ability to kill adult engorged ticks in the laboratory in minimum time. Conidia were formulated in an oil emulsion and applied using a motor driven spray unit. Surface temperatures of selected animals were monitored, as were the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Unengorged ticks sampled from each animal immediately after treatment were incubated under laboratory conditions to assess the efficacy of the formulation and application. Egg production by engorged ticks collected in the first 3 days after treatment was monitored. Side counts of standard adult female ticks were conducted daily, before and after treatment to assess the performance of the fungus against all tick stages on the animals. At each trial the formulation caused 100% mortality in unengorged ticks that were removed from cattle and cultured under laboratory conditions. A significant reduction in egg production was recorded for engorged ticks collected in the three days post treatment. In the field, the fungal formulation had an inconsistent effect on ticks, which might be due to the influence of environmental temperature and humidity.
7

Occurrence of Theileria parva infection in cattle on a farm in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Thompson, Bronwen Eleanor. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (MSc (Veterinary Science)--University of Pretoria, 2007. / Includes bibliographical references.
8

Salivary gland transcriptome of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Genu, Siyamcela 11 1900 (has links)
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick of veterinary and health importance globally, transmitting Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Tick control is important and needed to prevent livestock diseases caused by tick-transmitted pathogens. Traditionally, tick control methods have resulted in development of acaricide-resistant ticks, environmental pollution and meat and milk contamination. Therefore, there is a need for alternative method and vaccines directed against tick feeding. The aim of this study was to identify proteins involved in tick feeding, tickhost-pathogen interactions and tick reproduction. Consequently, these will help in identification of antigens with the ultimate goal of developing anti-tick vaccines. R. (B.) microplus female ticks were collected at five different feeding stages. RNA was isolated from the salivary gland extracts (SGEs). The cDNA libraries were synthesized and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq technology. Transcriptome data was analyzed with CLC Genomics Workbench, Trinity and Minia. The SGEs were also used to isolate the fractions: membrane, soluble and pellet protein for proteomic analysis. The proteomics data was analysed with Mascot, X!Tandem and Scaffold. Both the transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed the presence of major secretory protein families such as Kunitz, lipocalins, serpins, cement proteins and metalloproteases, while the majority of transcripts coded for housekeeping genes. / National Research Foundation (South Africa) / Life and Consumer Science / M. Sc. (Life Science)
9

Caracterização da inibição da proteína glicogênio sintase quinase 3B de Rhipicephalus microplus

Schuler, Aline Domingues January 2014 (has links)
O Rhipicephalus microplus é um parasita obrigatório hematófago, monoxeno, que gera grande impacto econômico a partir da ação espoliativa sobre o seu hospedeiro preferencial. A glicogênio sintase quinase 3 (GSK-3), uma proteína altamente conservada e ubiquamente expressa entre diversas espécies, foi identificada no carrapato bovino sob a isoforma GSK-3β. Envolvida na modulação da atividade da proteína glicogênio sintase, como um agente regulador da síntese de glicogênio, essa proteína atua no metabolismo energético do R. microplus. A GSK-3 também está envolvida na via de sinalização Wnt, e por isso, já foi descrita como uma quinase essencial para a formação do embrião, estando diretamente envolvida no processo reprodutivo deste carrapato. Neste contexto, a GSK-3β é uma candidata para o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas de controle do carrapato bovino. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a participação da proteína GSK-3β na fisiologia do R. microplus a partir da inibição de sua atividade. Ensaios in vitro e in vivo foram realizados para testar a inibição química e imunológica da atividade dessa proteína. Anticorpos contra peptídeos sintéticos baseados na sequência da GSK-3β (anti- SRm0218 e anti-SRm86100) usados neste trabalho não foram capazes de inibir a atividade dessa proteína, no entanto, a inibição da GSK-3β foi alcançada quando células embrionárias de R. microplus foram submetidas à inibição química, por meio de um inibidor específico. Este resultado sustenta o potencial dessa proteína como alvo para o desenvolvimento de uma alternativa de controle do carrapato bovino, pois a sua inibição possivelmente atuaria negativamente na capacidade reprodutiva do carrapato R. microplus. / Rhipicephalus microplus is a monogenetic, hematophagous ectoparasite that has a large economic impact due to associated losses in the cattle industry. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein in several species. It has been identified as GSK-3β isoform in the cattle tick, and is involved in the modulation of glycogen synthase activity, as a regulator of glycogen synthesis with a role in energy metabolism of R. microplus. GSK-3β is also involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is a fundamental kinase for embryo development, and is directly linked with R. microplus reproductive process. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of GSK-3β in R. microplus physiology by inhibiting its activity. In vitro and in vivo assays were carried out to test its immunological and chemical inhibition. Rabbit antibodies against synthetic peptides based on GSK-3β sequence (anti-SRm0218 and anti-SRm86100) used in this work were not capable to inhibit GSK- 3β activity, but GSK-3β inhibition was reached when R. microplus embryo cells were cultivated with a specific inhibitor. This result supports the potential of this protein as a target to develop a new cattle tick control method, because its inhibition probably acts detrimentally in the reproductive capacity of the tick.
10

Caracterização da inibição da proteína glicogênio sintase quinase 3B de Rhipicephalus microplus

Schuler, Aline Domingues January 2014 (has links)
O Rhipicephalus microplus é um parasita obrigatório hematófago, monoxeno, que gera grande impacto econômico a partir da ação espoliativa sobre o seu hospedeiro preferencial. A glicogênio sintase quinase 3 (GSK-3), uma proteína altamente conservada e ubiquamente expressa entre diversas espécies, foi identificada no carrapato bovino sob a isoforma GSK-3β. Envolvida na modulação da atividade da proteína glicogênio sintase, como um agente regulador da síntese de glicogênio, essa proteína atua no metabolismo energético do R. microplus. A GSK-3 também está envolvida na via de sinalização Wnt, e por isso, já foi descrita como uma quinase essencial para a formação do embrião, estando diretamente envolvida no processo reprodutivo deste carrapato. Neste contexto, a GSK-3β é uma candidata para o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas de controle do carrapato bovino. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a participação da proteína GSK-3β na fisiologia do R. microplus a partir da inibição de sua atividade. Ensaios in vitro e in vivo foram realizados para testar a inibição química e imunológica da atividade dessa proteína. Anticorpos contra peptídeos sintéticos baseados na sequência da GSK-3β (anti- SRm0218 e anti-SRm86100) usados neste trabalho não foram capazes de inibir a atividade dessa proteína, no entanto, a inibição da GSK-3β foi alcançada quando células embrionárias de R. microplus foram submetidas à inibição química, por meio de um inibidor específico. Este resultado sustenta o potencial dessa proteína como alvo para o desenvolvimento de uma alternativa de controle do carrapato bovino, pois a sua inibição possivelmente atuaria negativamente na capacidade reprodutiva do carrapato R. microplus. / Rhipicephalus microplus is a monogenetic, hematophagous ectoparasite that has a large economic impact due to associated losses in the cattle industry. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein in several species. It has been identified as GSK-3β isoform in the cattle tick, and is involved in the modulation of glycogen synthase activity, as a regulator of glycogen synthesis with a role in energy metabolism of R. microplus. GSK-3β is also involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is a fundamental kinase for embryo development, and is directly linked with R. microplus reproductive process. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of GSK-3β in R. microplus physiology by inhibiting its activity. In vitro and in vivo assays were carried out to test its immunological and chemical inhibition. Rabbit antibodies against synthetic peptides based on GSK-3β sequence (anti-SRm0218 and anti-SRm86100) used in this work were not capable to inhibit GSK- 3β activity, but GSK-3β inhibition was reached when R. microplus embryo cells were cultivated with a specific inhibitor. This result supports the potential of this protein as a target to develop a new cattle tick control method, because its inhibition probably acts detrimentally in the reproductive capacity of the tick.

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