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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Clock Distribution Network Optimization by Sequential Quadratic Programing

Mekala, Venkata 2010 May 1900 (has links)
Clock mesh is widely used in microprocessor designs for achieving low clock skew and high process variation tolerance. Clock mesh optimization is a very diffcult problem to solve because it has a highly connected structure and requires accurate delay models which are computationally expensive. Existing methods on clock network optimization are either restricted to clock trees, which are easy to be separated into smaller problems, or naive heuristics based on crude delay models. A clock mesh sizing algorithm, which is aimed to minimize total mesh wire area with consideration of clock skew constraints, has been proposed in this research work. This algorithm is a systematic solution search through rigorous Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). The SQP is guided by an efficient adjoint sensitivity analysis which has near-SPICE(Simulation Program for Integrated Circuits Emphasis)-level accuracy and faster-than-SPICE speed. Experimental results on various benchmark circuits indicate that this algorithm leads to substantial wire area reduction while maintaining low clock skew in the clock mesh. The reduction in mesh area achieved is about 33%.
2

Design and prototyping of temperature resilient clock distribution networks

Natu, Nitish Umesh 22 May 2014 (has links)
Clock Distribution Networks play a vital role in performance and reliability of a system. However, temperature gradients observed in 3D ICs hamper the functionality of CDNs in terms of varying skew and propagation delay. This thesis presents two compensation techniques, Adaptive Voltage and Controllable Delay, to overcome these problems. The compensation methods are validated using a FPGA-based test vehicle. Modification in traditional buffer design are also presented and the performance as well as the area and power overhead of both the implementations is compared.
3

Case Studies on Clock Gating and Local Routign for VLSI Clock Mesh

Ramakrishnan, Sundararajan 2010 August 1900 (has links)
The clock is the important synchronizing element in all synchronous digital systems. The difference in the clock arrival time between sink points is called the clock skew. This uncertainty in arrival times will limit operating frequency and might cause functional errors. Various clock routing techniques can be broadly categorized into 'balanced tree' and 'fixed mesh' methods. The skew and delay using the balanced tree method is higher compared to the fixed mesh method. Although fixed mesh inherently uses more wire length, the redundancy created by loops in a mesh structure reduces undesired delay variations. The fixed mesh method uses a single mesh over the entire chip but it is hard to introduce clock gating in a single clock mesh. This thesis deals with the introduction of 'reconfigurability' by using control structures like transmission gates between sub-clock meshes, thus enabling clock gating in clock mesh. By using the optimum value of size for PMOS and NMOS of transmission gate (SZF) and optimum number of transmission gates between sub-clock meshes (NTG) for 4x4 reconfigurable mesh, the average of the maximum skew for all benchmarks is reduced by 18.12 percent compared to clock mesh structure when no transmission gates are used between the sub-clock meshes (reconfigurable mesh with NTG =0). Further, the research deals with a ‘modified zero skew method' to connect synchronous flip-flops or sink points in the circuit to the clock grids of clock mesh. The wire length reduction algorithms can be applied to reduce the wire length used for a local clock distribution network. The modified version of ‘zero skew method’ of local clock routing which is based on Elmore delay balancing aims at minimizing wire length for the given bounded skew of CDN using clock mesh and H-tree. The results of ‘modified zero skew method' (HC_MZSK) show average local wire length reduction of 17.75 percent for all ISPD benchmarks compared to direct connection method. The maximum skew is small for HC_MZSK in most of the test cases compared to other methods of connections like direct connections and modified AHHK. Thus, HC_MZSK for local routing reduces the wire length and maximum skew.

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