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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

In vitro drug-herb interaction potential of African medicinal plant products used by Type II diabetics

Fang, Yuan Yuan January 2011 (has links)
In Africa, use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes is very common. However, efficacy on co-administering of medicinal plants with therapeutic drugs hasn't been fully determined, especially for African medicinal plants. The current study focused on assessing the in vitro modulation effects of three popular African medicinal plants, namely: Aloe ferox, Sutherlandia frutescens and Prunus africana (including five commercial preparations containing these medicinal plants) on two of the most important anti-diabetic drug metabolising enzymes, Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 2C9 and CYP3A4 and a key drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Vivid® microsome-based screening kits were used to assess inhibitory potency of plants preparations on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzymes activities. The study showed that P. africana was a more potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activity than the corresponding positive controls Ginkgo biloba and St. John's wort, which are known to cause clinically significant drug-herb interactions. S. frutescens leaf extract demonstrated potent to moderate inhibition on both the tested CYP activities, while its commercial products (Promune® and Probetix®) possessed moderate to mild inhibitory effects on the activities of both CYPs. Potent inhibitory effect on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 was seen with Aloe Ferox®. Prosit® and Aloes powder® showed potent to moderate inhibition on CYP2C9 activity and moderate to mild inhibition on CYP3A4 activity. In addition to CYP450 activity, the present study also investigated the effects of the selected medicinal plant products on the activity of the main drug efflux protein, P-gp. A screening assay was specifically developed to assess the potential for herbal remedies to interact with P-gp mediated drug absorption. The assay is based on the principle of the reversal of drug resistance in modified Caco-2 cells specifically altered to express high iv efflux protein activity. These cells display a multidrug resistance phenotype and the addition of a plant extract containing a P-gp inhibitor or substrate will inhibit or compete with any cytotoxic drug and consequently reverse the drug resistance. The suitability of the assay was confirmed using a known P-gp inhibitor. The study observed that the anti-proliferation effect of vinblastine was significantly enhanced in vinblastine-resistant Caco-2 cells, which have high P-gp expression, when they were exposed to the selected African herbal preparations. This observation indicates that the studied plant preparations may alter P-gp functionality and therefore lead to interference with the absorption of co-administered drugs. The outcomes of this study provide useful information on whether there are any potential drug-herb interactions between the commonly used African medicinal plants and oral anti-diabetic drugs, at the level of CYP and P-gp drug metabolism and could contribute to better therapeutic management of Type II diabetics. However these predicted interactions will need to be verified in a clinical setting.

The self-management strategies for diabetic patients under treatment in the primary health care facilities of the Sekhukhune District of the Elias Motsoaledi Municipality in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

Makofane, Pheladi Doreen January 2019 (has links)
Thesis (M. A. (Nursing Science)) -- University of Limpopo, 2019 / Background: Non-attendance of diabetic patients at primary health care facilities for scheduled appointments has been identified as one of the most pressing issues in chronic illness, including diabetes mellitus, management and results into uncontrolled illnesses. Diabetes mellitus has an increased mortality and morbidity rate, thus has been identified as the second most frequent killer disease in South Africa. Aim of the study: The purpose of the study is to determine self-management strategies to maintain a healthy life for diabetic patients under treatment in primary health care facilities in the Sekhukhune District. Methods: A qualitative, phenomenological, explorative and descriptive study design was conducted in 5 clinics of the Sekhukhune District in the Elias Motswaledi Municipality in Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using semi-structured guide. An non-probability purposive sampling method was used to select participants until data saturation was reached. Data were analysed using Tech’s coding qualitative data analysis approach. Results: The findings of this research reveal that diabetic patients know the importance of adherence to diet. However, they also elaborated on the challenges they face, like inability to afford proper diet and their stress levels. They are aware of predisposing factors and recommend support structures like food parcels as well as adhering to the prescribed treatment. Conclusion and recommendations: Diabetic patients lack self-management strategies to maintain their quality of life when diagnosed with diabetes. Furthermore, the study concludes that diabetics lack encouragement and empowerment from health care workers and their families. The study recommends that diabetic patients adhere to a prescribed diet and treatment and that they could be offered food parcels and taught how to avoid factors that could trigger stress. Additionally, it is recommended that support structures be developed to assist diabetic patients about self-management strategies that they could use in order to maintain a good quality of v life. It is also recommended that the Department of Health employ Home-Based Carers in the facilities to assist diabetic patients with their day-to-day care.

Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in the maintenance of β cell function

Maganti Vijaykumar, Aarthi 08 May 2015 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Indiana University School of Medicine / The islet β cell is central to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis as the β cell is solely responsible for the synthesis of Insulin. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing β cell function is crucial to designing therapies for diabetes. Pdx1, the master transcription factor of the β cell, is required for the synthesis of proteins that maintain optimal β cell function such as Insulin and glucose transporter type 2. Previous studies showed that Pdx1 interacts with the lysine methyltransferase Set7/9, relaxing chromatin and increasing transcription. Because Set7/9 also methylates non-histone proteins, I hypothesized that Set7/9-mediated methylation of Pdx1 increases its transcriptional activity. I showed that recombinant and cellular Pdx1 protein is methylated at two lysine residues, Lys123 and Lys131. Lys131 is involved in Set7/9 mediated augmented transactivation of Pdx1 target genes. Furthermore, β cell-specific Set7/9 knockout mice displayed glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of Pdx1 target genes. Our results indicate a previously unappreciated role for Set7/9 in the maintenance of Pdx1 activity and β cell function. β cell function is regulated on both the transcriptional and translational levels. β cell function is central to the development of type 1 diabetes, a disease wherein the β cell is destroyed by immune cells. Although the immune system is considered the primary instigator of the disease, recent studies suggest that defective β cells may initiate the autoimmune response. I tested the hypothesis that improving β cell function would reduce immune infiltration of the islet in the NOD mouse, a mouse model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes. Prediabetic NOD mice treated with pioglitazone, a drug that improves β cell function, displayed an improvement in β cell function, a reduction in β cell death, accompanied by reductions in β cell autoimmunity, indicating that β cell dysfunction assists in the development of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in β cell function is essential for the development of therapies for diabetes.

The impact of health beliefs and culture on health literacy and treatment of diabetes among French speaking West African immigrants

Ndiaye, Malick 01 February 2010 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Talks about health literacy, beliefs about health of immigrants from the French speaking countries of West Africa in the USA. How they handle diabetes, navigate the health care system and how they get their information.

Mobile Technology to Improve Adherence in Patients with Diabetes: Systematic Review

Portillo, Wilfredo 20 August 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and the need for vigilant monitoring of serum glucose levels lends itself well to prompt medical intervention by healthcare providers that can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality and improve patient quality of life. The effect of intervention in diabetes can be assessed by following objective laboratory measurements such as hemoglobin A1C, which is abnormal with poorly controlled diabetes and returns to normal with proper management. There are mobile technologies now available that allow for self-monitoring and intervention in this patient population. Using a systematic approach this paper will assess the benefits of Short Message Services and mobile technology in managing patients with diabetes and improving adherence and other outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and disadvantages the use of mobile technology could have in the management of diabetes. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review of articles on this topic was performed. A total of 759 articles were initially identified by searching various search engines, from which only 39 articles met all of the inclusion/exclusion criteria of this systematic review. FINDINGS: The initial review of literature indicated that the use of mobile technology in patients with diabetes resulted in improved disease outcomes as indicated by parameters such as a decrease in hemoglobin A1C, and an increase in sustainable blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Mobile technology is found to be a promising tool in the management of diabetes, but further research is needed because there is a lack of reliable studies, trials, and systematic reviews. Physicians and other healthcare professionals are rapidly adopting mobile technology for use in clinical practice because they understand the rising phenomenon of mobile technology.

Development and implementation of an educational programme to enhance health literacy on prescribed medication instruction among diabetes mellitus patients on treatment at Ga-Dikgale Village Clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

Ngoatle, Charity January 2021 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.(Nursing Science)) -- University of Limpopo, 2021 / Health literacy related to medication use or instructions is crucial to diabetes mellitus patients. The verbal or written instructions are given to diabetes mellitus patients regarding medication use is important to improve patient care, safety, and compliance to treatment. However, the information provided to diabetes mellitus patients regarding medication use is not known as they continue to experience complications. The study aimed to develop and implement an educational programme, to enhance health literacy on prescribed medication instructions among diabetes mellitus patients on treatment at Ga-Dikgale village clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge, and practices of diabetes mellitus patients on treatment. Thus, to describe the provided information regarding prescribed medication usage contained in the diabetes mellitus medication packaging, medicine leaflets, and prescriptions. Therefore, to also describe the effects of poor health literacy on prescribed medication instructions among diabetes mellitus patients on treatment at Ga- Dikgale village clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected using a mixed-method approach and a mixed-method sampling technique was used to select 18 participants for the qualitative strand. Whereas, there were 137 respondents for the quantitative strand. Tesch’s proposed eight steps to analyse the data were adopted to analyse the qualitative data and SSPS version 25 was used for analysing quantitative data. The results showed the following findings: patients lack knowledge about diabetes as a disease, misinterpret medication instructions, and are noncompliant to the treatment. This non-compliance is intensified by negligence and poor comprehension of medication instructions. As a result, to help diabetes mellitus patients with compliance with diabetes treatment, ongoing implementation of the educational programme should be instituted. The Limpopo’s Department of Health has to offer in-service vii education to the health professionals, who dispense medications on the interpretation of medication instructions. The high school curriculum is ought to incorporate health literacy to prescribe medication instructions. / National Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIHSS) and South African Humanities Deans Association (SAHUDA)

The effect of Cyclopia maculata extract on β-cell function, protection against oxidative stress and cell survival

Chellan, Nireshni 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Insights into the role of oxidative stress and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) reveals an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics that directly protect and preserve β-cells. The protective role of dietary antioxidants, such as plant polyphenols, against oxidative stress induced diseases, including T2D, is increasingly under scrutiny. Polyphenol-rich extracts of Cyclopia spp, containing mangiferin, may provide novel therapeutics. An aqueous extract of unfermented Cyclopia maculata, containing more than 6 % mangiferin, was assessed for its protective effect in pancreatic β-cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo under conditions characteristic of T2D. The effect of mangiferin was also evaluated in vitro and ex vivo, with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant control. In this study, we established in vitro toxicity models in RIN-5F insulinoma cells based on conditions β-cells are exposed to in T2D; i.e. lipotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress conditions. To achieve this, cells were exposed to the following stressors: palmitic acid (PA), a pro-inflammatory cytokine combination and streptozotocin (STZ), respectively. Thereafter, the ability of the C. maculata extract, mangiferin and NAC to protect RIN-5F cells from the effects of these stressors was assessed by measuring β-cell viability, function and oxidative stress. Cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, adenosine triphosphate and annexin-V and propidium iodide assays. Cell function was evaluated by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion, cell proliferation and cellular calcium. To assess oxidative stress in the RIN-5F cells, diaminofluorescein-FM and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity were measured. The in vitro findings were then verified in isolated pancreatic rat islets using methods and models established in the RIN-5F experiments. The protective effect of the extract, NAC and metformin was assessed in STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats, using two treatment regimes, i.e. by treating rats with established diabetes and by pretreating rats prior to induction of diabetes by STZ. Glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and pancreatic morphology were assessed by performing an oral glucose tolerance test, measuring serum insulin, triglycerides, nitrites, catalase and glutathione. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrotyrosine were also assessed. Immunohistochemical labelling of pancreata with insulin, glucagon and MIB-5 was used for morphological assessment. The extract improved β-cell viability, function and attenuated oxidative stress, most apparently in STZ and PA induced toxicity models comparable with NAC both in vitro and in isolated islets. Mangiferin was not as effective, showing only marginal improvement in RIN-5F cell and islet function, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment of STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats with extract was as effective as, if not better than, metformin in improving glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and pancreatic islet morphology related to improved β-cell function. This study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of unfermented C. maculata was able to protect pancreatic β-cells from STZ and PA induced toxicity in vitro and ex vivo. In vivo, pretreatment with the extract improved glucose metabolism and pancreatic islet morphology in STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Insigte oor die rol wat oksidatiewe stres en pankreas β-sel disfunksie in die patogenese van tipe 2-diabetes (T2D) speel, bied 'n geleentheid vir die ontwikkeling van nuwe terapeutiese middels wat β-selle direk daarteen beskerm. Die beskermende rol van antioksidante in die dieët soos plantaardige polifenole teen oksidatiewe stres geinduseerde siektes soos T2D, is toenemend onder die soeklig. Polifenolryk ekstrakte van Cyclopia spp wat mangiferin bevat mag nuwe terapeutiese middels lewer. ‘n Waterekstrak van ongefermenteerde Cyclopia maculata wat meer as 6% mangiferin bevat, is ondersoek vir sy beskermende effek op pankreas ß-selle in vitro, ex vivo en in vivo teen kondisies kenmerkend aan T2D. Die effek van mangiferin is ook in vitro en ex vivo geëvalueer, met N-asetielsistien (NAC) as 'n antioksidant kontrole. In hierdie studie is in vitro toksisiteitsmodelle in RIN-5F insulinoomselle gevestig. Die modelle is gebaseer op toestande waaraan β-selle blootgestel word tydens T2D; d.w.s. lipotoksisiteit, inflammasie en oksidatiewe stres. Hiervoor is die selle aan die volgende stressors blootgestel: palmitiensuur (PA), ‘n pro-inflammatoriese sitokien mengsel en streptozotosien (STZ). Vervolgens is die vermoë van die C. maculata ekstrak, mangiferin en NAC om die RIN-5Fselle teen hierdie stressors te beskerm, beoordeel deur die meting van β-sellewensvatbaarheid, funksie en oksidatiewe stres. Sellewensvatbaarheid is bepaal met 3-(4,5-dimetielthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-difenieltetrazolium bromied, adenosientrifosfaat en anneksien-V and propidium jodied toetse. Selfunksie is geëvalueer d.m.v. glukose gestimuleerde insuliensekresie, selproliferasie en sellulêre kalsium bepaling. Oksidatiewe stres in die RIN-5Fselle is geëvalueer d.m.v. diaminofluorescein-FM en dihidroethidium fluoressensie bepalings, asook meting van superoksied dismutase ensiemaktiwiteit. Die in vitro bevindings is daarna in geїsoleerde rot pankreaseilande bevestig deur die metodes en modelle wat in die RIN-5F eksperimente gebruik is. Die antidiabetiese effekte van die ekstrak, NAC en metformien in STZ-geїnduseerde diabetiese Wistar rotte is bepaal d.m.v. twee behandlingsregimes, d.w.s. die behandeling van rotte met gevestigde diabetes of deur die behandeling voor die induksie van diabetes te begin. Glukose metabolisme, oksidatiewe stres en veranderinge in die pankreasmorfologie is ondersoek d.m.v. orale glukose toleransie toetse en die bepaling van serum insulien, trigliseriedes, nitriete, katalase en glutationien. Hepatiese tiobarbituursuur reaktiewe stowwe en nitrotirosien is ook geëvalueer. Immunohistochemiese kleuring van pankreas snitte is gebruik vir morfologiese assessering van insulien, glukagon en MIB-5. Die ekstrak het mees opvallend β-sel lewensvatbaarheid en funksie verbeter, terwyl oksidatiewe stres verminder is in die STZ- en PA-geїnduseerde toksisiteitmodelle. Bogenoemde effekte van die ekstrak in vitro en in die geїsoleerde eilande was vergelykbaar met die van NAC. Mangiferin was minder effektief, met slegs ‘n marginale verbetering in die funksie van RIN-5Fselle en eilande, asook t.o.v. oksidatiewe stres. Behandeling van die Wistar rotte met die ekstrak voor induksie van diabetes met STZ was net so effektief, of selfs beter as metformien in terme van verbeterde glukosetoleransie, trigliseriedvlakke en die morfologie van pankreas eilande wat verband gehou het met β-sel funksie. Hierdie studie het getoon dat die waterekstrak van ongefermenteerde C. maculata pankreas β-selle teen veral STZ- en PA-geїnduseerde toksisiteit in vitro en ex vivo beskerm het. In vivo het behandeling met die ekstrak voor en na induksie van diabetes, glukosemetabolisme en die morfologie van pankreas eilande in STZ-geїnduseerde diabetiese Wistar rotte verbeter.

Dietary intake, diet-related knowledge and metabolic control of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, aged 6-10 years attending the paediatric diabetic clinics at Grey's Hospital, Pietermaritzburg and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal.

January 2007 (has links)
The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake, diet-related knowledge and metabolic control in children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus between the ages of 6-10 years attending the Paediatric Diabetic Clinics at Grey’s Hospital, Pietermaritzburg and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. This was a cross sectional observational study that was carried out in a total of 30 subjects out of a possible 35 subjects that qualified for inclusion in the study from both the Grey’s Hospital clinic (n=8) and IALCH clinic (n=22). The dietary intake was assessed in a total of 25 subjects using a three day dietary record (n=20) and a 24 hour recall of the third day of the record (n=16). Diet-related knowledge was assessed using a multiple choice questionnaire. Metabolic control was assessed using the most recent HbA1c and the mean HbA1c results over the previous 12 months from the date of data collection. Height and weight measurements were also carried out. Information on socioeconomic status and education status of the caregivers was obtained from 22 caregivers through follow-up phone calls. All measurements except for dietary intake were obtained from all subjects participating in the study. The mean percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy was very similar to the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Consensus Guidelines (2002). The mean percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy from the 3 day dietary records and the 24 hour recalls were as follows: carbohydrate (52% and 49%); sucrose (2% and 2%); protein (16% and 17%); fat (32% and 34%). Micronutrient intake was adequate for all micronutrients except for calcium and vitamin D which showed low intakes. The mean diet-related knowledge score for the sample was 67% with significantly higher scores in children older than 8 years of age. The latest HbA1c for the sample was 9.7% and the mean HbA1c over the previous 12 months from the date of data collection was 9.6%. There was a significant positive correlation between age of the participant and the latest HbA1c (r = 0.473; p=0.008) and a significant negative correlation between the education level of the caregivers and the latest HbA1c (r = - 0.578; p=0.005) and the mean HbA1c over 12 months (r = - 0.496; p=0.019). Significant differences were found between African and Indian children respectively for HbA1c, with higher values in African children. There was no correlation between BMI for age and latest HbA1c (r = 0.203, p=0.282) or mean HbA1c over 12 months (r = 0.101, p=0.594). Z score for BMI for age was also not correlated with latest HbA1c (r = 0.045, p=0.814) or mean HbA1c over 12 months (r = - 0.012, p=0.951). Children from the Grey’s Hospital Clinic were found to have higher HbA1c values (p=0.001) and lower diet-related knowledge scores as compared to the children from the IALCH Clinic (p=0.038). It should be noted that the ethnic and racial composition of the children attending these two clinics differed. In conclusion the macronutrient intake in this sample was found to be similar to the ISPAD Consensus Guidelines (2002) while calcium and vitamin D intakes were low. Overall this sample displayed good diet-related knowledge while metabolic control was found to be poor. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2007.

How to improve diabetic care in the Wesbank/ Ilingu Lethu suburb of Malmesbury, Western Cape

Beukes, Daniel Wilhelm 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MMed) -- Stellenbosch University, 2010. / Bibliography / Introduction: Diabetes in Africa has been described as a pandemic, with the prevalence in South Africa estimated at 4.5% of the population. Despite clear national guidelines from the Society of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa, an unpublished quality improvement cycle in 2007 has shown poor patient knowledge with associated uncontrolled glycaemic and hypertensive control in diabetic patients in a district health system. The purpose of the study was to identify possible reasons for this and to find solutions for improving diabetic care within the Wesbank/ Ilingu Lethu suburb of Malmesbury, Western Cape. Methods: A cooperative inquiry group was established, consisting of primary health care providers at a district hospital and a primary health care clinic. The inquiry completed several cycles of action-reflection over a period of eight months, and included training in diabetic related topics and critical reflection techniques. At the end of the inquiry consensus was reached on key findings by group and learning within the group. Findings: Consensus was expressed in two key findings. The group identified and prioritized continuity of care and diabetic education key areas where diabetic care could be improved in the research population. The first was addressed by initiating diabetic registries, establishment of a regular diabetic clinic, implementation of a diabetic schedule within the medical records and the forming of a diabetic team that could support continuity of relationships, clinical management and organisation of care between both facilities. The diabetic team involved non-governmental organizations, private health providers and the community to increase awareness and develop capacity to improve diabetic care. The other finding confirmed diabetic education as a critical area in diabetic self management. The diabetic team initiated a diabetic community forum for educational and informative group activities. There was also continued professional development with education sessions within the cooperative inquiry group themselves. Conclusions: Improving diabetic care through continuity of care and education is well supported in known evidence based literature. The challenge is to translate/ transfer the available knowledge and render it operational and clinical in any health setting. The co-operative inquiry process was a valuable tool to identify, prioritized and addresses unique challenges for improving diabetic care in our specific context.

Views of patients on a group diabetic education programme using motivational interviewing in underserved communities in South Africa : qualitative study

Serfontein, Stephanus Johannes 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MFamMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes is a significant contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and to the reasons for encounter in primary care. There is little structured and systematic education of patients that supports self-care. This study was a qualitative assessment of a diabetes group education programme in Community Health Centres of the Cape Town Metropolitan District. The programme offered four sessions of group education and was delivered by trained health promoters using motivational interviewing as a communication style. The aim of the study was to evaluate the programme by exploring the experiences of the patients who attended. Methods Thirteen individual in depth interviews were conducted. Each patient had attended the educational programme and came from a different health centre in the intervention arm of a larger randomised controlled trial. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and then analyzed using the framework approach. Results Patients expressed that they gained useful new knowledge about diabetes. The use of educational material was experienced positively and enhanced recall and understanding of information. The general experience was that the health promoters were competent, utilised useful communication skills and the structure of sessions was suitable. Patients reported a change in behaviour especially with diet, physical activity, medication and foot care. There were organizational and infrastructural problems experienced specifically with regards to the suitability of the venue and communication of information regarding the timing and location of the sessions. Conclusion This study supports the wider implementation of this programme following consideration of recommendations resulting from patient feedback. However, only patients who attended the educational sessions were interviewed and the results of the larger controlled trial must still be obtained.

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