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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Active control of a diffraction grating interferometer for microscale devices

Schmittdiel, Michael C. January 2004 (has links)
Thesis (M. S.)--Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2004. / Dr. William P. King, Committee Member ; Dr. F. Levent Degertekin, Committee Member ; Dr. Thomas R. Kurfess, Committee Chair.

Development of grating light reflection spectroscopy for chemical sensing applications /

Smith, Sean A. January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 2000. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 182-184).

Optical grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator

Ang, Tze Wei January 1999 (has links)
The aim of this project is to fabricate highly efficient grating couplers in thin-film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, which have a silicon (Si) thickness of the order of 1 mum. These thin-film waveguides allow the development of higher speed Si optical modulators, sensors and vertical surface coupling for Si light emitting diodes (LEDs), Hence, SOI rectangular and blazed grating couplers were fabricated where the buried oxide layer in SOI was designed as a reflective layer. The former gratings were fabricated by electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching, while the latter gratings were fabricated by angled argon ion beam etching. Both types of grating were designed at the diffraction order of -1, for a wavelength of 1.3 mum. The fabricated rectangular gratings have grating heights of 0.14, 0.23, 0.30 and 0.44 mum and a pitch of 0.40 mum whereas the sawtooth blazed gratings have a grating depth of 0.08 mum and a period of 0.38 mum To our knowledge, no Si blazed gratings with a pitch of less than 500 nm have been fabricated before. The SOI rectangular grating couplers yield a maximum output efficiency of 71 +/- 5 % towards the superstrate, while the blazed grating couplers produce an output efficiency of 84 +/- 5 % towards the substrate. These experimental output efficiencies are the highest yet reported in SOI for each grating profile, respectively. In addition, an optical loss of 0.15 +/- 0.05 dB/cm of Unibond SOI was measured for the first time. Furthermore, the experimental output efficiencies of the grating couplers with various grating heights were found to be consistent with perturbation theory. Thus, our aim of designing and fabricating an highly efficient thin film SOI waveguide grating coupler has been achieved. These grating couplers may enhance the applications of integrated optics in Si, and may allow the development of devices such as those mentioned above.

An investigation into performance criteria for Fibre Bragg Grating sensors embedded in composite structures

Roberson, Craig Valentine 17 September 2014 (has links)
M.Ing. (Mechanical Engineering) / The dissertation explores the applications and limitations of optic Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for the purpose of structural health monitoring of high performance composite aerospace structures. The absence of a set of stringent performance criteria governing the form and function of a sensory system for embedded high performance applications highlights the major hurdle to be overcome before widespread acceptance of these technologies becomes apparent. The dissertation therefore develops through an extensive literature study a basic framework of performance criteria to be met by the sensory system upon which a prototype Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system can be further developed. The resolution of the performance criteria into categories of mechanical and non-mechanical performance allows independent evaluation of factors that directly affect the performance of the sensor (in terms of strength, embeddability and load carrying ability) as well as its functional performance (in terms of orientation, spatial resolution and measurement philosophy). The literature study uses the non-mechanical performance limitations as a guideline for the selection of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors as the sensory mechanism. The mechanical performance limitations of these specific sensors are then called into question and evaluated. Independent experiment campaigns are therefore developed to evaluate the mechanical and non-mechanical performance limitations such that a set of performance criteria can be developed governing the use of embedded sensory systems. Non mechanical performance with particular emphasis on sensor placement and orientation is investigated by simulating a fixed-free Euler Bernoulli cantilever using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The ability of the sensor to identify structural changes by measuring changes in modal response shows good results. Furthermore the inability of modal based monitoring to identify structural changes in the vicinity of modal inflection points is identified as an opportunity to locate structural deficiencies by monitoring multiple modes with known inflection point positions. The method also provides recommendations of sensor placement and orientation (close to the beam fixture and parallel with the neutral axis) such that the effectiveness of strain component measurements from all measurable modes is maximised. Mechanical performance of embedded FBG sensors is evaluated through an extensive fracture testing program which measures the fracture strains of fibre samples subjected to two-point bending. The fracture test program allows the quantification of the effects of the presence of the fibre’s protective polymer coating on fibre embeddability in composites, the consequent effects that the removal of this coating has on the mechanical performance and fracture behaviour of FBG sensors. These effects are qualified and mitigatory measures developed to improve the mechanical performance. A system of crack masking, hydrofluoric acid etching and fibre treatment is developed and statistical data analysis methods are employed and refined such that improvements in the mechanical properties of the FBG sensors can be quantified. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed mechanical performance improvements yields good results culminating in the development of a comprehensive set of mechanical performance criteria to facilitate further development of a reliable SHM system.

Realization of chirped fibre Bragg gratings by strain gradients and their applications for fibre dispersing compensation

Zhu, Yinian 05 September 2012 (has links)
M.Phil. / Linearly chirped fibre Bragg gratings can be used to compensate dispersions in a fibre transmission system. Various methods have been developed to chirp fibre gratings. It is proposed that a uniform period grating can be chirped by applying an axially linear strain gradient. In this project, we shall demonstate a novel method for making chirped fibre Bragg gratings, which involves bonding an unchirped fibre Bragg grating of 5cm length to the surface of a tapered stainless steel plate which is strained by bending or dilating. This allows a strain gradient to be formed along the grating length through the transferring of strains from the plate to the fibre. The profiles of tapered stainless steel plates have been determined by means of the finite element method and computer simulations to establish the strain gradient during loading. Ten conventional resistive strain gauges are also bonded on the other surface for strain measurements. Because of the strain gradient, the local Bragg wavelength is a function of the position along the length of the fibre grating so that the grating chirp is an automatic consequence of the strain gradient. This method provides the dynamic control of Bragg wavelength shift, peak reflectivity and spectral bandwidth, and its tunability is also suitable for optimising pulse compression and optical fibre dispersion compensation. Using couple-mode equations, we have also calculated the reflection response of a chirped fibre grating. It is shown that the close agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results suggests that the strain gradient technique provides good control of the Bragg grating chirp and the center wavelength of a chirped fibre Bragg grating.

Manufacturing of fibre bragg gratings for dispersion compensation

De Bruyn, Louis 30 November 2011 (has links)
M.Ing. / Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been manufactured for the first time in South Africa by means of the phase mask method. It is possible to manufacture not only uniform FBGs, but also chirped FBGs. The optical fibre that is used for imprinting the FBGs can also be hydrogen loaded locally. FBGs with a reflectivity of 99.7% and higher can be written by making use of the experimental setup presented in this thesis. It is possible to manufacture a FBG with a centre wavelength that has any value between the Bragg wavelength and approximately 6 nm lower than the Bragg wavelength. This is done by stretching the optical fibre prior to the writing process. FBGs have been simulated in MATLAB to get an idea of what one may expect during the manufacturing process. The program makes it possible to simulate the effects of changes in grating length, index modulation, pressure, temperature and strain on the centre wavelength of an FBG. Dispersion is explained in detail. Chromatic dispersion, which is part of dispersion as a whole, can be cancelled by making use of an FBG. The different techniques for the measurement of chromatic dispersion is explained. Some insight is given on dispersion (the pulse broadening in the time domain due to the different velocities of different wavelengths from the source's finite optical bandwidth) compensation. An FBG that was manufactured locally has been tested as a dispersion compensator. It was found that an FBG is effective in performing this function.

Development of a New Plasmonic Transducer for the Detection of Biological Species

Laffont, Emilie 25 January 2024 (has links)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, PCR tests were widely used for large-scale testing and screening. Yet, this technique requires bulky and time-consuming procedures to prepare the samples collected from the patients before their analysis by well-trained experts with expensive and specific equipment. PCR is therefore not competitive as a technique of detection for a widespread and rapid use in point-of-care sites. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for cheap and easy-to-implement biosensors. Surface plasmon resonance based sensors were suggested as a promising alternative in recent years. Indeed, they enable real-time and label-free detection of a wide range of analytes. That explains their widespread use in various fields of applications such as pharmacology, toxicology, food safety, and diagnosis. This thesis proposes and demonstrates a new plasmonic configuration of detection, which can address challenges posed by point-of-care settings. The gratings used as transducers in this configuration were fabricated based on laser interference lithography combined with a nanoimprinting process. The responses of these nanostructures interrogated by a p-polarized light beam result in a transfer of energy between two diffracted orders over an angular scan. This optical phenomenon termed as “optical switch”, was theoretically and experimentally investigated and optimized. The principle of detection based on this specific configuration was demonstrated for the detection of small variations in the bulk refractive index with solutions comprised of different ratios of de-ionized water and glycerol. A limit of detection in the range of 10−6 RIU was achieved. In addition, preliminary bio-assays obtained by combining this configuration with a functionalization are presented and demonstrate the selectivity and the potential of this new plasmonic configuration for biosensing applications. This thesis work paves the way for the use of the optical switch configuration as a biosensor aligned with low-cost manufacturing and relevant for diagnosing in point-of-care sites.

Active control of a diffraction grating interferometer for microscale devices

Schmittdiel, Michael C. 14 July 2004 (has links)
This thesis describes the creation of a metrology system based upon an actively controlled diffraction grating interferometer, which measures relative linear distances. The dynamics of this sensor are estimated based on experimental testing, and a suitable controller is designed to maintain the position of the sensor in the most sensitive operating region. This controller is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) processor, which allows for flexible programming and real-time control. The sample under test is mounted atop a three axis linear stage system, which allows the diffraction grating interferometer to scan across the surface of the device, creating maps of the static and dynamic measurements. The controller is shown to maintain the sensitivity of the sensor during this operation. This insures all data are taken on the same scale, creating more accurate results. The controller increases the signal to noise ratio as compared to the system without the controller. The specifications of the entire metrology system are detailed including the sensor and controller bandwidth, the vertical and horizontal resolution, and the signal to noise ratio. A case study utilizing a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) is presented. The sensor generates static and dynamic displacement maps of the surface of this MEMS device. The controller improves these measurements by maintaining a position of high sensitivity during operation. Finally, the preliminary results of a miniaturized version of this system are presented including the implementation of two fully independent parallel sensors. This allows for array implementation of these sensors, which is crucial for the batch fabrication photolithography techniques used to create many MEMS devices. Recommendations on the future work needed to complete the array implementation are given in conjunction with methods for increasing the resolution and robustness of the macroscale system described in this thesis.

Liquid crystal alignment on excimer laser irradiated polyimide

Newsome, Christopher James January 1999 (has links)
No description available.

Transmission diffraction gratings for soft x-ray spectroscopy and spatial period division

Hawryluk, Andrew M January 1982 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1982. / MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING. / Includes bibliographical references. / by Andrew Michael Hawryluk. / Ph.D.

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