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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Exposure and risk assessment of organic UV filters : from environmental occurrence to human biomonitoring study

Huang, Yanran 19 February 2020 (has links)
In recent years, the studies of emerging contaminants have received growing concerns due to their ambiguous fate and unclear effect to the water environment, aquatic organisms or even human. With the development of the analytical techniques, the increase detection rate of emerging contaminants is at a rapid pace that many of their fates and influence are still pending investigation. In this work, a group of organic UV filters, which is one of the vital categories of emerging contaminants are monitored. Organic UV filters, used as the major components in not only sunscreens but also other cosmetics products, have a widespread usage and large production volume for more than 80 years, causing the massive input towards the aquatic environment. To first investigate their environmental behaviours and impacts, the regional distribution of total nine commonly used organic UV filters was monitored along the southeast coastline of Shenzhen, which is the most rapid developing city in China with large population with the consideration of seasonal variation. In addition, the Shenzhen reservoirs, as the major sources of drinking water in Shenzhen, was also monitored together with the city tap water. The results indicated the extensive distribution of certain kinds of UV filters with obvious seasonal pattern, which may cause medium to high risk to aquatic organisms. And the incomplete removal of them in drinking water supply system resulting trace amount of UV filters to be detected in city tap water, may cause a general exposure of these UV filters towards all populations. Therefore, a quantitative analytical method for simultaneous detecting multiple classes UV filters in human urine samples has been developed and applied on more than 100 real samples for determining internal exposure. Similar UV filters were also detected in human urine samples compared with surface water while one of the most commonly used organic UV filters, Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate exhibited much lower detection rate and concentration in human urine. Then, biotransformation of Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate was examined in rats for the purpose of selecting suitable metabolites as exposure biomarkers. Several metabolites have been identified in urine and plasma by UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Two of its metabolites, 4-methoxycinnamic acid and 4' -methoxyacetophenone, were unambiguously identified by comparing with commercial standard. Excretion trend of Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and its two metabolites confirmed that most of the parent compound were quickly metabolized and excreted through urine samples. Herein, these three targeted compounds were further evaluated in two populations - female university students and school-aged children. Although Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate was not detected in 49 female university students, significant internal correlations were discovered among these three analytes in school-aged students and extensive detection of metabolites instead of parent compound was also confirmed. The third part of this thesis is to comprehensively monitor the internal exposure of UV filters and their metabolites, and also discover their potential adverse health impacts - obesity in Shanghai children and adolescents. Urinary concentration of certain kinds of UV filters were significantly higher in girls than in boys. However, further associations have been found with urinary Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate concentration and reduced adiposity outcomes only in boys, indicating it may have the potential to influence the metabolism in male population during growing stage. In short, a complete study of organic UV filters is presented in this thesis, from their environmental occurrence to metabolism in animal models, and finally to human exposure and potential health impacts. The widespread exposure and significant associations with adiposity outcomes can form a solid base for future comprehensive risk assessment of UV filters towards human health
12

Reconsidering exposure: The effects of dynamic contaminant plumes on aquatic organisms

Steele, Alexandra Nicole 29 April 2020 (has links)
No description available.
13

Hydrologic-Based Ecological Risk Assessment of Urban, Agriculture, and Coal Mining Impacts Upon Aquatic Habitat, Toxicity, and Biodiversity

Babendreier, Justin Eric 02 August 2000 (has links)
Urban, agriculture and coal mining land use/cover impacts upon aquatic habitat, toxicity and biodiversity were investigated in Leading Creek, a 388 km2 watershed in southeastern Ohio. Abandoned strip mine land (ASML) and active deep underground mines were examined along with abandoned near-surface underground mine land (AUML). The work focused on assessment of aquatic toxicity, water quality, and biodiversity through investigation of associated ecological responses for both treated and untreated AMD. Relations were examined among land use/cover, chemistry, and various ecological and toxicological endpoints. Sources of data (scale 1:24000) included Landsat5 imaging from 1988 and 1994, and directly digitized extents of underground mining activities dating to the 19th century, with more recently created strip mines. USEPA and Ohio EPA qualitative habitat scoring protocols were used. Land use/cover thresholds were established using ASML=3%, AUML=2% to 10%, Urban=3% to 5%, and Bare Soil=3%. Biodiversity was assessed using qualitative benthic macroinvertebrate taxon richness and abundance, for total and EPT groups, respectively. A better understanding of acid mine drainage (AMD) was demonstrated linking land use/cover, coal bed, sediment, and water column chemistry to aquatic ecotoxicity through examination of the origin and fate of sulfate, magnesium, iron, manganese, and zinc. Key findings in risk assessment of Leading Creek indicated that (1) abandoned near-surface underground mine lands (AUML) were associated with >90% of untreated AMD reaching Leading Creek; (2) degradation to aquatic ecology was primarily associated with water quality degradation due to AMD, not with sediment quality degradation; (3) modest habitat destruction, especially sedimentation effects, were observed for ASML>3%, and urbanization>5% in small subsheds; (4) unique chemical signatures differentiated mining techniques instream; and (5) in situ Corbicula fluminea growth rates were dependent upon drainage area. Sporadic signs of agricultural and urban impacts were indicated from acute toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and chronic in situ toxicity testing with C. fluminea. Both the ecotoxicological tests were shown to be reliable indicators of AMD impact from AUML, on watershed and subwatershed scales. AMD was strongly associated with depressed biodiversity, low pH, and elevated zinc. Ecotoxicity monitoring supported interconnections found between sediment and water chemistry, land use/cover, and biodiversity. / Ph. D.
14

BEE CAUSE: Is Legislative Action Protecting Bees from Neonicotinoids Justified?

Squire, Ursula A. 08 July 2016 (has links)
The potential harm caused to bees and other pollinators by the widespread use of neonicotinoids has the capacity to pose a real and immediate threat to both the environment and humans. The benefits that bees and other pollinators provide, combined with the potential of harm they may face, are important enough to warrant a more comprehensive testing apparatus by which to evaluate threats to their population. Environmentally, bees and other pollinators are an important piece of ecosystemic balance--from pest management to pollination of plants that are a part of many species' diet. Anthropologically speaking, the way of life humans have been accustomed to and even need in order to survive is also largely dependent on a healthy population of bees and other pollinators; up to 70% of plants and vegetables we eat are directly a result of pollinators, and one third of every mouthful humans consume is attributed to pollinators. Without a healthy population of pollinators, the agricultural variety and nutritional availability would drastically decrease. Moreover, these agricultural products pollinators are responsible for also affect billions of dollars on both a national and global level. In many ways, the economic stability of the United States is at an equal risk as the pollinators. For example, an inability to produce many of our own agricultural staples would leave local and regional livelihoods disrupted and change the United States' import/export position. Moreover, this is not just a national problem. Pollinators are responsible for over 150 billion dollars globally in agriculture. Many of the nutrients humans need to be healthy would be in short supply. While scientists continue to study the possible effects of neonicotinoids on pollinators, how should policy makers respond? In this thesis, I argue that the various and drastic ways in which pollinators impact our environment and every day life, combined with the potential of the harsh threats their collapse would entail, warrant a more stringent approach to the evaluation of potential harms like neonicotinoids. An ethical risk assessment, as I define one, would be an appropriate tool to apply to this situation to guide policy makers in drafting regulations even in the absence of scientific certainty. Ethical risk assessments are a tool by which to evaluate the moral and ethical responsibilities in a whole host of different scenarios, one of which is neonics and pollinators. In other words, this ethical risk assessment will be used as an instrument by which to determine whether or not there is a sufficient risk to the population of pollinators, thus determining whether regulation is appropriate. Through application of this risk assessment, I will show that in this particular case regulation is appropriate due to the risks neonics pose to pollinators in light of the evidence that we do have. I develop a set of criteria for an ethical risk assessment. The criteria are a result of a combination of existing literature and some novel connections I draw here. This list, I argue, is what constitutes an ethical risk assessment. Ethical risk assessment, grounded in Utility Theory, is appropriate here because of its calculative apparatus and sociopolitical applicability.
15

Regional scale risk assessment methodology using the relative risk model as a management tool for aquatic ecosystems in South Africa

05 November 2012 (has links)
Ph.D. (Zoology) / Due to the excessive utilisation of the ecological services of surface aquatic ecosystems in South Africa, the integrity state of these systems continues to decline resulting in the loss of key ecosystem services. This trend suggests that the national requirements to maintain a sustainable balance between the use and protection of these systems are not being met. In an attempt to address this status quo, all stakeholders of these systems need to become more closely engaged in the social and institutional decision making processes to manage these systems. Management plans need to be integrated and take a wide range of conservation and use objectives for specific ecosystems into account. Furthermore, approaches need to allow for the assessment of multiple stressors that have synergistic effects, while the unique characteristics of the ecosystem taken into consideration. Risk assessments entail assigning magnitudes and probabilities to hazards or anthropogenic activities or natural catastrophes that have adverse effects m ecosystems. In these assessments the existence of a hazard and the related uncertainty of its effects results in the formulation of risk. An Ecological Risk Assessment is a structured approach that describes, explains and organises scientific facts, laws and relationships, thereby providing a sound basis to develop sufficient protection measures for the environment, which facilitates the development of utilisation strategies for the environment. A Regional Scale Risk assessment using the Relative Risk Model (RRM) is a form of Ecological Risk Assessment that is carried out on a spatial scale where considerations of multiple sources of multiple stressors affecting multiple endpoints are allowed. The use of the RRM also allows for the characteristics of the landscape that may affect the risk estimate to be considered. This study is based on a research hypothesis that the RRM is a suitable water resources management tool that can address the risk assessment of multiple stressors in South African freshwater environments. To test this hypothesis this study aims to contextualise the RRM methodology within the current water resources management practices in South Africa and demonstrate the applicability of RRM within the South African water resources management framework. The applicability of the RRM will be tested using two case study regions. The case studies are the Elands River and its associated ecosystems in the upper Crocodile River catchment in Mpumalanga and the entire catchment of the Umvoti River in KwaZulu-Natal
16

Análise da interação entre substâncias húmicas e xenobióticos através de estudos ecotoxicológicos: propostas para a geração de tecnologias de detoxificação aquática / Study of humic substances and xenobiotics interaction using ecotoxicological studies: aquatic detoxification technologies purposes

Barbosa, Domingos Sávio 31 October 2008 (has links)
Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a interação entre substâncias húmicas e xenobióticos através de estudos ecotoxicológicos. O principal foco foi avaliar a resposta entre diferentes níveis tróficos em organismos aquáticos (fitoplanctônicos, zooplanctônicos, peixes e macroinvertebrados bentônicos) e terrestres (vegetais superiores, insetos e anelídeos) avaliando os efeitos diretos e indiretos das SH e de sua mistura com xenobióticos sobre os organismos. O reconhecido efeito das SH aumentarem ou reduzirem o efeito tóxico de algumas substâncias foi estudado. Os principais pontos para discussão são: a) SH podem reduzir ou estimular o crescimento algal (P. subcapitata); b) A presença de SH podem proteger os organismos contra efeitos tóxicos de metais, no entanto, a presença de Cd/Cu afeta negativamente o crescimento de C. xanthus. d) Em uma análise integrada de processos de remediação solo/água, a presença de SH afetou negativamente ou positivamente os efeitos tóxicos da atrazina em alguns organismos. A significância das SH como tecnologia é discutida. / This study focuses the interaction of humic substances and xenonbiotics, throw ecotixicological studies. The main point was quantify and qualify the ecotoxicological responses of several throphic levels of freshwater (algae, zooplankton, fishes and benthic organisms) and soil organisms (higth plants, insects and annelids) analyzing the direct and indirect effects of humic substances (HS) and their mixture on organisms. The recognized ability of HS on improve or reduce the toxic effect of same substances has been studied. The main points of discussion are: a) humic can be both reduce or stimulate the algal growth (P. subcapitata); b) The presence of HS can be protect aquatic organisms to negative effects of metals. However, the presence of mixture of Cd/Cu affect negatively the growth of C. xanthus; d) In a integrated analysis of remediation process in soil/water microcosm, the presence of HS displayed negative or positive effects on atrazine toxicity for some organisms. The value of humic technology was discussed.
17

Diet of the Purple Swamphen in south Florida and invasion pathways of nonnative avian species in Florida

Unknown Date (has links)
The spread of nonnative invasive species has become the second greatest threat to global biodiversity, making management of invasive species a critical component of the conservation of biodiversity worldwide. Managers and conservation biologists often lack basic life history data, as well as quantitative and theoretical models to predict risk of invasion or other negative effects. I contribute information to both categories by providing life history information (diet and morphology) of the Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) and by characterizing the invasion pathways that nonnative avian species in Florida follow. I found Purple Swamphens are predominantly eating and selecting for Eleocharis cellulosa. Additionally, there is a large amount of variation in nonnative avian species’ propensity to colonize natural habitat and the time it takes to do so. Nine out of 15 species investigated colonized natural habitat and the time it took them to do so ranged from 8 to 41 years. It is through a combination of various techniques that ecologists will begin to fully understand the importance of studying nonnative species as well as reducing the impact that nonnatives have on native ecosystems. / Includes bibliography. / Thesis (M.S.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2015 / FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
18

A comparative evaluation of ecosystem health of selected water bodies in the Olifants and Limpopo River systems using the health assessment index and parasite diversity as indicators

Madanire-Moyo, Grace Nyepai January 2011 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D. (Zoology)) --University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus), 2011 / South Africa's water resources are limited and scarce in global terms, due to the fact that the country's climate varies from desert to semi-desert in the west to sub-humid along the coastal area. The country is also expected to experience further variability in rainfall, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation as a result of climate change. At the projected population growth and economic development rates, it is unlikely that the projected demand on water resources in South Africa will be sustainable. An additional concern is the declining water quality due to domestic, mining and industrial pollution, and eutrophication as well as salinisation due to agricultural pollution. Thus, aquatic ecosystems must be protected, monitored and managed to ensure sustainable resource use. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare possible environmental deterioration by analysing fish health and parasite diversity in three dams within the Limpopo and Olifants River Systems by using the fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) and the Inverted Parasite Index (IPI). The intention of the study was to substantiate the theories behind the HAI and IPI in a bid to augment strategies to manage water quality, fish health and aquatic biodiversity. Seasonal surveys were carried out between April 2008 and April 2010 at three localities. The Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams are in a Nature Reserve located in a rural catchment, the Flag Boshielo Dam in an industrualised and mining catchment whereas the Return Water Dam is located on a platinum mining premise. Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) were collected with the aid of gill nets and used as indicator fish species. Fish were examined for external parasites after which they were weighed and measured. Blood was drawn and skin smears were made. The skin smears were examined with a dissecting microscope for the presence of parasites. Fish were killed, dissected and then examined as prescribed in the fish HAI. From the ecto- and endoparasite data collected, infection statistics and ecological parameters were calculated. The HAI values were calculated for each fish species at each sampling site. To verify the results of the HAI, water quality was included in the studyThe nutrients and mining related pollutants of the three dams differed to a great extent and showed a similar increasing trend in the order: Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams < Flag Boshielo Dam < Return water Dam. Our results were consistent with previous work describing Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams as essentially unimpacted and Flag Boshielo Dam as impacted with a combination of mining and agricultural effluents. The results have shown that the Return Water Dam is an extremely polluted site with high levels of nutrients and metals. Fish health of both species responded similarly to polluted sites although mean population HAI results showed that C. gariepinus was more affected in terms of haematocrit necropsy-related alterations. The top six metrics that correlated most to fish health scores were nearly the same for both species (i.e. haematocrit values, inverted ectoparasite index, condition of the kidney, liver, gills and skin). The parasite community of C. gariepinus comprised 19 metazoan species. Seventeen parasite species were recovered from fish sampled from Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams compared to 11 at Flag Boshielo Dam and four at the Return Water Dam. The parasite community of O. mossambicus comprised 20 metazoan species. A total of 19 species, 17 species, and 4 species of metazoan parasites from O. mossambicus were obtained from Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams, Flag Boshielo Dam and the Return Water Dam, respectively. In both fish species, the Shannon Wiener Index, the inverse Simpson Index, equitability and the number of metazoan parasite individuals were highest in fish from Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams. The results of this study emphasized the negative impacts of urbanization, agricultural and mining activities on the environment. The fish hosts collected in the mining premise supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of both heteroxenous and monoxenous species. The Return Water Dam may therefore be regarded as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate hosts have been depleted, enabling the survival of hardy parasite species only. Further studies should address the identification of parasite life stages that are more sensitive to pollutants / The National Research Foundation,the Flemish Interuniversity Council(VLIR-UOS),and the Division for Research Administration and Development,University of Limpopo
19

Mass Balance Tracer Techniques for Integrating in situ Soil Ingestion Rates into Human and Ecological Risk Assessments

Doyle, James 12 January 2012 (has links)
Quantitative soil ingestion studies employing a mass balance tracer approach have been used to determine soil ingestion rate for use in human health risk assessments (HHRAs). Past studies have focused on soil ingestion in populations living in urban/suburban environments and the results have been highly variable. Moreover, there is a paucity of reliable quantitative soil ingestion data to support human health risk assessments of other lifestyles that may be predisposed to ingesting soil, such as indigenous populations following traditional lifestyles. Thus, the primary objective of the research was to determine if populations following lifestyles typical of traditional land use practices in rural or wilderness areas ingest more soil than populations living in urban or suburban environments. Further, the research investigated the use of alternative mass balance tracers, specifically isotopes of the 238U and 232Th decay series, to reduce soil ingestion estimate variability. Mass balance tracer methods were developed and validated in a pilot canine study, and methods using isotope tracers were adapted to permit quantification of sediment ingestion in the benthic fish Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Shorthead Redhorse Sucker). A pilot human soil ingestion study of 7 subjects from an Aboriginal community in British Columbia was conducted over a 3-week period. The mean soil ingestion rate calculated using the daily means of the 4 elemental tracers with the lowest food-to-soil ratios (i.e., Al, Ce, La, Si) was observed to be approximately 74 mg d-1 (standard deviation 91 mg d-1), The median soil ingestion rate was 60 mg d-1, and the 90th percentile was 196 mg d-1. These soil ingestion rate estimates are higher than those currently recommended for HHRAs of adults, and higher than those obtained in most previous studies of adults. However, the estimates are much lower than the earlier qualitative assessments for subsistence lifestyles (i.e., 330-400 mg d-1). The study results also demonstrated that isotopes of the 238U and 232Th decay series radionuclide are not reliable mass balance tracers for estimating soil ingestion in humans; however, they may be useful for quantifying soil and sediment ingestion in wildlife.
20

Mass Balance Tracer Techniques for Integrating in situ Soil Ingestion Rates into Human and Ecological Risk Assessments

Doyle, James 12 January 2012 (has links)
Quantitative soil ingestion studies employing a mass balance tracer approach have been used to determine soil ingestion rate for use in human health risk assessments (HHRAs). Past studies have focused on soil ingestion in populations living in urban/suburban environments and the results have been highly variable. Moreover, there is a paucity of reliable quantitative soil ingestion data to support human health risk assessments of other lifestyles that may be predisposed to ingesting soil, such as indigenous populations following traditional lifestyles. Thus, the primary objective of the research was to determine if populations following lifestyles typical of traditional land use practices in rural or wilderness areas ingest more soil than populations living in urban or suburban environments. Further, the research investigated the use of alternative mass balance tracers, specifically isotopes of the 238U and 232Th decay series, to reduce soil ingestion estimate variability. Mass balance tracer methods were developed and validated in a pilot canine study, and methods using isotope tracers were adapted to permit quantification of sediment ingestion in the benthic fish Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Shorthead Redhorse Sucker). A pilot human soil ingestion study of 7 subjects from an Aboriginal community in British Columbia was conducted over a 3-week period. The mean soil ingestion rate calculated using the daily means of the 4 elemental tracers with the lowest food-to-soil ratios (i.e., Al, Ce, La, Si) was observed to be approximately 74 mg d-1 (standard deviation 91 mg d-1), The median soil ingestion rate was 60 mg d-1, and the 90th percentile was 196 mg d-1. These soil ingestion rate estimates are higher than those currently recommended for HHRAs of adults, and higher than those obtained in most previous studies of adults. However, the estimates are much lower than the earlier qualitative assessments for subsistence lifestyles (i.e., 330-400 mg d-1). The study results also demonstrated that isotopes of the 238U and 232Th decay series radionuclide are not reliable mass balance tracers for estimating soil ingestion in humans; however, they may be useful for quantifying soil and sediment ingestion in wildlife.

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