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51 
Sistema de geração distribuida fontes CA e CC conectado a rede monofasica e controle eletronico da qualidade da energia eletrica / Distribution generator systems with AC and DC sources connected to a singlehase feeder and electronic control of the power qualityMachado, Ricardo Quadros 02 January 2005 (has links)
Orientadores: Jose Antenor Pomilio, Simone Buso / Tese (doutorado)  Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computação / Made available in DSpace on 20180804T01:54:00Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1
Machado_RicardoQuadros_D.pdf: 40226020 bytes, checksum: 3daf262738d5d4691a16184af4e741f1 (MD5)
Previous issue date: 2004 / Resumo: Esta tese apresenta uma nova forma de conexão direta entre um gerador de indução trifásico e uma rede monofásica, situação típica de ambientes rurais, com possibilidade de geração local de energia. O funcionamento do sistema prevê que seja garantida ao usuário local energia elétrica de boa qualidade. Por energia de boa qualidade entendese: tensões senoidais e equilibradas, freqüência fixa e boa regulação de tensão. Para a rede monofásica, controlase o fluxo de potência de modo que o fator de potência resultante seja unitário. A obtenção destes comportamentos se dá com o uso de um conversor CCCA PWM trifásico, conectado em derivação no ponto de acoplamento das cargas locais. Por este conversor flui uma parcela da potência da carga relacionada com desequilíbrios e distorções. A maior parte da potência ativa não precisa ser processada pelo conversor, o que dá a esta solução um rendimento maior do que se obtém com as alternativas de dupla conversão. O sistema completo de geração distribuída pode receber energia, da geração CA (gerador de indução), de uma fonte CC (células a combustível, painéis fotovoltáicos ou bancos de baterias) conectada ao barramento CC do conversor PWM ou da rede monofásica. No caso de alimentação apenas pela rede, temse uma estrutura de conversão monotrifásica interativa com a linha / Abstract: This thesis proposes a novel solution to connect a threephase induction generator directly to a singlephase feeder. Typical situations are found in rural areas in which is
possible to obtain local power generation. High power quality at the customers such as sinusoidal and balanced voltages, constant frequency and regulated AC voltage, is provided. Additionally, unity power factor on the feeder is obtained. A threephase shunt voltage source inverter VSIPWM is connected at the point of common coupling. This converter processes a fraction of the load power that is associated with unbalances, reactive power and harmonics, as well. The efficiency of the partial power processing is higher when compared to doubleconversion systems. On the other hand, the system is able to manage a DC source as a fuel cells, a solar panel and batteries. If only the singlephase source is available, the system operates as a single to threephase lineinteractive converter / Doutorado / Energia Eletrica / Doutor em Engenharia Elétrica

52 
Evaluation of Voltage Instability Countermeasures in Constrained Subtransmission Power NetworksJones, Peter Gibson 01 January 2012 (has links)
This paper investigates the various parameters that effect voltage stability in subtransmission power networks. The paper first looks at contributions from equipment: generators, transmission lines, transformers, capacitors, SVCs and STATCOMs. The paper also looks at the effects of loads on voltage stability. Power flow solutions, PV and VQ curves are covered. The study models an existing voltage problem i.e., a long, radial, 115 kV subtransmission network that serves a 65 MW load. The network model is simulated with the following voltage instability countermeasures: adding a capacitor, adding an SVC, adding a STATCOM, tying to a neighboring transmission system, adding generation and bringing in a new 230 kV source. Then, using the WECC heavywinter 2012 power flow base case and Siemens PTI software, VQ and PV curves are created for each solution. Finally, the curves are analyzed to determine the best solution.

53 
The development of harmonic content and quality of electricity supply measuring system incorporating scada processingGrobler, Frederik Antonie 2005 November 1900 (has links)
Thesis (D.Tech (Engineering Electrical))  Central University of Technology, Free State, 2005 / When Thomas Edison invented his carbon filament lamp in 1879, gas shares fell overnight. A committee of inquiry was set up to examine the future possibilities of the new method of lighting, and had reached the conclusion that electric light in the home was fanciful and absurd. Today electric light burns in practically every house in the civilised world, with many great advances in the production and use of electricity and electric power supplied by various utilities.
The objective of the electric utility to deliver pure sinusoidal voltage at fairly constant magnitude throughout their system is complicated by the fact that there are currently loads on the system that produce harmonic voltages, which result in distorted voltages and currents that can adversely impact on the system performance in different ways. Because the numbers of harmonic producing loads have increased over the years, it has become necessary to address their influence, when making any additions or changes to an installation.
Quality of supply measurements have long been used to characterise nonlinearity on the power system, and have traditionally been measured with expensive portable analysers. A potentially faster, more integrated, and more flexible solution to measure the harmonics with a Supervisory System is accomplished by this research.
Any script which aspired to cover in full detail the whole field of a subject so enormous as techniques to measure the quality of electricity supply on a SCADA system, would hardly be practical in less than a few volumes. The pretensions of this research are both modest and of a more immediate value to the reader.

54 
Modeling and control coordination of power systems with FACTS devices in steadystate operating modeNguyen, Van Liem January 2008 (has links)
This thesis is devoted to the development of new models for a recentlyimplemented FACTS (flexible alternating current transmission system) device, the unified power flow controller (UPFC), and the control coordination of power systems with FACTS devices in steadystate operating mode. The key objectives of the research reported in the thesis are, through online control coordination based on the models of power systems having FACTS devices, those of maximising the network operational benefit and restoring system static security following a disturbance or contingency. Based on the novel concept of interpreting the updated voltage solutions at each iteration in the NewtonRaphson (NR) powerflow analysis as dynamic variables, the thesis first develops a procedure for representing the unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in the steadystate evaluation. Both the shunt converter and series converter control systems of a UPFC are modeled in their dynamical form with the discrete time variable replaced by the NR iterative step in the powerflow analysis. The key advantage of the model developed is that of facilitating the process of UPFC constraint resolution during the NR solution sequence. Any relative priority in control functions preset in the UPFC controllers is automatically represented in the powerflow formulation. Although the developed UPFC model based on the dynamic simulation of series and shunt converter controllers is flexible and general, the number of NR iterations required for convergence can be large. Therefore, the model is suitable mainly for power system planning and design studies. For online control coordination, the thesis develops the second UPFC model based on nodal voltages. The model retains all of the flexibility and generality of the dynamic simulationbased approach while the number of iterations required for solution convergence is independent of the UPFC controller dynamic responses. Drawing on the constrained optimisation based on Newtons method together with the new UPFC model expressed in terms of nodal voltages, a systematic and general method for determining optimal reference inputs to UPFCs in steadystate operation is developed. The method is directly applicable to UPFCs operation with a highlevel line optimisation control (LOC) for maximising the network operational benefit. By using a new continuation technique with adaptive parameter, the algorithm for solving the constrained optimisation problem extends substantially the region of convergence achieved with the conventional Newtons method. Having established the foundation provided by the comprehensive models developed for representing power systems with FACTS devices including the UPFC, the research, in the second part, focuses on realtime control coordination of power system controllers, with the main purpose of restoring power system static security following a disturbance or contingency. At present, as the cost of phasor measurement units (PMUs) and widearea communication network is on the decrease, the research proposes and develops a new secondary voltage control where voltages at all of the load nodes are directly controlled, using measured voltages.

55 
Coordination of power system controllers for optimal damping of electromechanical oscillationsGianto, Rudy January 2008 (has links)
This thesis is devoted to the development of new approaches for control coordination of PSSs (power system stabilisers) and FACTS (flexible alternating current transmission system) devices for achieving and enhancing smalldisturbance stability in multimachine power systems. The key objectives of the research reported in the thesis are, through optimal control coordination of PSSs and/or FACTS devices, those of maintaining satisfactory power oscillation damping and secure system operation when the power system is subject to persisting disturbances in the form of load demand fluctuations and switching control. Although occurring less frequently, fault disturbances are also considered in the assessment of the control coordination performance. Based on the constrained optimisation method in which the eigenvaluebased objective function is minimised to identify the optimal parameters of power system damping controllers, the thesis first develops a procedure for designing the control coordination of PSSs and FACTS devices controllers. The eigenvalueeigenvector equations associated with the selected electromechanical modes form a set of equality constraints in the optimisation. The key advance of the procedure is that there is no need for any special software system for eigenvalue calculations, and the use of sparse Jacobian matrix for forming the eigenvalueeigenvector equations leads to the sparsity formulation which is essential for large power systems. Inequality constraints include those for imposing bounds on the controller parameters. Constraints which guarantee that the modes are distinct ones are derived and incorporated in the control coordination formulation, using the property that eigenvectors associated with distinct modes are linearly independent. The robustness of the controllers is achieved very directly through extending the sets of equality constraints and inequality constraints in relation to selected eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the state matrices of power systems with loading conditions and/or network configurations different from that of the base case. On recognising that the fixedparameter controllers, even when designed with optimal control coordination, have an inherent limitation which precludes optimal system damping for each and every possible system operating condition, the second part of ii the research has a focus on adaptive control techniques and their applications to power system controllers. In this context, the thesis reports the development of a new design procedure for online control coordination which leads to adaptive PSSs and/or supplementary damping controllers (SDCs) of FACTS devices for enhancing the stability of the electromechanical modes in a multimachine power system. The controller parameters are adaptive to the changes in system operating condition and/or configuration. Central to the design is the use of a neural network synthesised to give in its output layer the optimal controller parameters adaptive to system operating condition and configuration. A novel feature of the neural adaptive controller is that of representing the system configuration by a reduced nodal impedance matrix which is input to the neural network.

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A new proposed method of contingency rankingGossman, Stephanie Mizzell 18 May 2010 (has links)
Security analysis of a power system requires a process called contingency analysis that analyzes results from all possible single contingencies (i.e. outages) in the system. The process of contingency analysis requires the definition of a parameter that is used to monitor a certain aspect of the system, which is called a performance index. The performance index definitions used traditionally have been highly nonlinear, and the results have not accurately predicted the outcome of the performance index in some cases. These incorrect results are referred to as misrankings since the contingency results are usually placed in order of severity so that the most severe cases are evident.
This thesis considers a new definition of contingency ranking using a more linearized definition of the performance index. The construction of both the new, proposed definition and the classic definition both consider the current loading of circuits in the system as compared to their rated values. Specifically, the parameter measured by the proposed definition measures the difference, while the more nonlinear definition uses a ratio of the two quantities, which is then raised to a higher power.
A small, four bus test system is used to demonstrate the benefits of the new, more linearized definition. The average percent error for all single line contingencies of the system decreased by over 9.5% using the proposed definition as compared to the previous one. This decrease in error allows this performance index to monitor a similar parameter (comparing current loading and current rating of the lines) and achieve a higher degree of accuracy. Further linearization of this proposed definition also shows a reduction in the average percent error by an additional 22% so that when compared to the original, highly nonlinear definition, the average error is reduced by almost 30%. By linearizing the definition of the performance index, the results are more accurate and misrankings are less likely to occur from the security analysis process.

57 
Application of artificial intelligence algorithms in solving power system state estimation problem.Tungadio,Diambomba HyacintheSt, January 2013 (has links)
M. Tech. Electrical Engineering. / Discusses the practical management of electrical networks, no perfect monitoring of an electrical power system state is available, either because it is expensive or technically unfeasible due to the poor quality of the available measurements in the control centre. To have a stable network, the control centre must receive the network information to be able to provide a proper security in unforeseen situation. As a power system network is a complex and a nonlinear system, it is important to use more advanced methods for its analysis and control in a real time environment. The aim of this research work is therefore, to apply several state estimation algorithms using artificial intelligence by developing their mathematical models for the purpose of comparing their performances in estimating the state variable of the power system. The three types of state estimation algorithms investigated for this research work are: the Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Newton method for state estimation (NSE).

58 
Capture effects in spreadaloha packet protocols.Mpako, Vuyolwethu Maxabiso Wessels. January 2005 (has links)
Research in the field of random access protocols for narrowband systems started as early
as the 1970s with the introduction of the ALOHA protocol. From the research done in
slotted narrowband systems, it is well known that contention results in all the packets
involved in the contention being unsuccessful. However, it has been shown that in the
presence of unequal power levels, ore of the contending packets may be successful. Ibis
is a phenomenon called capture. Packet capture has been shown to improve the
performance of slotted narrowband systems.
Recently, much work has been done in the analysis of spreadspectrum ALOHA type
codedivision multiple access (CDMA) protocols. The issue of designing power control
techniques to improve the performance of CDMA systems by reducing multiple access
interference (MAl) has been a subject of much research. It has been shown that in the
presence of power control schemes, the performance of spreadALOHA CDMA systems
is improved. However, it is also widely documented that the design of power control
schemes capable of the ideal of compensation of radio propagation techniques is not
possible for various reasons, and hence the imperfections in power control.
None of the research known to the author has looked at capture in spreadALOHA
systems, and to a greater extent, looked at expressions for the performance of spreadALOHA
systems in the presence of capture. In this thesis we introduce spreadALOHA systems with capture as a manifestation of the
imperfections in power control. We propose novel expressions for the computation of the
perfonnance ofspreadALOHA systems with capture. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)University of KwaZuluNatal, 2005.

59 
Optimization of power system performance using facts devicesdel Valle, Yamille E. 02 July 2009 (has links)
The object of this research is to optimize the overall power system performance using FACTS devices. Particularly, it is intended to improve the reliability, and the performance of the power system considering steady state operating condition as well as the system subjected to small and large disturbances.
The methodology proposed to achieve this goal corresponds to an enhanced particle swarm optimizer (EnhancedPSO) that is proven in this work to have several advantages, in terms of accuracy and computational effort, as compared with other existing methods.
Once the performance of the Enhanced PSO is verified, a multistage PSObased optimization framework is proposed for optimizing the power system reliability (N1 contingency criterion). The algorithm finds optimal settings for present infrastructure (generator outputs, transformers tap ratios and capacitor banks settings) as well as optimal control references for distributed static series compensators (DSSC) and optimal locations, sizes and control settings for static compensator (STATCOM) units.
Finally, a twostage optimization algorithm is proposed to improve the power system performance in steady state conditions and when small and large perturbations are applied to the system. In this case, the algorithm provides optimal control references for DSSC modules, optimal location and sizes for capacitor banks, and optimal location, sizes and control parameters for STATCOM units (internal and external controllers), so that the loadability and the damping of the system are maximized at minimum cost.
Simulation results throughout this research show a significant improvement of the power system reliability and performance after the system is optimized.

60 
New current sensing solutions for lowcost highpowerdensity digitally controlled power convertersZiegler, Silvio January 2009 (has links)
[Truncated abstract] This thesis studies current sensing techniques that are designed to meet the requirements for the next generation of power converters. Power converters are often standardised, so that they can be replaced with a model from another manufacturer without an expensive system redesign. For this reason, the power converter market is highly competitive and relies on cuttingedge technology, which increases power conversion efficiency and power density. High power density and conversion efficiency reduce the system cost, and thus make the power converter more attractive to the customer. Current sensing is a vital task in power converters, where the current information is required for monitoring and control purposes. In order to achieve the abovementioned goals, existing current sensing techniques have to be improved in terms of cost, power loss and size. Simultaneously, current information needs to be increasingly available in digital form to enable digital control, and to allow the digital transmission of the current information to a centralised monitoring and control unit. All this requires the output signal of a particular current sensing technique to be acquired by an analoguetodigital converter, and thus the output voltage of the current sensor has to be sufficiently large. This thesis thoroughly reviews contemporary current sensing techniques and identifies suitable techniques that have the potential to meet the performance requirements of the nextgeneration of power converters. After the review chapter, three novel current sensing techniques are proposed and investigated: 1) The usefulness of the resistive voltage drop across a copper trace, which carries the current to be measured, to detect electrical current is evaluated. Simulations and experiments confirm that this inherently lossless technique can measure high currents at reasonable measurement bandwidth, good accuracy and low cost if the sense wires are connected properly. 2) Based on the mutual inductance theory found during the investigation of the copper trace current sense method, a modification of the wellknown lossless inductor current sense method is proposed and analysed. This modification involves the use of a coupled sense winding that significantly improves the frequency response. Hence, it becomes possible to accurately monitor the output current of a power converter with the benefits of being lossless, exhibiting good sensitivity and having small size. 3) A transformer based DC current sense method is developed especially for digitally controlled power converters. This method provides high accuracy, large bandwidth, electrical isolation and very low thermal drift. Overall, it achieves better performance than many contemporary available Hall Effect sensors. At the same time, the cost of this current sensor is significantly lower than that of Hall Effect current sensors. A patent application has been submitted. .... The current sensing techniques have been studied by theory, hardware experiments and simulations. In addition, the suitability of the detection techniques for mass production has been considered in order to access the ability to provide systems at lowcost.

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