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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
71

POLYNOMIAL CURVE FITTING INDICES FOR DYNAMIC EVENT DETECTION IN WIDE-AREA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Longbottom, Daniel W. 14 August 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / In a wide-area power system, detecting dynamic events is critical to maintaining system stability. Large events, such as the loss of a generator or fault on a transmission line, can compromise the stability of the system by causing the generator rotor angles to diverge and lose synchronism with the rest of the system. If these events can be detected as they happen, controls can be applied to the system to prevent it from losing synchronous stability. In order to detect these events, pattern recognition tools can be applied to system measurements. In this thesis, the pattern recognition tool decision trees (DTs) were used for event detection. A single DT produced rules distinguishing between and the event and no event cases by learning on a training set of simulations of a power system model. The rules were then applied to test cases to determine the accuracy of the event detection. To use a DT to detect events, the variables used to produce the rules must be chosen. These variables can be direct system measurements, such as the phase angle of bus voltages, or indices created by a combination of system measurements. One index used in this thesis was the integral square bus angle (ISBA) index, which provided a measure of the overall activity of the bus angles in the system. Other indices used were the variance and rate of change of the ISBA. Fitting a polynomial curve to a sliding window of these indices and then taking the difference between the polynomial and the actual index was found to produce a new index that was non-zero during the event and zero all other times for most simulations. After the index to detect events was chosen to be the error between the curve and the ISBA indices, a set of power system cases were created to be used as the training data set for the DT. All of these cases contained one event, either a small or large power injection at a load bus in the system model. The DT was then trained to detect the large power injection but not the small one. This was done so that the rules produced would detect large events on the system that could potentially cause the system to lose synchronous stability but ignore small events that have no effect on the overall system. This DT was then combined with a second DT that predicted instability such that the second DT made the decision whether or not to apply controls only for a short time after the end of every event, when controls would be most effective in stabilizing the system.
72

Fuzzy-Rule-Based Failure Detection and Early Warning System for Lithium-ion Battery

Wu, Meng 05 September 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Lithium-ion battery is one kind of rechargeable battery, and also renewable, sustainable and portable. With the merits of high density, slow loss of charge when spare and no memory effect, lithium-ion battery is widely used in portable electronics and hybrid vehicles. Apart from its advantages, safety is a major concern for Lithium-ion batteries due to devastating incidents with laptop and cell phone batteries. Overcharge and over-discharge are two of the most common electrical abuses a lithium-ion battery suffers. In this thesis, a fuzzy-rule-based system is proposed to detect the over-charge and over-discharge failure in early time. The preliminary results for the failure signatures of overcharged and over-discharged lithium-ion are listed based on the experimental results under both room temperature and high temperature. A fuzzy-rule-based model utilizing these failure signatures is developed and validated. For over-charge case, the abnormal increase of the surface temperature and decrease of the voltage are captured. While for over discharge case, unusual temperature increase during overcharge phases and abnormal current decrease during overcharge phases are obtained. The inference engine for fuzzy-rule-based system is designed based on these failure signatures. An early warning signal will be given by this algorithm before the failure occurs. This failure detection and early warning system is verified to be effective through experimental validation. In the validation test, the proposed methods are successfully implemented in a real-time system for failure detection and early warning. The result of validation is compatible with the design expectation. Finally an accurate failure detection and early warning system is built and tested successfully.
73

Electric utility planning methods for the design of one shot stability controls

Naghsh Nilchi, Maryam 12 1900 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Reliability of the wide-area power system is becoming a greater concern as the power grid is growing. Delivering electric power from the most economical source through fewest and shortest transmission lines to customers frequently increases the stress on the system and prevents it from maintaining its stability. Events like loss of transmission equipment and phase to ground faults can force the system to cross its stability limits by causing the generators to lose their synchronism. Therefore, a helpful solution is detection of these dynamic events and prediction of instability. Decision Trees (DTs) were used as a pattern recognition tool in this thesis. Based on training data, DT generated rules for detecting event, predicting loss of synchronism, and selecting stabilizing control. To evaluate the accuracy of these rules, they were applied to testing data sets. To train DTs of this thesis, direct system measurements like generator rotor angles and bus voltage angles as well as calculated indices such as the rate of change of bus angles, the Integral Square Bus Angle (ISBA) and the gradient of ISBA were used. The initial method of this thesis included a response based DT only for instability prediction. In this method, time and location of the events were unknown and the one shot control was applied when the instability was predicted. The control applied was in the form of fast power changes on four different buses. Further, an event detection DT was combined with the instability prediction such that the data samples of each case was checked with event detection DT rules. In cases that an event was detected, control was applied upon prediction of instability. Later in the research, it was investigated that different control cases could behave differently in terms of the number of cases they stabilize. Therefore, a third DT was trained to select between two different control cases to improve the effectiveness of the methodology. It was learned through internship at Midwest Independent Transmission Operators (MISO) that post-event steady-state analysis is necessary for better understanding the effect of the faults on the power system. Hence, this study was included in this research.
74

Modeling and control of hydraulic wind power transfer systems

Vaezi, Masoud January 2014 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Hydraulic wind power transfer systems deliver the captured energy by the blades to the generators differently. In the conventional systems this task is carried out by a gearbox or an intermediate medium. New generation of wind power systems transfer the captured energy by means of high-pressure hydraulic fluids. A hydraulic pump is connected to the blades shaft at a high distance from the ground, in nacelle, to pressurize a hydraulic flow down to ground level equipment through hoses. Multiple wind turbines can also pressurize a flow sending to a single hose toward the generator. The pressurized flow carries a large amount of energy which will be transferred to the mechanical energy by a hydraulic motor. Finally, a generator is connected to the hydraulic motor to generate electrical power. This hydraulic system runs under two main disturbances, wind speed fluctuations and load variations. Intermittent nature of the wind applies a fluctuating torque on the hydraulic pump shaft. Also, variations of the consumed electrical power by the grid cause a considerable load disturbance on the system. This thesis studies the hydraulic wind power transfer systems. To get a better understanding, a mathematical model of the system is developed and studied utilizing the governing equations for every single hydraulic component in the system. The mathematical model embodies nonlinearities which are inherited from the hydraulic components such as check valves, proportional valves, pressure relief valves, etc. An experimental prototype of the hydraulic wind power transfer systems is designed and implemented to study the dynamic behavior and operation of the system. The provided nonlinear mathematical model is then validated by experimental result from the prototype. Moreover, this thesis develops a control system for the hydraulic wind power transfer systems. To maintain a fixed frequency electrical voltage by the system, the generator should remain at a constant rotational speed. The fluctuating wind speed from the upstream, and the load variations from the downstream apply considerable disturbances on the system. A controller is designed and implemented to regulate the flow in the proportional valve and as a consequence the generator maintains its constant speed compensating for load and wind turbine disturbances. The control system is applied to the mathematical model as well as the experimental prototype by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and dSPACE 1104 fast prototyping hardware and the results are compared.
75

PV Based Converter with Integrated Battery Charger for DC Micro-Grid Applications

Salve, Rima January 2014 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used, thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple micro-controller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid, is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crucial role in this configuration, as it is one of the main challenges tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed, and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.
76

Energy conversion unit with optimized waveform generation

Sajadian, Sally January 2014 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / The substantial increase demand for electrical energy requires high efficient apparatus dealing with energy conversion. Several technologies have been suggested to implement power supplies with higher efficiency, such as multilevel and interleaved converters. This thesis proposes an energy conversion unit with an optimized number of output voltage levels per number of switches nL=nS. The proposed five-level four-switch per phase converter has nL=nS=5/4 which is by far the best relationship among the converters presented in technical literature. A comprehensive literature review on existing five-level converter topologies is done to compare the proposed topology with conventional multilevel converters. The most important characteristics of the proposed configuration are: (i) reduced number of semiconductor devices, while keeping a high number of levels at the output converter side, (ii) only one DC source without any need to balance capacitor voltages, (iii) high efficiency, (iv) there is no dead-time requirement for the converters operation, (v) leg isolation procedure with lower stress for the DC-link capacitor. Single-phase and three-phase version of the proposed converter is presented in this thesis. Details regarding the operation of the configuration and modulation strategy are presented, as well as the comparison between the proposed converter and the conventional ones. Simulated results are presented to validate the theoretical expectations. In addition a fault tolerant converter based on proposed topology for micro-grid systems is presented. A hybrid pulse-width-modulation for the pre-fault operation and transition from the pre-fault to post-fault operation will be discussed. Selected steady-state and transient results are demonstrated to validate the theoretical modeling.

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