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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Investigation of a scapeless form of Primula farinosa L. and related studies

Arnold, Elizabeth S. January 1999 (has links)
No description available.
2

Systematics of dioscoreales

Caddick, Lizabeth Rebecca January 2000 (has links)
No description available.
3

Cloning and characterization of the wheat domestication gene, Q

Simons, Kristin Jean January 1900 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Department of Plant Pathology / Justin D. Faris / Bikram S. Gill / The Q gene is largely responsible for the widespread cultivation of durum and common wheat because it confers the square spike phenotype and the free-threshing character. It also pleiotropically influences many other domestication related traits such as glume shape, glume tenacity, rachis fragility, spike length, plant height, and spike emergence time. The objectives of this research were to confirm or reject the hypothesis that a candidate AP2-like gene is Q, confirm the dosage and pleiotropic effects attributed to Q, and begin defining the differences between the Q and q alleles. The identity of the Q gene was verified by analysis of knockout mutants and found to have a high degree of similarity to members of the AP2 family of transcription factors. Southern analysis of multiple Triticum taxa containing either Q or q indicated that the Q locus is not composed of duplicated q alleles. Ectopic expression analysis allowed the observation of both silencing and over-expression effects of Q. Rachis fragility, glume shape, and glume tenacity mimicked the q phenotype in transgenic plants exhibiting transcriptional silencing of the transgene and the endogenous Q gene. Variation in spike compactness and plant height were directly associated with the level of transgene expression due to the dosage effects of Q. Comparisons of Q and q indicated structural differences as well as variation in the level of transcription. One amino acid difference and several base changes within the promoter were identified as possible critical differences between Q and q. Very little genetic variability was found within the sequenced Q alleles suggesting it arose only once and that q is the more primitive allele.
4

Desenvolvimento floral e do óvulo e aspectos da reprodução em Aechmea sp. e Vriesea sp. (Bromeliaceae) / Development floral and ovule and aspects of reproduction in Aechmea sp. and Vriesea sp. (Bromeliaceae)

Sandra Santa-Rosa 30 June 2015 (has links)
A utilização de Bromélias tem sido crescente no mercado de plantas onamentais, por outro lado, muitas espécies encontram-se ameaçadas, grande parte pelos impactos humanos no ambiente. Aechmea correia-araujoi E. Pereira & Moutinho, Aechmea gamossepala Wittm, Vriesea ensiformis (Vell.) Beer e Vriesea saundersii (Carrière) E. Morren ex Mez, espécies nativas da Mata Atlântica brasileira, têm sido alvo de extrativismo. Informações básicas sobre a espécie são essenciais para subsidiar a condução de programas de conservação e melhoramento genético, que aliados a ferramentas biotecnológicas permitem a incorporação de estratégias inovadoras aos métodos de melhoramento. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever essas espécies, quanto à micromorfologia floral, aspectos reprodutivos envolvidos no processo de polinização, desenvolvimento floral e deesenvolvimento gametofítico, como mecanismo de preservação e produção comercial. A caracterização morfológica e anatômica das flores das espécies de Aechmea e Vriesea contribuiu para a compreensão do processo reprodutivo. As espécies apresentam grãos de pólen com alta capacidade reprodutiva, viabilidade polínica superior a 93%, germinação in vitro maior que 80% e o estigma apresenta-se receptivo da antese ao final do dia. A ontogênese floral de A. correia-araujoi é centrípeta, os primórdios desenvolvem-se na ordem, sépala, pétala, androceu e gineceu. O apêndice petalar é formado na fase final do desenvolvimento. O primórdio de óvulo tem origem placentária e caráter trizonal, o óvulo é anátropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado. O meristema floral de A. gamosepala se desenvolve de forma centrípeta, de forma unidirecional reversa. O estigma diferencia-se na fase inicial do desenvolvimento e os apêndices petalares, na fase final. O óvulo é anátropo, crassinucelado, bitegumentado, tétrade linear, megásporo calazal funcional, desenvolvimento tipo monospórico e Polygonum. As anteras são bitecas, tetraesporangiadas, com tapete secretor. Botões florais de 8,7 - 13,0 mm são indicados no estudo de embriogênese a partir de micrósporo. As alterações celulares e o padrão de distribuição de pectinas e AGPs foram caracterizadas por análise citoquímica com azul de toluidina, KI e DAPI e imunocitoquímica por imunofluorescência com os anticorpos para RNA, pectinas esterificadas (JIM7), não esterificadas (JIM5) e AGPs (LM2, LM6, MAC207, JIM13, JIM14) e analisadas por microscopia de fluorescência. Foram caracterizados padrões de distribuição espaço-temporal de pectinas e AGP que podem ser utilizados como marcadores de desenvolvimento gametofítico masculino. As observações feitas nesse trabalho fornecem dados sobre aspectos reprodutivos das espécies que podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético, conservação e desenvolvimento de haploides / The use of bromeliads has grown in the ornamental market, however many native species are threatened, mostly due to human impacts. Basic information about the species is essential to support breeding and conservation programs, which combined with biotechnological tools allow for the innovative approaches to breeding methods. The objective of this study was to characterize the floral development and reproductive aspects of the ornamental species Aechmea correia-araujoi, Aechmea gamosepala, Vriesea ensiformis and Vriesea saundersii, with detais on floral morphology and anatomy, reproductive aspects involved in pollination. For the Aechmea species the gametophytic development was characterized, as well as the cellular changes that occur during the development of the male gametophyte, characterizing the distribution pattern of pectin and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), for biotechnological applications. The plants were characterized by observations of the material in the greenhouse and floral organs were described using microscopic techniques. The flowers are actinomorphic, trimerous, dichlamydeous, heterochlamydeous, with double petal appendages, six stamens, gamocarpelar, tricarpellate ovary, with septal nectaries and a large number of ovules. Aspects of the floral biology involved in reproduction were assessed by stigma receptivity, pollen morphology, viability and in vitro pollen grain germination. The species produce large amounts of pollen grains with high reproductive capacity, pollen viability higher than 93%, in vitro germination higher than 80% and stigma is receptive throughout the day. The floral ontogeny of A. correia-araujoi is centripetal, the primordia develop sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. The petal appendages are formed in the final stages of floral development. The cellular changes, and the distribution pattern of pectins and AGPs were characterized by cytochemical analysis with IKI and DAPI, and immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence with antibodies for RNA, esterified pectins (JIM7) de-esterified (JIM5) and AGPs (LM2 , LM6, MAC207, JIM13, JIM14) and analyzed by confocal microscopy. Various spatio-temporal distribution patterns of pectins and AGPs were characterized and may be used as male gametophyte development markers. The observations made in this work provide data on reproductive aspects of the species studied, and can be further used in breeding and conservation programs, and haploid production
5

Desenvolvimento floral e do óvulo e aspectos da reprodução em Aechmea sp. e Vriesea sp. (Bromeliaceae) / Development floral and ovule and aspects of reproduction in Aechmea sp. and Vriesea sp. (Bromeliaceae)

Santa-Rosa, Sandra 30 June 2015 (has links)
A utilização de Bromélias tem sido crescente no mercado de plantas onamentais, por outro lado, muitas espécies encontram-se ameaçadas, grande parte pelos impactos humanos no ambiente. Aechmea correia-araujoi E. Pereira & Moutinho, Aechmea gamossepala Wittm, Vriesea ensiformis (Vell.) Beer e Vriesea saundersii (Carrière) E. Morren ex Mez, espécies nativas da Mata Atlântica brasileira, têm sido alvo de extrativismo. Informações básicas sobre a espécie são essenciais para subsidiar a condução de programas de conservação e melhoramento genético, que aliados a ferramentas biotecnológicas permitem a incorporação de estratégias inovadoras aos métodos de melhoramento. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever essas espécies, quanto à micromorfologia floral, aspectos reprodutivos envolvidos no processo de polinização, desenvolvimento floral e deesenvolvimento gametofítico, como mecanismo de preservação e produção comercial. A caracterização morfológica e anatômica das flores das espécies de Aechmea e Vriesea contribuiu para a compreensão do processo reprodutivo. As espécies apresentam grãos de pólen com alta capacidade reprodutiva, viabilidade polínica superior a 93%, germinação in vitro maior que 80% e o estigma apresenta-se receptivo da antese ao final do dia. A ontogênese floral de A. correia-araujoi é centrípeta, os primórdios desenvolvem-se na ordem, sépala, pétala, androceu e gineceu. O apêndice petalar é formado na fase final do desenvolvimento. O primórdio de óvulo tem origem placentária e caráter trizonal, o óvulo é anátropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado. O meristema floral de A. gamosepala se desenvolve de forma centrípeta, de forma unidirecional reversa. O estigma diferencia-se na fase inicial do desenvolvimento e os apêndices petalares, na fase final. O óvulo é anátropo, crassinucelado, bitegumentado, tétrade linear, megásporo calazal funcional, desenvolvimento tipo monospórico e Polygonum. As anteras são bitecas, tetraesporangiadas, com tapete secretor. Botões florais de 8,7 - 13,0 mm são indicados no estudo de embriogênese a partir de micrósporo. As alterações celulares e o padrão de distribuição de pectinas e AGPs foram caracterizadas por análise citoquímica com azul de toluidina, KI e DAPI e imunocitoquímica por imunofluorescência com os anticorpos para RNA, pectinas esterificadas (JIM7), não esterificadas (JIM5) e AGPs (LM2, LM6, MAC207, JIM13, JIM14) e analisadas por microscopia de fluorescência. Foram caracterizados padrões de distribuição espaço-temporal de pectinas e AGP que podem ser utilizados como marcadores de desenvolvimento gametofítico masculino. As observações feitas nesse trabalho fornecem dados sobre aspectos reprodutivos das espécies que podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético, conservação e desenvolvimento de haploides / The use of bromeliads has grown in the ornamental market, however many native species are threatened, mostly due to human impacts. Basic information about the species is essential to support breeding and conservation programs, which combined with biotechnological tools allow for the innovative approaches to breeding methods. The objective of this study was to characterize the floral development and reproductive aspects of the ornamental species Aechmea correia-araujoi, Aechmea gamosepala, Vriesea ensiformis and Vriesea saundersii, with detais on floral morphology and anatomy, reproductive aspects involved in pollination. For the Aechmea species the gametophytic development was characterized, as well as the cellular changes that occur during the development of the male gametophyte, characterizing the distribution pattern of pectin and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), for biotechnological applications. The plants were characterized by observations of the material in the greenhouse and floral organs were described using microscopic techniques. The flowers are actinomorphic, trimerous, dichlamydeous, heterochlamydeous, with double petal appendages, six stamens, gamocarpelar, tricarpellate ovary, with septal nectaries and a large number of ovules. Aspects of the floral biology involved in reproduction were assessed by stigma receptivity, pollen morphology, viability and in vitro pollen grain germination. The species produce large amounts of pollen grains with high reproductive capacity, pollen viability higher than 93%, in vitro germination higher than 80% and stigma is receptive throughout the day. The floral ontogeny of A. correia-araujoi is centripetal, the primordia develop sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. The petal appendages are formed in the final stages of floral development. The cellular changes, and the distribution pattern of pectins and AGPs were characterized by cytochemical analysis with IKI and DAPI, and immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence with antibodies for RNA, esterified pectins (JIM7) de-esterified (JIM5) and AGPs (LM2 , LM6, MAC207, JIM13, JIM14) and analyzed by confocal microscopy. Various spatio-temporal distribution patterns of pectins and AGPs were characterized and may be used as male gametophyte development markers. The observations made in this work provide data on reproductive aspects of the species studied, and can be further used in breeding and conservation programs, and haploid production
6

Systematics of Echiochilon and Ogastemma (Boraginaceae), and the Phylogeny of Boraginoideae

Långström, Elisabeth January 2002 (has links)
Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma are revised resulting in the recognition of 15 species of Echiochilon and one Ogastemma species. Several species are placed in synonymy and three new species are described, E. baricum, E. callianthum and E. cyananthum. The single species of Sericostoma is shown to be nested within Echiochilon. The plastid atpB gene was sequenced for Echiochilon and Ogastemma from the Old World and Antiphytum from the New World, plus for a selection of 33 other Boraginaceae taxa. They were analysed together with selected outgroup taxa to give a framework of the tribes of Boraginoideae. The analysis gave support for establishing the new tribe Echiochileae for Antiphytum, Echiochilon and Ogastemma, and for merging the traditionally accepted tribe Eritrichieae with Cynoglosseae. The ITS region was sequenced for all but one species of Echiochilon and for representatives of Antiphytum and Ogastemma. Phylogenetic analysis of Echiochilon revealed that the strongly zygomorphic-flowered species form a paraphyletic group. The morphological data gave results fairly congruent with the ITS phylogeny. Biogeographic interpretations of the ITS and atpB phylogenies indicated a trans-Atlantic dispersal of Antiphytum as the most plausible explanation to the Old/New World disjunction. Analyses using DIVA (Dispersal Vicariance Analysis) of the distributions of the Echiochilon species indicated an ancestor to Echiochilon with a wide distribution over northern Africa and Arabia to India.
7

Influência da área de reserva legal sobre a biologia da polinização de SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. híbrido pizzadoro (SOLANACEAE)

Trevizor, Ana Mayumi Hayashi 28 March 2014 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-06-02T18:55:27Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 5930.pdf: 2008307 bytes, checksum: d0e45679fd9d345a26733ef3c1512046 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014-03-28 / Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos / It is estimated that approximately 73 % of the world crops are pollinated by a bees. The constant alteration of habitats has led to the decline of pollinators, which may reflect limitations in the quantity and quality of the fruits and seeds grown, becoming one of the biggest problems when it comes to agricultural production. Studies with agricultural crops and their pollinators may contribute in seeking proposals that combine agriculture and conservation of forest fragments. The general objective of this work was to study aspects of Solanum lycopersicum L. hybrid Pizzadoro pollination. The specific objectives were: 1) verify if the floral morphology influences the behavior of the pollinator visits, 2) evaluate the richness of pollinating bees and pollinators at different distances from the Legal Reserve area, 3) compare the efficiency of three species of bees pollination in two treatments: spontaneous self-pollination, and pollination under natural conditions. The study was conducted on a conventional tomato cultivation in the municipality of Estiva Gerbi, Sao Paulo. Flowers were collected and observed under a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. Efficiency was compared between Apis mellifera, Augochloropsis sp. and Exomalopsis sp. by Spears index. Observations and sampling were made in situ at 50, 100 and 150 meters from the Legal Reserve. It was found that the anther dehiscence is longitudinal and that the efficiency of pollination by A. mellifera (0.72) was similar to Exomalopsis sp. (0.85) and greater than Augochloropsis sp. (0.22). It is considered that the success of A. mellifera is associated with the floral morphology. Eleven species of insects, of which 7 were considered pollinators were found. Fifty eight floral visits were recorded, out of which 24 in quadrant A (50 m), 13 in B (100 m) and 21 in C (150 m), with A. mellifera dominant with 62.1% of visits, followed by Augochloropsis sp. and Oxaea flavescens both with 10.3%, Exomalopsis sp. with 6.9 %, Allograpta sp. with 5.2 % ,Bombus sp. with 3.4 % and Xylocopa sp. 1.7 %. The data indicates that the Legal Reserve played a key role in providing pollinators for tomato crops and therefore emphasizes the need for conservation and restoration of forest fragments to assist in increasing crop production. / Estima-se que aproximadamente 73% das plantas cultivadas mundialmente sejam polinizadas por alguma espécie de abelha. A constante alteração de habitats vem provocando o declínio de polinizadores, que pode refletir em limitações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos e sementes cultivados, constituindo-se em um dos maiores problemas quando se trata de produção agrícola. Estudos com culturas agrícolas e seus polinizadores podem contribuir na busca de propostas que conciliem agricultura e conservação de fragmentos florestais. O objetivo geral do presente trabalho foi estudar aspectos relacionados com polinização de Solanum lycopersicum L. híbrido Pizzadoro. Os objetivos específicos foram: 1) verificar se a morfologia floral influencia no comportamento de visita do polinizador; 2) avaliar a riqueza de abelhas polinizadoras e visitantes florais em diferentes distâncias da área de Reserva Legal; 3) comparar a eficiência de três espécies de abelhas na polinização em dois tratamentos: kautopolinização espontânea, e a polinização em condições naturais. O estudo foi realizado numa área de cultivo convencional de tomate no município de Estiva Gerbi, São Paulo. Foram coletadas flores e observadas em estereomicroscópio e microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foi comparada a eficiência de Apis mellifera, Augochloropsis sp. e Exomalopsis sp. pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Observações e coletas foram feitas in situ a 50, 100 e 150 metros da RL. Verificou-se que a deiscência da antera é do tipo longitudinal e que não houve diferença entre as espécies de abelhas, ou seja, o número de sementes produzidas não depende da espécie de abelha. Considera-se que o sucesso de A. mellifera esteja associado à morfologia floral. Foram encontradas 11 espécies de insetos, das quais 7 foram consideradas polinizadoras. Foram registradas 58 visitas florais; dessas, 24 no quadrante A (50 m), 13 no B (100 m) e 21 no C (150 m), sendo A. mellifera dominante com 62,1% das visitas, seguida de Augochloropsis sp. e Oxaea flavescens ambos com 10,3%, Exomalopsis sp. com 6,9%, Allograpta sp. com 5,2%, Bombus sp. com 3,4% e Xylocopa sp. com 1,7%. Os dados indicam que a RL desempenhou um papel fundamental no fornecimento de polinizadores para a cultura de tomate e, por isso, enfatiza-se a necessidade de conservação e restauração de fragmentos florestais para auxiliar no aumento da produção da cultura.
8

A Vegetative Key to the Conspicuous Flowering Herbs of Denton County, Texas

Fate, Dwight Wesley 01 1900 (has links)
"The area of study was restricted to those common flowering herbs of Denton County, Texas, which have conspicuous flowers or a conspicuous flower cluster. There were, however, many plants included in this flora which are common to several counties of north-central Texas. Since there has been no previous key devised for the herbs of Denton County, Texas, the purpose of this key was to provide a flora which could be used by elementary and high school instructors, as well as any other interested persons who lack an extensive knowledge of botanical nomenclature." -- leaf iv.
9

Systematics and floral evolution of the Dialiinae (Caesalpinioideae), a diverse lineage of tropical legumes

Zimmerman, Erin 01 1900 (has links)
Le clade Dialiinae représente l’une des premières lignées de la sous-famille Caesalpinioideae des Leguminosae. Il se compose de 17 genres (environ 90 espèces), avec des taxons qui sont répandus dans toutes les régions tropicales du monde. Morphologiquement, le groupe comprend un assemblage divers de taxons qui peut représenter une «phase expérimentale» dans l’évolution florale des légumineuses. Différents représentants du clade présentent de la poly-, mono-, et asymétrie, et semblent avoir subi un haut degré de perte d’organe, produisant, dans certains cas, des fleurs extrêmement réduites qui sont à peine reconnaissables comme appartenant à la famille des légumineuses. Afin d’obtenir une image plus claire de l’évolution florale du clade Dialiinae, une phylogénie bien résolue et bien soutenue est nécessaire. Dans le but de créer une telle phylogénie, un total de 37 échantillons d’ADN des Dialiinae a été séquencé pour deux régions chloroplastiques, soit rps16 et trnL. De plus, une étude morphologique complète a été réalisée. Un total de 135 caractères végétatifs et reproductifs a été évalué pour 79 espèces de Dialiinae et pour quatre groupes externes. Les analyses phylogénétiques ont d’abord été effectuées sur un groupe restreint de taxons pour lesquels les trois types de données étaient disponibles. Les nœuds fortement soutenus de cette phylogénie ont ensuite été utilisés comme contrainte pour une seconde analyse de parcimonie avec les données morphologiques d’un ensemble plus important de taxons. Les caractères morphologiques ont été optimisés sur l’un des arbres les plus parcimonieux de cette seconde analyse. Un certain nombre de nouvelles relations au niveau de l’espèce ont été résolues, créant une image plus claire quant à l’évolution de la forme florale dans le temps, particulièrement pour les genres Labichea et Dialium. En plus de leur morphologie florale mature diverse, les Dialiinae sont également très variables dans leur ontogénèse florale, affichant à la fois la perte et la suppression des organes, et présentant une variété de modes d’initiation d’organes. Afin de construire une image plus complète du développement floral et de l’évolution dans ce clade, l’ontogénèse florale de plusieurs espèces non documentées à ce jour a été étudiée. La série complète du développement a été compilée pour six espèces de Dialiinae; quatre de Dialium, ainsi que Poeppigia procera et Mendoravia dumaziana. Le mode et le moment de l’initiation des organes étaient pour la plupart uniforme pour toutes les espèces de Dialium étudiés. Tant pour ce qui est des gains ou des pertes d’organes chez Dialium, une tendance est apparente – l’absence d’organe abaxial. Que ce soit pour les sépales ou les étamines, les gains se produisent toujours en position médiane adaxiale, tandis que les étamines et les pétales perdus sont toujours les organes les plus ventraux. Les taxons étudiés ici illustrent le manque apparent de canalisation du développement observé chez les Caesalpinioideae. Cette plasticité ontogénétique est le reflet de la diversité morphologique au niveau des fleurs tel qu’observée dans l’ensemble de la sous-famille. Une des espèces de Dialiinae, Apuleia leiocarpa, produit une inflorescence andromonoïque, une caractéristique qui est unique en son clade et rare dans les légumineuses dans son ensemble. La microscopie optique et électronique ont été utilisées pour entreprendre une étude détaillée de la morphologie florale de ce taxon. On a constaté que tandis que les fleurs hermaphrodites produisent un seul carpelle et deux étamines, les fleurs staminées produisent trois étamines sans toutefois montrer signe de développement du carpelle. Les inflorescences semblent produire près de quatre fois plus de fleurs staminées que de fleurs hermaphrodites, lesquelles occupent toujours la position centrale de l’inflorescence cymeuse. Ce ratio élevé mâle/bisexuel et la détermination précoce du sexe chez Apuleia sont rares chez les Caesalpinioideae, ce qui suggère que l’andromonoecie se développe dans ce genre comme un moyen d’accroître la dispersion du pollen plutôt qu’en réponse à des limitations de ressources. / The Dialiinae clade represents one of the early-diverging lineages of the legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae; it consists of 17 genera (circa 90 species), and is pantropically distributed. Morphologically, the group comprises a diverse assemblage of taxa that may represent a so-called “experimental phase” in legume floral evolution. Different members of the clade exhibit poly-, mono-, and asymmetry, as well as having undergone a high degree of organ loss, producing, in some cases, extremely reduced flowers which are barely recognisable as belonging to the legume family. In order to obtain a clearer picture of floral evolution in the Dialiinae, a well resolved and well supported phylogeny is needed onto which morphological characters may be optimised. With the goal of creating such a phylogeny, a total of 37 Dialiinae DNA samples were sequenced for two plastid genes, rpS16 and trnL. Additionally, a comprehensive morphological study was carried out. A total of 135 vegetative and reproductive characters were scored for 79 ingroup and four outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out first on a restricted group of taxa for which all three data sets were available. The highly supported nodes of this phylogeny were then used as a constraint for a second parsimony analysis of morphological data from a much larger taxon set. Morphological characters were then mapped onto one of 20,000 most parsimonious trees from this second analysis. A number of novel species-level relationships were resolved, creating a clearer picture of changes in floral form over time, particularly in the genera Labichea and Dialium. In addition to their diverse mature floral morphology, the Dialiinae are also widely variable in their floral ontogeny, displaying both organ loss and suppression, and exhibiting a wide variety of organ initiation modes. In order to build a more complete picture of floral development and evolution in this clade, the floral ontogeny of several previously undocumented species was investigated. Complete developmental series were compiled for six species of the Dialiinae; four from Dialium, as well as Poeppigia procera and Mendoravia dumaziana. Mode and timing of organ initiation were mostly consistent across the Dialium species studied. In the instances of both gains and losses of floral organs in Dialium, one trend is apparent — an absence of abaxial organs. Gains in both sepals and stamens occur in the adaxial median position, while stamens and petals that are lost are always the ventral-most organs. The taxa examined here exemplify the apparent lack of developmental canalisation seen in caesalpinioid legumes. This ontogenetic evolvability is reflective of the morphological diversity shown by flowers across the subfamily. One of the species of the Dialiinae, Apuleia leiocarpa, produces an andromonoecious inflorescence, a feature that is unique in its clade and rare in the Leguminosae as a whole. Light and electron microscopy were used to undertake a detailed study of the floral morphology of this taxon. It was found that while hermaphrodite flowers produced a single carpel and two stamens, staminate flowers developed three stamens but showed no sign of carpel development. Inflorescences also appear to produce approximately four times as many staminate as hermaphrodite flowers, with hermaphroditic flowers consistently occupying the central position in cymose inflorescences. Both this high male-to-bisexual ratio and the early determination of gender seen in Apuleia are rare in the Caesalpinioideae and suggest that andromonoecy developed in this genus as a means to increase pollen dispersal rather than in response to resource limitations.
10

Estudos biossistemáticos em espécies de Habenaria (Orchidaceae) nativas no Rio Grande do Sul

Pedron, Marcelo January 2012 (has links)
Habenaria é um dos maiores gêneros da família Orchidaceae, e estimativas atuais pressupoem a existência de aproximadamente 835 espécies. Habenaria seção Pentadactylae com 34 espécies é a maior entre as 14 seções do gênero existente no novo mundo e compreende um conjunto de espécies morfologicamente bastante heterogênea. A fim de investigar a monofilia da seção e sua relação com outras seções do gênero, foram executadas análise Bayesiana e de Máxima Parcimônia com o emprego de um marcador nuclear (ITS) e três marcadores plastidiais (matK, intron trnK, rps16-trnk). Os resultados demonstraram que a seção Pentadactylae é altamente polifilética. Baseado nas análises filogenéticas e reavaliação de caracteres morfológicos, a seção Pentadactylae foi recircunscrita neste trabalho e sete espécies são aceitas: H. dutraei, H. ekmaniana, H. exaltata, H. henscheniana, H. megapotamensis, H. montevidensis e H. pentadactyla, enquanto outras 32 espécies foram excluídas. Habenaria crassipes é reconhecida como um sinônimo de H. exaltata. Lectótipos são designados para H. crassipes e H. recta. Todas as espécies da seção habitam pântanos ou locais bastante úmidos; com área de distribuição passando pelo norte da Argentina, Uruguai, Paraguai, sul, sudeste e centro do Brasil. O estado do Rio Grande do Sul (sul do Brasil), possivelmente, constitui um centro de diversidade da seção onde todas as espécies podem ser encontradas. A biologia reprodutiva de duas espécies da seção Pentadactylae, H. megapotamensis e H. montevidensis; e duas espécies da seção Macroceratitae, H. johannensis e H. macronectar, foram estudas. Todas as espécies estudadas oferecem néctar como recompensa floral aos polinizadores, produzido no interior de um prolongamento do labelo denominado esporão. Habenaria montevidensis é polinizada por borboletas da família Hesperiidae, enquanto as demais espécies são polinizadas por mariposas da família Sphingidae. Todas as espécies estudadas são auto-compatíveis mas dependentes de agentes polinizadores para a produção de frutos. O sucesso reprodutivo é alto (69,48 - 93%). Na área de estudo, todas as quatro espécies estudadas são reprodutivamente isoladas devido a um conjunto de fatores tais como diferenças na morfologia floral e diferentes polinizadores. / Habenaria is one of the largest genus of Orchidaceae family and current stimates accounts to the existence of 835 species. Habenaria section Pentadactylae with 34 species is the largest among the 14 New World sections of the genus and comprises a morphologically heterogeneous group of species. To investigate the monophyly of the section and the relation with other sections of the genus, Bayesian and parsimony analyses using one nuclear marker (ITS) and three plastid markers (matK, trnK intron, rps16-trnK) were performed. The results demonstrated that sect. Pentadactylae is highly polyphyletic. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and re-evaluation of morphological characters, Habenaria sect. Pentadactylae is re-circumscribed and seven species are accepted for the section: H. dutraei, H. ekmaniana, H. exaltata, H. henscheniana, H. megapotamensis, H. montevidensis and H. pentadactyla, while other 32 species were excluded. Habenaria crassipes is included under the synonym of H. exaltata. Lectotypes are designated for H. crassipes and H. recta. All species in the section are from marshes or wet grasslands and range from Northern Argentina, Uruguai, Paraguai and south, southeast and center of Brazil. The Rio Grande do Sul state (south Brazil), possibly constitute a diversity center of the section where every species can be founded. Most are rare, known by few populations, and threatened due to loss of habitat and population decline. The reproductive biology of two species from the section Pentadactylae, H. megapotamensis and H. montevidensis; and two species from the section Macroceratitae, H. johannensis and H. macronectar, were studied. All studied species offer nectar as floral reward concealed in a labellar process termed spur. Habenaria montevidensis is pollinated by Hesperiidae butterflies, while the remaining species are pollinated by Sphingidae moths. All studied species are self-compatible, but pollinator-dependent. The reproductive success is high (69.48 - 93%). At the study site, every four studied species are reproductively isolated by a set of factors that includes differing floral morphologies and different pollinators.

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