低碳社區評核基準指標建置之研議-以金門島為例 A Study of the Development of Standard Assessment Indicators for Low-carbon Communities – The Case of Kinmen Island梁耀南, Yao-nan Liang 2014 (has links)
中文摘要 世界極端氣候引起的全球暖化效應的持續威脅與經濟損失驟增，促使人類需要建構低碳社會改善「地球暖化效應」，已然是普世價值 。行政院於2009年4月「98年全國能源會議」於四大核心議題之「永續發展與能源安全」項下，決議規劃「低碳城市推動方案」。 城市規劃若能透過完善的規劃方案及導入生態(Ecology)、節能減廢(Energy conservation & Waste reduction)、健康舒適(Health & comfort)之觀念；再增添以「建築減廢」、「再生能源」、「創新節能措施」、「水資源管理與再生利用」、「資源循環再利用」、「碳中和彌補措施」、「社區機能」、「低碳生活」、「低碳運輸」、「建築節能」的範疇因子，將可有效降低溫室氣體的排放，以形成「低碳社區」範疇的雛形，進而擴展至「低碳都市」的推展，希冀以改善居住空間與戶外環境舒適度，也能達到減緩氣候的日益暖化現象。 對於居住環境依照「設計範疇指標分類-定量指標」、「設計範疇指標分類-定性指標」、「社區設施」、「形態和空間」、「交通便捷性」、「行為轉變」、「廢棄物管理」、「材料使用」、「水資源管理與再生利用」、「生態保護與環境綠化」、「能源需求」、「能源生產」、「設施管理」、「治理和匯報」十四個面向層級來規劃與管理，建構「低碳社區」評核基準面向；對於社區整體容積最適度化的評比、可削減環境硬體碳及碳足跡的執行方案、設置生態池與減低水足跡管理的方案、或以低耗能社區甚至於增能的社區構造物群體，邁向碳中和世界的各種指標；進而對於為「低碳社區」建構一些規則如：「低碳社區規劃設計規範規劃設計評核指標」、「低碳示範社區低碳建築物設計規範」及「低碳社區低碳建築物設計規範查核細目」、「低碳社區規劃設計規範查核細目」等技術規範的研擬。也或可供民眾、非政府組織、都市計畫技師、建築師等專門職業技術人員參酌使用，是本論文要探討的意義。 Abstract There is increasing realization of the need to design and construct low-carbon communities in order to fight the global warming effect, a constant threat to the environment and the economy caused by extreme weather. In response to this, the Executive Yuan resolved to develop the “Low-Carbon City Promotion Project,” an item below the core issue of “Sustainable Development and Energy Security,” at the 2009 National Energy Conference held in April 2009. If urban planning can be done through a sensible and comprehensive development plan that takes into consideration the concepts of “Ecology,” “Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction,” and “Health and Comfort”, and at the same time considers the following aspects, greenhouse gas emissions can be effectively reduced: “Construction Waste Reduction,” “Renewable Energy,” “Innovative Conservation Measures,” “Water Resource Management, Reclamation and Reuse,” “Recycling and Reuse of Resources,” “Carbon Neutrality Measures,” “Community Function,” “Low-carbon Lifestyle,” “Low-carbon Transportation,” “Energy-Saving Buildings.” Once the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is achieved, the prototype for a “Low-carbon Community” can be obtained, and it can be further expanded into a “Low-carbon City,” which hopefully can enhance the comfort of the living space and its surrounding environment, as well as slow down the pace of global warming. With regard to the living environment, the assessment standards are designed in accordance with the following fourteen categories: “Quantitative Indicators for Design,” “Qualitative Indicators for Design,” “Community Facilities,” “Form and Space,” “Transport Connectivity,” “Behavior Change,” “Waste Management,” “Materials Used,” “Water Resource Management, Reclamation and Reuse,” “Ecological Protection and Environmental Greening,” “Energy Demand,” “Energy Generation,” “Facilities Management,” and “Governance and Reporting.” Appraisal of appropriateness of total gross floor area, plan for reducing environmental hard carbon and carbon footprint, plan for the establishment of ecological ponds and reduction of water footprint management, or the establishment of low-energy buildings or even energy-plus buildings, are all indicators towards a carbon-neutral world. This thesis also proposes the following regulations for the development of a “low-carbon community”: “Assessment Indicators for the Development and Design of Low-carbon Communities,” “Design Regulations for Low-carbon Model Communities and Low-carbon Buildings,” “Detailed Assessment Items for the Design of Low-carbon Buildings,” and “Detailed Assessment Items for the Development and Design of Low-carbon Communities.” It is hoped that this thesis will serve as useful reference material for the general public, non-governmental organizations, urban planning technicians, architects, and other professionals. 目錄 目錄 I 圖目錄 IV 表目錄 VI 第一章 緒論 1 1.1 研究動機 1 1.2 研究目的 4 第二章 文獻回顧 5 2.1 「零碳建築物」「零能耗建築物」的義函 5 2.2 碳排放政策與金門碳排放現況 9 2.3 國內外低碳社區（城市）發展案例 14 2.3.1 國外低碳社區（城市）的發展現況 14 2.3.2 國內低碳社區（城市）的發展現況 18 2.4 國內外低碳評估系統與發展 36 2.4.1 歐洲綠色城市指標( European Green City lndex) (Economist lntelligence Unit, 2009) 37 2.4.2 氣候變遷績效指標( The Climate Change Performance Index, CCPI) 41 2.5 「生態足跡」「環境容受力」的義涵 54 2.6 國內外低碳與低碳社區的指標 59 2.7 低碳社區評核指標面向分類與設計範疇指標總結說明 87 第三章 低碳社區評估的構架 92 3.1 從環境容受力的承受量檢討社區整體容積的擬訂 93 3.2 建築技術規則綠建築基準專章應執行的相關法令與規範 96 3.3 從「綠建築評估手冊—社區類」評核指標中探討「低碳社區」的構成要素 104 3.3.1 「綠建築評估手冊－社區類」發展之過程 104 3.3.2 「綠建築評估手冊- 社區類」評核基準之探討 108 3.3.3 「低碳社區」構成要素的探討 114 3.4 削減環境碳排放及碳補償的簡易可行性方案 117 第四章 金門縣低碳社區評核指標建構 121 4.1 基地街廓環境與微氣候日照角與風廊的建構 121 4.1.1 基地街廓環境與微氣候間之關係 121 4.1.2 微氣候與社區內街廓發展策略 122 4.2 社區居民使用在地化與永續的食材建構低碳永續家園 126 4.3 水與水足跡管理的評估與建構 127 4.3.1 水與水足跡的管理及金門水與水足跡的現況 127 4.3.2 水與水足跡及永續性水資源使用與管理要素 131 4.4 低碳社區「興建密度」與可容納人數的研究 133 4.4.1 我國法令對於普通社區興建容積率與可容納人數的試算 133 4.4.2 對於低碳社區興建密度的建議 142 4.5 社區意識與行為轉變的宣導進而發展成評比的工具 143 4.6 金門縣建立低碳社區及建築物規劃設計規範之研擬 145 4.6.1 擬定金門低碳社區評核指標項目分類與設計範疇指標 145 4.6.2 金門縣建立低碳社區規劃設計規範之研擬 149 4.6.3 金門縣建立低碳建築物設計規範之研擬 156 4.7 低碳社區永續認證指標標的評核與層級 161 4.7.1 金門低碳社區永續認證評核指標 161 4.7.2 草擬金門低碳社區永續認證評核指標層級 164 第五章 金門低碳社區規劃設計的應用實驗與效益 165 5.1 金門低碳社區說明 165 5.1.1 金門縣尚義低碳住宅區細部計畫書圖資料 165 5.2 金門縣金湖鎮尚義低碳住宅區範例分析比較 172 5.2.1 金門縣金湖鎮尚義低碳住宅區低碳社區規劃案範例一 172 5.2.2 金門縣金湖鎮尚義低碳住宅區低碳社區規劃案範例二 179 第六章 討論與建議 191 6.1 金門地區「低碳社區規劃設計規範」的重點面向 191 6.2 金門地區「低碳社區低碳建築物設計規範」的重點面向 194 6.3 金門地區「低碳社區規劃設計查核細目」的實質檢討 197 6.4 金門縣金湖鎮尚義住宅區「低碳社區永續認證」評核 206 6.5 建議 210 參考文獻 211 附錄 213
墾丁地區遊客碳足跡與使用電動車 之用後滿意度調查之研究 Investigating The Tourist’s Carbon Footprint and the Satisfaction of Electric Scooter in Kenting Area張毓莛, Chang, yu-ting 2013 (has links)
墾丁國家公園是台灣重要休閒旅遊場所之一，又因為日前全球暖化的環保議題需要人們共同致力於緩和氣候變遷，而國內各型的旅遊車輛需求也不斷增加，尤其觀光地區之代步工具，更是民眾最主要的短程交通工具，電動車的租賃也因此在墾丁地區發展起來；如能瞭解租賃電動車遊客的環保意識，探討其遊客碳足跡與使用電動車的滿意度之相關性，則對政府未來發展具環保特性之交通工具有相當大的幫助。 因此本研究採用問卷調查作為研究工具，以便利抽樣的方式，共得到有效問卷345分，回收率為97.2%；所得的資料採用獨立樣本T檢定、單因子變異數分析與事後分析等統計方法，來獲得本研究的結果。 研究結果發現，墾丁地區使用電動車遊客之遊客碳足跡以低碳者占大多數，顯示使用電動車者多數較有環保意識；遊客對於使用電動車的整體滿意表現為中上程度；低碳遊客族群對電動車滿意度較高。 最後，依據本研究之分析結果，針對墾丁地區電動車發展及後續研究者提出相關建議，以作為政府相關單位及未來學術研究之參考。 Nowadays global warning is an essential issue. People should be devoted to prevent the situation from being worse. However, the need of different types of vehicles has been increased, especially in scenic areas, so people should try to decrease the pollution while traveling. In Taiwan, Kenting National Park is one of the popular places for leisure. The development of rental electric scooters has become more and more popular in this area. Therefore, this study explores the environmental awareness of the tourists who rent electric scooters and the relationship between their carbon footprint and their satisfaction among electric scooters. This will be helpful for the government to develop vehicles with environmental protection. This study used questionnaires to collect data. There were 360 questionnaires conducted randomly with 15 of them being invalid. This made a valid participation rate of 97.2%. The researcher utilized independent-samples t-test and one-way ANOVA to analyze collected data. The result shows that most tourists in Kenting riding electric scooters belong to low-carbon people. This indicates that most of people riding electric scooters have the environmental awareness. In addition, more than a half of subjects are satisfied with the electric scooters; moreover, low carbon tourists have higher satisfaction among electric scooters. 碩士論文審定書 I 謝 誌 II 摘 要 IV ABSTRACT V 目 錄 VI 表 目 錄 IX 圖 目 錄 XI 第一章 緒論 1 第一節 研究動機 1 第二節 研究目的 4 第三節 研究範圍與限制 5 第四節 名詞解釋 6 第五節 研究流程 8 第二章 文獻探討 9 第一節 墾丁國家公園遊客流量統計 9 第二節 低碳旅遊運具對環境的影響 10 第三節 電動車的發展現況 12 第四節 滿意度的概念與衡量 14 第五節 遊客碳足跡的概念與衡量 19 第三章 研究方法 21 第一節 研究架構 21 第二節 研究假設 21 第三節 研究設計 22 第四節 資料處理與分析方法 36 第四章 研究結果與討論 38 第一節 基本資料描述 38 第二節 墾丁地區遊客碳足跡及使用電動車滿意度現況分析 43 第三節 遊客基本屬性各項統計資料與遊客碳足跡變項之差異分析 45 第四節 遊客基本屬性與電動車滿意度變項之差異分析 51 第五節 遊客碳足跡與電動車滿意度變項之差異分析 56 第六節 小結 57 第五章 結論與建議 59 第一節 結論 59 第二節 建議 64 參考文獻 67 附錄一 碳足跡排放量比較表 71 附錄二 預試問卷 72 附錄三 正式問卷 76
Transformation of a University Climate Action Plan into a Sustainability Plan and Creation of an Implementation Prioritization ToolClinton, Carol 2011 (has links)
No description available.
Greening our working lives : the environmental impacts of changing patterns of paid work in the UK and the Netherlands, and implications for working time policyPullinger, Martin Iain 2012 (has links)
Paid working patterns are currently regulated by governments around the world for a range of social and economic reasons: to increase labour supply and skills; to provide a strong tax base to support an ageing population; to help people reconcile work and family life over increasingly diversified life courses; and to be in line with the general principle of the activating, employment led welfare state. Environmental considerations rarely feature in the design or evaluation of working time policy. Nevertheless, various authors working on policies for sustainable development argue that reductions in average paid working time could lead to environmental benefits: as people work less, they in turn earn less, and so consume less, resulting in lower environmental impacts from lower levels of production of products. This thesis takes this argument as its starting point, and synthesises these distinct perspectives on working time and its regulation to address two key questions: what level of environmental benefits could arise from such reductions in paid working time?; and what are the implications for the design of working time policy? The research addresses these questions, taking the case of greenhouse gas emissions, and the UK and the Netherlands in the early 2000s as case studies. Using household expenditure survey data and data on product emissions intensities, the relationship between paid working time and emissions is analysed at both the household and national levels. At the household level, statistically and substantively significant correlations are found between higher levels of paid work and higher levels of consumption and so greenhouse gas emissions. The effects on emissions of hypothetical changes in the working patterns of the national populations are then modelled. The research estimates that meeting current national objectives to increase labour market participation rates would increase national greenhouse gas emissions by 0.6-0.7%, a cost that might be considered acceptable if it also achieves its aims of reducing income poverty, benefit dependency, and social exclusion. Meanwhile, widespread reductions in average working hours and increased use of career breaks, with corresponding reductions in income, would reduce national emissions. The scenarios modelled (a 20% reduction in the working hours of full time workers, and increasing use of 3 month career breaks) lead to reductions of 3-4.5% in national emissions, with the corresponding increases in “leisure” time, reductions in income inequality, and reduced gender imbalances in the distribution of paid work potentially also improving wellbeing, social cohesion, and gender equality in work and care. The results indicate that environmental factors warrant consideration in the design and evaluation of working time policy, and that challenging but achievable levels of working time reduction could contribute a small but significant share to meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets. Policy instruments would need to address a range of values, attitudes and norms around employment and consumption, as well as employer and situational factors, if substantial working time reduction were to be achieved. Reconciling diverse environmental, social and economic goals also requires careful policy design, particularly for certain demographic groups such as the low income, who would need financial and other support to turn rights to reduce working time into functional freedoms that they could utilise.
Utility and repeatability of quantitative outcome measures to assess recovery after canine spinal cord injurySong, Rachel B 27 May 2015 (has links)
No description available.
In a globalizing world, trade has become essential to supporting the needs and wants of billions of people. Virtually everyone now consumes resource commodities and manufactured products traded all over the world; the ecological footprints of nations are now scattered across the globe. The spatial separation of material production (resource exploitation) from consumption eliminates negative feedbacks from supporting eco-systems. Most consumers remain unaware of the impacts that their trade dependence imposes on distant ecosystems (out of sight out of mind). I take the first steps in developing a conceptual and practical framework for an ‘interregional ecology’ approach to exploring and analyzing sustainability in an increasingly interconnected world. Such an approach accounts for some of the ‘externalities’ of globalization and international trade. It underscores the increasing dependence and impact of almost any country on resources originating from others and recognizes that the sustainability of any specified region may be increasingly linked to the ecological sustainability of distant supporting regions. I empirically describe and quantify some of the interregional material linkages between selected countries. I document the flows of renewable resources into the U.S. and quantify the U.S. external material footprint (EF) on specific countries. I then document the physical inputs involved in production of most agricultural export products from Costa Rica and Canada. Finally, I focus on major export products such as bananas, coffee and beef in Costa Rica and agricultural activities in the Canadian Prairies and document some of the ecological consequences (loss of habitat, soil degradation, water contamination and biodiversity loss) of that production. My research findings show increasing U.S. imports, increasing reliance on external sources and growing external ecological footprints. They also show how production activities mostly for overseas consumption led to changes in ecological structure and function in the studied export countries. This dissertation adds a missing trans-national dimension to the sustainability debate effectively integrating the policy and planning domain for sustainability in one region with that in others. While my research focuses mainly on documenting the nature and magnitude of interregional connections I also consider some of the implications of the interregional approach for sustainability planning.
Distinguishing Painted dog (Lycaon pictus) footprints from Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) footprints in the field – in search of a quantitative methodScharis, Inger 2011 (has links)
Population estimation is an important task in all wildlife conservation. Such estimations are often difficult in low-density species such as big carnivores. The painted dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered species and the first aim of IUCNs action plan is to assess the size and the distribution of the remaining population. This study is the first step towards a quantitative method to distinguish painted dog footprints from footprints of feral domestic dogs and hyaenas. Footprint photographs were collected and digitally processed and total pad area and angles between the digits and backpad of the paw were measured. Both the pad area and the angles show a statistically significant difference between the species. However, further analysis shows that there is no significant difference in pad area between painted dog females and domestic dog males. Size of the pads alone is therefore not suitable as a measure to determine the species from an unknown footprint. The angles between backpad and digits seem to be more suitable to distinguish between species. Therefore, a combination of pad size and the angle between backpad and digits might be useful to estimate the species from an unknown footprint in the field.
Investments in offshore manufacturing have in a historical perspective been taken as a series of separate decisions with a strong focus on cost reduction. This kind of cost is typically narrowed to the cost of purchase or manufacture. The total supply chain costs are hardly ever considered. Investments need to be reviewed within the context of a company´s total market and manufacturing requirements. This will prevent unwanted issues such as extended lead times, greater buffer stocks and excess capacity, uncoordinated strategic responses, conflicts and the failure to be profitable. Alfdex, which is a joint venture owned by Alfa Laval and Haldex, provide the global truck and diesel engine market with its products and is for the moment market leader. The future demand will however exceed their current capacity within five years. To avoid that any decision will be made ad hoc this project will identify some essential factors that are significant for a future expansion of production. This will thereafter be adapted for Alfdex situation to recommend where they should expand their future production based on an objective perspective. In this project seven markets will be reviewed; North America, Europe, South America, Russia, China, India, and Asia. The manufacturing footprint refers to where a company geographically locates its production. It is based on a long-term perspective and required reasonable strategic thinking and analysis. Four essential factors have been identified which will determine Alfdex manufacturing footprint recommendations; the current situation; the market development and capacity need; the issue of costs; global and local conditions and differences together with the supply chain. In addition a scenario matrix and analysis matrix have been developed to support the analysis. This work has shown that the most feasible solution, based on what is known today, is to make an onsite expansion in Landskrona, Sweden. By keeping the production in Sweden Alfdex will meet the most qualifications identified in the manufacturing footprint. Additionally a sales person and technical support are required in North America as well as allocating resources to monitor the Chinese market. In this version of the report customers’ and suppliers’ names as well as some figures have been concealed. In some cases the information has been replaced by an X and in others it has been completely removed.
AbstractCarbon Footprints, as an indicator of climate performance, help identify major GHG emission sources and potential areas of improvement. In the context of greatly expanding sub-national climate efforts, research on Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is timely and necessary to facilitate the establishment of local climate strategies. This study aims at exploring the methodologies for Carbon Footprint assessment at municipality level, based on the case study of Haninge municipality in Sweden. In the study, a Greenhouse Gas inventory of Haninge is developed and it is discussed how the municipality can reduce its Carbon Footprint. The Carbon Footprint of Haninge is estimated to be more than 338,225 tonnesCO2eq, and 4.5 tonnes CO2eq per capita. These numbers are twice as large as the production-based emissions, which are estimated to be 169,024 tonnes CO2eq in total, and approximately 2.3 tonnes CO2eq per capita. Among them the most important parts are emissions caused by energy use, and indirect emissions caused by local private consumption. It is worth noting that a large proportion of emissions occur outside Haninge as a result of local consumption. Intensive use of biomass for heat production and electricity from renewable sources and nuclear power have significantly reduced the climate impact of Haninge. The major barrier for Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is lack of local statistics. In the case of Sweden, several databases providing emission statistics are used in the research, including KRE, RUS, NIR and Environmental Account.
Exploring the Environmental Impact of A Residential Life Cycle, Including Retrofits: Ecological Footprint Application to A Life Cycle Analysis Framework in OntarioBin, Guoshu 2011 (has links)
The residential sector is recognized as a major energy consumer and thus a significant contributor to climate change. Rather than focus only on current energy consumption and the associated emissions, there is a need to broaden sustainability research to include full life cycle contributions and impacts. This thesis looks at houses from the perspective of the Ecological Footprint (EF), a well-known sustainability indicator. The research objective is to integrate EF and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) measures to provide an enhanced tool to measure the sustainability implications of residential energy retrofit decisions. Exemplifying single-detached houses of the early 20th century, the century-old REEP House (downtown Kitchener, Canada), together with its high performance energy retrofits, is examined in detail. This research combines material, energy and carbon emission studies. Its scope covers the life cycle of the house, including the direct and indirect consumption of material and energy, and concomitant carbon emissions during its stages of material extraction, transportation, construction, operation, and demolition. The results show that the REEP House had a significant embodied impact on the environment when it was built and high operating energy and EF requirements because of the low levels of insulation. Even though the renovations to improve energy efficiency by 80% introduce additional embodied environmental impacts, they are environmentally sound activities because the environmental payback period is less than two years.
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