墾丁地區遊客碳足跡與使用電動車 之用後滿意度調查之研究 Investigating The Tourist’s Carbon Footprint and the Satisfaction of Electric Scooter in Kenting Area張毓莛, Chang, yu-ting 2013 (has links)
墾丁國家公園是台灣重要休閒旅遊場所之一，又因為日前全球暖化的環保議題需要人們共同致力於緩和氣候變遷，而國內各型的旅遊車輛需求也不斷增加，尤其觀光地區之代步工具，更是民眾最主要的短程交通工具，電動車的租賃也因此在墾丁地區發展起來；如能瞭解租賃電動車遊客的環保意識，探討其遊客碳足跡與使用電動車的滿意度之相關性，則對政府未來發展具環保特性之交通工具有相當大的幫助。 因此本研究採用問卷調查作為研究工具，以便利抽樣的方式，共得到有效問卷345分，回收率為97.2%；所得的資料採用獨立樣本T檢定、單因子變異數分析與事後分析等統計方法，來獲得本研究的結果。 研究結果發現，墾丁地區使用電動車遊客之遊客碳足跡以低碳者占大多數，顯示使用電動車者多數較有環保意識；遊客對於使用電動車的整體滿意表現為中上程度；低碳遊客族群對電動車滿意度較高。 最後，依據本研究之分析結果，針對墾丁地區電動車發展及後續研究者提出相關建議，以作為政府相關單位及未來學術研究之參考。 Nowadays global warning is an essential issue. People should be devoted to prevent the situation from being worse. However, the need of different types of vehicles has been increased, especially in scenic areas, so people should try to decrease the pollution while traveling. In Taiwan, Kenting National Park is one of the popular places for leisure. The development of rental electric scooters has become more and more popular in this area. Therefore, this study explores the environmental awareness of the tourists who rent electric scooters and the relationship between their carbon footprint and their satisfaction among electric scooters. This will be helpful for the government to develop vehicles with environmental protection. This study used questionnaires to collect data. There were 360 questionnaires conducted randomly with 15 of them being invalid. This made a valid participation rate of 97.2%. The researcher utilized independent-samples t-test and one-way ANOVA to analyze collected data. The result shows that most tourists in Kenting riding electric scooters belong to low-carbon people. This indicates that most of people riding electric scooters have the environmental awareness. In addition, more than a half of subjects are satisfied with the electric scooters; moreover, low carbon tourists have higher satisfaction among electric scooters. 碩士論文審定書 I 謝 誌 II 摘 要 IV ABSTRACT V 目 錄 VI 表 目 錄 IX 圖 目 錄 XI 第一章 緒論 1 第一節 研究動機 1 第二節 研究目的 4 第三節 研究範圍與限制 5 第四節 名詞解釋 6 第五節 研究流程 8 第二章 文獻探討 9 第一節 墾丁國家公園遊客流量統計 9 第二節 低碳旅遊運具對環境的影響 10 第三節 電動車的發展現況 12 第四節 滿意度的概念與衡量 14 第五節 遊客碳足跡的概念與衡量 19 第三章 研究方法 21 第一節 研究架構 21 第二節 研究假設 21 第三節 研究設計 22 第四節 資料處理與分析方法 36 第四章 研究結果與討論 38 第一節 基本資料描述 38 第二節 墾丁地區遊客碳足跡及使用電動車滿意度現況分析 43 第三節 遊客基本屬性各項統計資料與遊客碳足跡變項之差異分析 45 第四節 遊客基本屬性與電動車滿意度變項之差異分析 51 第五節 遊客碳足跡與電動車滿意度變項之差異分析 56 第六節 小結 57 第五章 結論與建議 59 第一節 結論 59 第二節 建議 64 參考文獻 67 附錄一 碳足跡排放量比較表 71 附錄二 預試問卷 72 附錄三 正式問卷 76
Transformation of a University Climate Action Plan into a Sustainability Plan and Creation of an Implementation Prioritization ToolClinton, Carol 2011 (has links)
No description available.
Greening our working lives : the environmental impacts of changing patterns of paid work in the UK and the Netherlands, and implications for working time policyPullinger, Martin Iain 2012 (has links)
Paid working patterns are currently regulated by governments around the world for a range of social and economic reasons: to increase labour supply and skills; to provide a strong tax base to support an ageing population; to help people reconcile work and family life over increasingly diversified life courses; and to be in line with the general principle of the activating, employment led welfare state. Environmental considerations rarely feature in the design or evaluation of working time policy. Nevertheless, various authors working on policies for sustainable development argue that reductions in average paid working time could lead to environmental benefits: as people work less, they in turn earn less, and so consume less, resulting in lower environmental impacts from lower levels of production of products. This thesis takes this argument as its starting point, and synthesises these distinct perspectives on working time and its regulation to address two key questions: what level of environmental benefits could arise from such reductions in paid working time?; and what are the implications for the design of working time policy? The research addresses these questions, taking the case of greenhouse gas emissions, and the UK and the Netherlands in the early 2000s as case studies. Using household expenditure survey data and data on product emissions intensities, the relationship between paid working time and emissions is analysed at both the household and national levels. At the household level, statistically and substantively significant correlations are found between higher levels of paid work and higher levels of consumption and so greenhouse gas emissions. The effects on emissions of hypothetical changes in the working patterns of the national populations are then modelled. The research estimates that meeting current national objectives to increase labour market participation rates would increase national greenhouse gas emissions by 0.6-0.7%, a cost that might be considered acceptable if it also achieves its aims of reducing income poverty, benefit dependency, and social exclusion. Meanwhile, widespread reductions in average working hours and increased use of career breaks, with corresponding reductions in income, would reduce national emissions. The scenarios modelled (a 20% reduction in the working hours of full time workers, and increasing use of 3 month career breaks) lead to reductions of 3-4.5% in national emissions, with the corresponding increases in “leisure” time, reductions in income inequality, and reduced gender imbalances in the distribution of paid work potentially also improving wellbeing, social cohesion, and gender equality in work and care. The results indicate that environmental factors warrant consideration in the design and evaluation of working time policy, and that challenging but achievable levels of working time reduction could contribute a small but significant share to meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets. Policy instruments would need to address a range of values, attitudes and norms around employment and consumption, as well as employer and situational factors, if substantial working time reduction were to be achieved. Reconciling diverse environmental, social and economic goals also requires careful policy design, particularly for certain demographic groups such as the low income, who would need financial and other support to turn rights to reduce working time into functional freedoms that they could utilise.
Utility and repeatability of quantitative outcome measures to assess recovery after canine spinal cord injurySong, Rachel B 27 May 2015 (has links)
No description available.
In a globalizing world, trade has become essential to supporting the needs and wants of billions of people. Virtually everyone now consumes resource commodities and manufactured products traded all over the world; the ecological footprints of nations are now scattered across the globe. The spatial separation of material production (resource exploitation) from consumption eliminates negative feedbacks from supporting eco-systems. Most consumers remain unaware of the impacts that their trade dependence imposes on distant ecosystems (out of sight out of mind). I take the first steps in developing a conceptual and practical framework for an ‘interregional ecology’ approach to exploring and analyzing sustainability in an increasingly interconnected world. Such an approach accounts for some of the ‘externalities’ of globalization and international trade. It underscores the increasing dependence and impact of almost any country on resources originating from others and recognizes that the sustainability of any specified region may be increasingly linked to the ecological sustainability of distant supporting regions. I empirically describe and quantify some of the interregional material linkages between selected countries. I document the flows of renewable resources into the U.S. and quantify the U.S. external material footprint (EF) on specific countries. I then document the physical inputs involved in production of most agricultural export products from Costa Rica and Canada. Finally, I focus on major export products such as bananas, coffee and beef in Costa Rica and agricultural activities in the Canadian Prairies and document some of the ecological consequences (loss of habitat, soil degradation, water contamination and biodiversity loss) of that production. My research findings show increasing U.S. imports, increasing reliance on external sources and growing external ecological footprints. They also show how production activities mostly for overseas consumption led to changes in ecological structure and function in the studied export countries. This dissertation adds a missing trans-national dimension to the sustainability debate effectively integrating the policy and planning domain for sustainability in one region with that in others. While my research focuses mainly on documenting the nature and magnitude of interregional connections I also consider some of the implications of the interregional approach for sustainability planning.
Distinguishing Painted dog (Lycaon pictus) footprints from Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) footprints in the field – in search of a quantitative methodScharis, Inger 2011 (has links)
Population estimation is an important task in all wildlife conservation. Such estimations are often difficult in low-density species such as big carnivores. The painted dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered species and the first aim of IUCNs action plan is to assess the size and the distribution of the remaining population. This study is the first step towards a quantitative method to distinguish painted dog footprints from footprints of feral domestic dogs and hyaenas. Footprint photographs were collected and digitally processed and total pad area and angles between the digits and backpad of the paw were measured. Both the pad area and the angles show a statistically significant difference between the species. However, further analysis shows that there is no significant difference in pad area between painted dog females and domestic dog males. Size of the pads alone is therefore not suitable as a measure to determine the species from an unknown footprint. The angles between backpad and digits seem to be more suitable to distinguish between species. Therefore, a combination of pad size and the angle between backpad and digits might be useful to estimate the species from an unknown footprint in the field.
Investments in offshore manufacturing have in a historical perspective been taken as a series of separate decisions with a strong focus on cost reduction. This kind of cost is typically narrowed to the cost of purchase or manufacture. The total supply chain costs are hardly ever considered. Investments need to be reviewed within the context of a company´s total market and manufacturing requirements. This will prevent unwanted issues such as extended lead times, greater buffer stocks and excess capacity, uncoordinated strategic responses, conflicts and the failure to be profitable. Alfdex, which is a joint venture owned by Alfa Laval and Haldex, provide the global truck and diesel engine market with its products and is for the moment market leader. The future demand will however exceed their current capacity within five years. To avoid that any decision will be made ad hoc this project will identify some essential factors that are significant for a future expansion of production. This will thereafter be adapted for Alfdex situation to recommend where they should expand their future production based on an objective perspective. In this project seven markets will be reviewed; North America, Europe, South America, Russia, China, India, and Asia. The manufacturing footprint refers to where a company geographically locates its production. It is based on a long-term perspective and required reasonable strategic thinking and analysis. Four essential factors have been identified which will determine Alfdex manufacturing footprint recommendations; the current situation; the market development and capacity need; the issue of costs; global and local conditions and differences together with the supply chain. In addition a scenario matrix and analysis matrix have been developed to support the analysis. This work has shown that the most feasible solution, based on what is known today, is to make an onsite expansion in Landskrona, Sweden. By keeping the production in Sweden Alfdex will meet the most qualifications identified in the manufacturing footprint. Additionally a sales person and technical support are required in North America as well as allocating resources to monitor the Chinese market. In this version of the report customers’ and suppliers’ names as well as some figures have been concealed. In some cases the information has been replaced by an X and in others it has been completely removed.
AbstractCarbon Footprints, as an indicator of climate performance, help identify major GHG emission sources and potential areas of improvement. In the context of greatly expanding sub-national climate efforts, research on Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is timely and necessary to facilitate the establishment of local climate strategies. This study aims at exploring the methodologies for Carbon Footprint assessment at municipality level, based on the case study of Haninge municipality in Sweden. In the study, a Greenhouse Gas inventory of Haninge is developed and it is discussed how the municipality can reduce its Carbon Footprint. The Carbon Footprint of Haninge is estimated to be more than 338,225 tonnesCO2eq, and 4.5 tonnes CO2eq per capita. These numbers are twice as large as the production-based emissions, which are estimated to be 169,024 tonnes CO2eq in total, and approximately 2.3 tonnes CO2eq per capita. Among them the most important parts are emissions caused by energy use, and indirect emissions caused by local private consumption. It is worth noting that a large proportion of emissions occur outside Haninge as a result of local consumption. Intensive use of biomass for heat production and electricity from renewable sources and nuclear power have significantly reduced the climate impact of Haninge. The major barrier for Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is lack of local statistics. In the case of Sweden, several databases providing emission statistics are used in the research, including KRE, RUS, NIR and Environmental Account.
Exploring the Environmental Impact of A Residential Life Cycle, Including Retrofits: Ecological Footprint Application to A Life Cycle Analysis Framework in OntarioBin, Guoshu 2011 (has links)
The residential sector is recognized as a major energy consumer and thus a significant contributor to climate change. Rather than focus only on current energy consumption and the associated emissions, there is a need to broaden sustainability research to include full life cycle contributions and impacts. This thesis looks at houses from the perspective of the Ecological Footprint (EF), a well-known sustainability indicator. The research objective is to integrate EF and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) measures to provide an enhanced tool to measure the sustainability implications of residential energy retrofit decisions. Exemplifying single-detached houses of the early 20th century, the century-old REEP House (downtown Kitchener, Canada), together with its high performance energy retrofits, is examined in detail. This research combines material, energy and carbon emission studies. Its scope covers the life cycle of the house, including the direct and indirect consumption of material and energy, and concomitant carbon emissions during its stages of material extraction, transportation, construction, operation, and demolition. The results show that the REEP House had a significant embodied impact on the environment when it was built and high operating energy and EF requirements because of the low levels of insulation. Even though the renovations to improve energy efficiency by 80% introduce additional embodied environmental impacts, they are environmentally sound activities because the environmental payback period is less than two years.
Purvis, Claire Lynne Jay
In recent years, the impacts of tourism on the environment have indicated an urgent need for sustainability principles to be introduced within the industry. Although problems arise regarding the definition and meanings of sustainability, the Ecological Footprint has been proposed as a key indicator of sustainable tourism. In this study, the ecological footprint was adapted to a tourism context, in order to measure the sustainability of backpacker tourists, who are speculated to be environmentally friendly due to their low budgets and use of few resources. During this study surveys were conducted with 123 backpackers and hostel tourists staying at 8 hostels located throughout Ontario and Quebec. Information was collected on respondents’ food, activity and transportation behaviours, as well as hostel occupancy rates, property sizes, energy usages, and waste management routines. This data was inputted into the ecological footprint calculator to determine the average ecological footprints of backpacker tourists in Ontario and Quebec, and the relationship between the ecological footprint, demographics and travelling behaviours. In addition to the data collected for ecological footprint calculations, information was also gathered on hostel and respondent environmental behaviours. The findings indicate that backpacker tourism is substantially more sustainable than some other forms of international travel, however it is generally not sustainable as an activity. Backpacker ecological footprints were considerably higher than the average footprints of residents in their home countries, indicating the immense impacts of transportation, which accounted for 77% of the average EF in this study. As most backpackers in this study were international travellers, the transportation impacts were often a result of flight emissions and although an inquiry was made into sustainable flight options, it is clear that there is currently no perfect solution for decreasing flight impacts. As a result, reducing the ecological footprint of backpacker tourism to a sustainable level currently appears to be for the most part, impossible. However, as backpacker tourism does contribute to the social and economic sustainability of some areas, minor changes are possible within the sector, to at least make the backpacker market as environmentally sustainable as currently possible.
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