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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Visualisation and analysis of patterns in serological data using 'antibody landscapes'

Wilks, Samuel Hedley January 2017 (has links)
In this thesis I develop and implement “antibody landscapes”, a method to profile immunity against a pathogen as a function of antigenic differences between a range of strains. Theoretically applicable to any antigenically variable pathogen and measurement of immunity, the work here focusses on antibody-mediated immunity against the A/H3N2 influenza subtype. Applying the methodology to study annual serum samples from individuals monitored for influenza infection over a period of six years, patterns of influenza immunity were found to be remarkably distinct and maintained almost unchanged over time in the absence of influenza exposure. Upon infection, the initial response is strikingly antigenically broad, including responses against viruses far beyond the extent of cross-reactivity observed after a primary infection. Analysis of two vaccination cohorts, one receiving an antigenically advanced vaccine strain and one a more typical vaccine strain choice, revealed many of the same patterns of response as seen with infection. Antigenically advanced vaccination generated greater responses against later strains but surprisingly, due to equivalent boosting of prior immunity, this came at no cost to responses generated against contemporary or older strains. Exploring in more detail the development of immunity over time, analysis of a cohort of children demonstrated that - in contrast to adults with diverse exposure histories - antibody responses to a first infections were remarkably similar in pattern and magnitude. Interestingly, for second infections, although post-infection antibody titres against circulating strains were comparable to those after first infections, overall cross-reactivity of the response against future antigenic variants appeared to be diminished. The findings here underline the significant role prior-immunity plays in affecting the response to new exposures and the importance of understanding it. An important conclusion is that by failing to account for it, current approaches to influenza vaccine strain selection may be suboptimal and pre-emptive vaccine strain updates may improve overall vaccine efficacy where immunity to current strains already exists in the population. Building on the work presented here should help to optimise strain choice and vaccine efficacy even further.
2

Titre d'anticorps anti-hémagglutinine comme corrélat de protection contre l'infection grippale : impact et dynamique / Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer as a correlate of protection against influenza infection : impact and dynamics

Markovic Delabre, Rosemary 23 March 2016 (has links)
Le titre sérique d'anticorps anti-hémagglutinine (HA) est reconnu comme corrélat de la protection à l'infection grippale. Cette thèse examine le rôle du titre d'anticorps HA comme corrélat de protection dans le contexte d'une seule infection, puis considère l'effet des expositions répétées sur la réponse immunitaire.Premièrement, l'association entre l'infection grippale par le virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et 167 variables a été explorée. Cette étude montre l'interaction complexe de facteurs qui influent sur le risque d'infection: les titres d'anticorps pré-épidémiques sont protecteurs, mais des facteurs tels que les comportements collectifs peuvent avoir un rôle important. Deux travaux réalisés dans le cadre de ce projet de thèse se basent sur les sérologies d'une cohorte française. Nous avons trouvé un association entre le titre d'anticorps dirigés contre le virus circulant 2007 A(H1N1) et le risque d'infection, la protection associée à ce titre variant avec l'âge. Une étude sur l'évolution du titre d'anticorps montre que celui-ci peut rester élevé jusqu'à deux ans après l'infection. Afin d'étudier les conséquences des expositions aux virus grippaux, nous avons modélisé les titres d'anticorps en fonction de l'âge des sujets lors de la circulation initiale de virus: la réponse immunitaire la plus importante concernant les souches A(H1N1) auxquelles les sujets ont été exposés pendant l'enfance. Ces études soutiennent l'utilisation du titre d’anticorps comme corrélat immunitaire de protection et suggèrent que d'autres facteurs peuvent influencer l'immunité anti-grippale. L'interprétation de la sérologie et les sérologiques d'homologation du vaccin devraient être indépendants de l'âge. / Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer is widely recognized as the main immune correlate of protection against influenza infection. This thesis examines the role of HI titer as a correlate of protection in the context of a single infection, and then considers the effect of repeated exposures on the immune response.HI titer was first studied among 167 covariates in an exploratory analysis to identify determinants of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection using data from a cohort of 601 households representative of the general population. This study shows the complex interaction of factors influencing risk of infection; results suggest that pre-epidemic HI titers are protective and factors such as collective behaviors may also have an important role.Two studies were based on data from a cohort investigating determinants of recurrent influenza infection. The relationship between HI titer and protection against natural seasonal 2007 A(H1N1) infection was explored; the age-adjusted model suggests differences in the HI protection curve according to age group. Longitudinal analysis suggests that recent seasonal infection may have protected against A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. We also investigated the effects of repeated influenza exposures on HI titer: our results show evidence of a strong immune response to A(H1N1) strains circulating in early childhood. These studies support the use of HI titer as the main immune correlate of protection against influenza infection and suggest that other factors may have influence on immunity to infection. Age should be considered in interpretation of serology and serological criteria for influenza vaccine licensure.
3

Circulação do vírus da influenza A em patos domésticos da região amazônica através da detecção de anticorpos utilizando o método da inibição de hemaglutinação (HI). / Circulation of influenza A viruses in domestic ducks in the Amazon region by detecting antibodies using the method the Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI).

Ferreira, Carolina de Souza 08 September 2010 (has links)
A avicultura brasileira é atualmente uma atividade de grande sucesso. A utilização de sistemas de planejamento associados a novas tecnologias, reflete-se no extraordinário crescimento da atividade. A produção brasileira de frango ultrapassou a marca anual de 11 milhões de toneladas, em 2009. O Brasil está entre os três maiores produtores de frango no ranking mundial, junto com Estados Unidos e China. Haja vista a importância que a avicultura representa para o país, pela geração de benefícios sociais e econômicos, o risco que a Influenza aviaria constitui para a avicultura brasileira é enorme. Um surto desta doença em um centro de produção avícola representaria um risco à economia e incidiria de forma negativa nos níveis de consumo de proteína de qualidade e economicamente acessível à população. A fim de estabelecermos um monitoramento do vírus da Influenza A em aves domésticas não vacinadas, residentes em regiões de elevada confluência migratória aviária no Brasil a região amazônica, para a realização deste trabalho se fez necessário a colheita de sangue para o teste sorológico indicado como padrão em todo o mundo para detectar anticorpos contra o vírus da influenza, tendo como objetivos maiores, contribuir para o fortalecimento dos serviços de defesa sanitária animal, aumentar a capacidade de investigação, e finalmente, atualizar e harmonizar normas e procedimentos para a prevenção e controle da Influenza A, referenciando-se nas recomendações da Organização Mundial de Sanidade Animal (Office International des Epizooties - OIE). Das 1051 aves amostradas em diferentes localidades da região norte do Brasil, 1010 soros foram testados para seis diferentes subtipos virais: H2;H3;H5;H6;H7 e H9, pela técnica sorológica da Inibição da Hemaglutinação (HI). Destas, MAIS DE 50% apresentaram positividade para um subtipo viral testado, no entanto todos os soros apresentaram negatividade no centro de referência mundial em sorologia de Influenza, St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital localizado em Memphis, EUA. O antagonismo dos resultados levantam a discussão da metodologia adotada como padrão em todo mundo, o que nos levou a otimizar a técnica, vislumbramos a diferença ao compararmos os resultados do ano de 2005 e do ano de 2006, o primeiro ano obtivemos 50% de positividade nas amostras, já no ano seguinte esta positividade cai para aproximadamente 0,2%. Com este resultado podemos inferir que a técnica foi adequadamente otimizada, corroborando as informações de que o Brasil é livre de Influenza aviaria em patos domésticos na região amazônica. / The Brazilian poultry industry is currently a very successful activity. The use of planning systems associated with new technologies, reflected in the extraordinary growth in activity. The Brazilian production of chicken surpassed the annual 11 million tonnes in 2009. Brazil is among the three largest poultry producers in the world ranking, along with the United States and China. Given the importance of poultry production for the country, the generation of social and economic benefits, the risk that avian influenza poses to the Brazilian poultry industry is huge. An outbreak of this disease in a poultry-production pose a risk to the economy and impinge negatively on levels of consumption of protein quality and affordable to the population. In order to establish a monitoring of influenza A viruses in poultry unvaccinated residents in regions of high avian migratory confluence in Brazil the Amazon region, for this work was required the collection of blood for serological testing indicated as standard worldwide to detect antibodies against influenza viruses, with the larger goals, contribute to the strengthening of animal health protection services, increase research capacity, and finally, update and harmonize standards and procedures for the prevention and control Influenza A, referencing the recommendations of the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties - OIE). From 1051 birds sampled in different localities of northern Brazil, 1010 sera were tested for six different viral subtypes: H2, H3, H5, H6, H7 and H9, the serological technique the hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Of these, over 50% were positive for one viral strain tested, but all sera were negative in the center of world reference serology Influenza, St. Jude Children\'s Research Hospital located in Memphis, USA. The antagonism of the results raise the discussion of the methodology adopted as standard throughout the world, which has led us to optimize the technique, we can see the difference when comparing the results of 2005 and 2006, the first year we had 50% positivity in the samples, in the following year this positive drops to about 0.2%. With this result we infer that the technique was properly optimized, corroborating the information that Brazil is free from avian influenza in domestic ducks in the Amazon region.

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