• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 2
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Efeito do armazenamento sobre as características de urina e águas amarelas

Martins, Edjane Suenia Costa da Silva 25 February 2016 (has links)
Submitted by Jean Medeiros (jeanletras@uepb.edu.br) on 2016-05-12T12:22:55Z No. of bitstreams: 1 PDF - Edjane Suênia Costa da Silva Martins.pdf: 2020033 bytes, checksum: 7d4afad9b75f397b5e50ad6cd0f65155 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-05-12T12:22:56Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 PDF - Edjane Suênia Costa da Silva Martins.pdf: 2020033 bytes, checksum: 7d4afad9b75f397b5e50ad6cd0f65155 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-02-25 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES / A large part of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which are essential in agriculture, is found in human urine being their amounts, in most cases, significant, more suitable and sustainable than those in commercial fertilizers. Due to the demand for sustainable alternatives in the context of ecological sanitation, reuse of human urine can be faced as a potentially feasible alternative in the context of decentralized wastewater treatment systems. The experimental research which based this work was divided into two stages, in the first the effect of storage, within open and closed recipients, as a treatment of pure urine and yellow water, being used two containers for pure and two for a 7% dilution of urine. In order to verify the effect of storage, monitoring and evaluation were performed by means of physical, chemical and microbiological indicators. Storage of urine proved to be a cost-effective cleaning method of pure and diluted urine and. Containers with lid were more efficient in physical-chemical and biological stabilization process controlling loss of ammonia by volatilization, and contamination by the influence of the external environment. Concentrations of nutrients were maintained in high levels and fecal contamination tended to elimination in a period of 20 days, at room temperature. In the second step, the aim was the recovery of phosphorus by precipitation, carried out in a jar-test apparatus with MgO addition, at several concentrations, to pure and 7%-diluted urine to 7%. Two ranges of concentrations were used - phase A (0; 0.05; 0.15; 0.30 and 0.45 g of MgO/L) and phase B (0; 0.45; 0.60; 0.75 and 0.90 g MgO/L) - under stirring at 120 rpm, for a period of 2 hours. Precipitation and hence the phosphorus recovery was directly related to the concentration of MgO in both phases. / Grande parte dos nutrientes que são essenciais na agricultura, como nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, é encontrada na urina humana e suas quantidades significativas são, na maioria das vezes, mais apropriadas e sustentáveis do que as encontradas nos fertilizantes químicos comerciais. Devido à demanda por alternativas sustentáveis, no contexto do esgotamento sanitário ecológico, o reuso da urina humana pode ser citado como descentralizados de tratamento de águas residuárias. A pesquisa que fundamentou este uma alternativa viável e de grande potencial na escala de sistemas trabalho foi dividida em duas etapas, tendo a primeira o objetivo de analisar o efeito de modos diversos (aberto e fechado) de armazenamento, como forma de tratamento da urina pura e de águas amarelas. Para tal foram utilizados quatro recipientes de urina pura e diluída a 7%, em dois recipientes com tampa e dois sem tampa. Para verificar o efeito do armazenamento foi realizada a caracterização, por meio de indicadores físicos, químicos e microbiológicos. O armazenamento da urina mostrou-se um método de higienização de baixo custo e bastante eficiente. Quanto às formas de armazenamento (aberta e fechada), a utilização de urina pura em recipientes com tampa mostrou-se mais eficiente no processo de estabilização físico-química e biológica, pois não ocorreu perda de amônia por volatilização, nem contaminações por influência do ambiente externo, a concentração de nutrientes foi considerada satisfatória e os níveis de coliformes termotolerantes tenderam à nulidade em um período de 20 dias, em temperatura ambiente (25 a 26ºC). Na segunda etapa, o objetivo foi a recuperação de fósforo por precipitação levada a efeito em aparelho jar-test, no qual foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de MgO para cada 1,0 L de urina pura e de diluída a 7%. Duas faixas de concentrações foram utilizadas - fase A (0; 0,05; 0,15; 0,30 e 0,45 g de MgO/L) e fase B (0; 0,45; 0,60; 0,75 e 0,90 g de MgO/L) -, sob agitação a 120 rpm, por um período de 2 horas.A precipitação e, consequentemente a recuperação de fósforo, foi diretamente relacionada às concentrações de MgO, nas duas fases.
2

Diverting human urine from outhouses into agriculture in Nicaragua : for sanitation, fertilizer and recycling purposes

Adolfsson, David January 2017 (has links)
Human urine is a   valuable resource which has good potential to be used as a fertilizer all   over the world. In the developing countries sanitation and food security are   both issues that need urgent attention.    A urine separation toilet can be constructed with minimal investment   in the Nicaraguan context, and the usage of the urine as a fertilizer can   help establish higher yields and is a good alternative to chemical   fertilizers. This field experiment is trying this in practice in the context   of rural Nicaragua, to determine the effect of urine on two plants on. For   this study, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the Chaya (Cnidoscolus   aconitifolius) was selected and the results confirm that urine has potential   as a fertilizer in the Nicaragua context. The common bean yield was twice as   large after urine fertilization and the Chaya reacted positively to urine   fertilization. For urine separation purposes, two different separators were   constructed on the site to showcase the benefits with separating the urine   from the faeces, creating lower latrine volume and better sanitation in the   outhouse. The risks associated with human urine are low if the urine is   separated securely to avoid crosscontamination from faeces. If a   safety-barrier system is adopted, the overall risks with using urine as a   fertilizer are negligible. The spreading potential of urine separation and   fertilization in rural Nicaragua is high, but more experiments and   demonstrations are needed to reach adopters of the technology. / La orina humana es un recurso valioso que tiene un   buen potencial para ser utilizado como fertilizante en el mundo entero. En   los países en vías de desarrollo, el saneamiento y la seguridad alimentaria   son dos temas que necesitan atención urgente. Un inodoro de separación de   orina puede ser construido con una inversión mínima en el contexto   Nicaragüense, y el uso de la orina como fertilizante puede ayudar a   establecer mayores rendimientos y es una buena alternativa a los   fertilizantes químicos. Este experimento de campo está probando esto en la   práctica en el contexto de Nicaragua rural, para determinar  la diferencia en  crecimiento entre dos cultivos con y sin   fertilización de orina. Para este estudio se seleccionó el frijol común   (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) El rendimiento de   frijol fue dos veces mayor después de la fertilización de la orina y el Chaya   reaccionó positivamente a la fertilización de la orina. Para fines de   separación de orina, se construyeron dos separadores diferentes en el sitio   para mostrar los beneficios con la separación de la orina de las heces,   creando un menor volumen de letrina y un mejor saneamiento. Los riesgos asociados con la orina humana son bajos   si la orina se separa con seguridad para evitar la contaminación cruzada de   las heces. Si se adopta un sistema de barrera de seguridad, los riesgos   generales con el uso de orina como fertilizante son insignificantes. El   potencial de propagación de la separación de orina y la fertilización en   Nicaragua rural es alto, pero se necesitan más experimentos y demostraciones   para llegar a los usuarios de la tecnología. / <p>2017-06-02</p>
3

Anthropogenic plant nutrients as fertiliser

Muskolus, Andreas 20 May 2008 (has links)
Nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung impliziert ausgeglichene Pflanzennährstoffflüsse ohne die Abhängigkeit von Düngern aus nicht erneuerbaren Quellen. Stickstoff, Phosphor und Kalium aus der menschlichen Nahrung werden in Mitteleuropa im Allgemeinen in Schwemmkanalisationen gesammelt und dabei mit Schadstoffen vermengt. Neuartige stoffstromtrennende Sanitärsysteme ermöglichen die Bereitstellung von Humanurin und Fäkalien zur Verwendung als Düngemittel. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden praxisrelevante Aspekte der Verwendung von Düngemitteln anthropogener Herkunft untersucht. Die in Gefäß- und Feldversuchen in Berlin Dahlem ermittelte Ertragswirkung zeigte, dass Urin in dieser Hinsicht äquivalenten Mineraldüngern grundsätzlich gleichwertig ist. Bei sehr hohen Konzentrationen kam es abhängig von der Pflanzenart zu Depressionseffekten, welche vermutlich auf den Salz- und Ammoniumgehalt von Urin zurückzuführen sind. Unter Freilandbedingungen traten diese Effekte nicht auf. Bodenbiologische Auswirkungen von Düngerapplikationen sind entscheidend für die Abschätzung ihrer langfristigen Bodenfruchtbarkeitserhaltung. Sowohl in Labor-versuchen als auch im Freiland zeigten sich Regenwürmer durch menschlichen Urin aus Trenntoiletten deutlich beeinträchtigt. Die Ursache der Schädigung konnte nicht geklärt werden. Von einer langfristigen bodenfruchtbarkeitsreduzierenden Beein-trächtigung wird jedoch nicht ausgegangen. Mikrobielle Enzymaktivitäten im Boden wurden im Freiland durch Urinapplikation nicht beeinflusst. Für die Praxis wird empfohlen Urin während der Ausbringung einzuarbeiten, da die Tiere dann weniger mit der Flüssigkeit in Kontakt kommen. Da es ein umweltpolitisches Ziel ist, die Ammoniakemissionen der Landwirtschaft zu minimieren, wurden diese nach der Urinausbringung im Freiland gemessen. Auf Grund der sehr geringen Trockensubstanzgehalte von Humanurin emittierte deutlich weniger NH3 als üblicherweise nach Ausbringung von Schweine- oder Rindergülle. Verbraucherumfragen bestätigten eine hohe Bereitschaft pflanzliche Nahrung, welche mit Urin als Dünger erzeugt wurde, zu kaufen und zu verzehren. Praktizierende Landwirte reagierten dagegen deutlich reservierter. Die Ausbringung von Urin aus Trenntoiletten kann im Sinne einer nachhaltigen Landwirtschaft grundsätzlich empfohlen werden. Es besteht aber weiterer Forschungsbedarf. / Sustainable agriculture implies balanced nutrient flows and independence from fertiliser made from non renewable resources. In Europe, plant nutrients excreted by humans are commonly collected in water borne sewage systems and thus mixed with potentially harmful substances. Novel segregating sanitation techniques can collect separated urine and faeces in a form which enables their use as fertiliser. In the presented thesis selected aspects concerning the use of anthropogenic plant nutrients relevant to farming were investigated. Pot and field experiments indicated that equal yields can be gained if urine instead of mineral fertiliser is applied. Very high concentrations of urine led to reduced growth, presumably caused by the presence of ammonium or salt. However, this was not found under field conditions. Soil biological effects caused by the application of a fertiliser must be considered when assessing its long term contribution to soil fertility. Laboratory experiments as well as field investigations showed that human urine application severely affects earthworms, however, the harmful components were not identified. The results suggest that the effect is of short term only. Soil microbial enzyme activities were not influenced by urine fertiliser. For farming practice it is recommended to inject or incorporate urine to prevent earthworms from coming into direct contact with the infiltrating fertiliser. Gaseous ammonia loss was measured after urine application on fields as reducing harmful emissions from agriculture is a goal of European environmental policy. Because of the very low Dry Matter contents of urine, far less ammonia was emitted to the atmosphere than usually occurs after application of cattle or pig slurry. A consumer acceptance study showed a general high public willingness to accept urine as fertiliser even if used on crops for food production. The reaction of farmers was mainly reserved as a result of the present legal regulations in Germany. Within the context of sustainable agriculture the use of human urine as fertiliser can be recommended. Further research is necessary, especially concerning any effects resulting from residues of pharmaceutical substances contained in human excreta.

Page generated in 0.0803 seconds