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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.


Gurung, Ras Kumari 01 May 2015 (has links) (PDF)
The main aim of the work presented here is to develop new, practical, economical, and environmental friendly synthetic protocols for various organic transformations with hypervalent iodine compounds, which have attracted explosive interest among chemistry communities because of their versatility and mildness in inducing many organic transformations. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the history of hypervalent iodine compounds, nomenclature, classification, bonding and reactivity patterns. The preparation and practical applications of typical I(III) and I(V) compounds have also been briefly surveyed. Chapter 2 provides details on hypervalent iodine compounds catalyzed oxidation of benzylic C-H to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with Oxone. The catalytic efficiency is influenced by the rate of in situ generation of catalyst with Oxone and their stability. The effectiveness in situ generated 35', 50' and 51' are almost the same, leading to low to moderate yields of products, while 18 and 47' give moderate to high yields. Compound 48' was founds to be the most active catalyst in this study. A possible mechanism is also proposed. Chapter 3 covers a surprising reaction between IBX or IBA and alkyl halides promoted by quaternary ammonium halides. In the absence of quaternary ammonium halides, no reaction occurred between IBX or IBA and alkyl halides. However, in the presence of quaternary ammonium halides, IBX or IBA and alkyl halides react smoothly to form the corresponding alkyl iodobenzoates. When IBX or IBA is treated with a quaternary ammonium halide, it will decompose to 2-iodobenzoic acid. The presence of a nucleophilic halide ion is essential for such reaction to occur. Replacing halides with non-nucleophilic BF4- halts the reaction. Benzylic halides provides a better yield than aliphatic alkyl halide. Thus, it is believed that there is a fast interaction between the nucleophilic halides and electrophilic iodine in IBX or IBA. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. Chapter 4 details our research on the oxidative cleavage of C=C with PIFA/water. In the presence of a small amount of water in acetonitrile at 65-70 oC, [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA, 26) converts styrenes into benzaldehydes in good to high yields. Contrary to literature description that electron-rich styrenes primarily produces phenylacetaldehydes as major products through a 1, 2-phenyl migration, we have found that these styrenes can be converted to benzaldehydes in high yields. It was found that three equiv of 26 and one equiv of water were necessary to achieve high yields. Two pathways were believed responsible for the high yield of benzaldehydes: (1) cleavage of the glycol intermediates; (2) further oxidative cleavage of the 1, 2-phenyl migration product - phenylacetaldehydes. Chapter 5 describes a preliminary investigation on perfluoroalkylation reaction of styrene with [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]butane (32). p-t-Butylstyrene reacts with 32 in the presence of water produced moderate yields of hydroxyperfluorinated product, 1-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluoro-hexan-1-ol (73), along with 1-(4-tert-butyl- phenyl)-2-iodo-ethanol (72) and 1-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-ethane-1,2-diol (74). Electrophilic addition of 32 on the C=C bond, hydration of the intermediate, and reductive elimination were believed to have been involved. Chapter 6 summarizes all of the work carried out in the previous chapters and provides some insight into future studies.

Novel Applications of Benziodoxole Reagents in the Synthesis of Organofluorine Compounds

Ilchenko, Nadia O. January 2017 (has links)
This thesis concerns method development of new synthetic routes by applying electrophilic hypervalent iodine reagents, such as trifluoromethyl-benziodoxole (Togni reagent) and fluoro-benziodoxole. The first project involved the addition of an oxygen moiety and trifluoromethyl group across double and triple bonds (both groups derived from the hypervalent iodine reagent). We observed that electron donating substituents on the aromatic ring of the substrate accelerated the oxytrifluoromethylation reaction. This transformation was further expanded to halo-trifluoromethylation reaction of a vinyl silane substrate. We also developed a copper mediated cyanotrifluoromethylation reaction, which was accelerated by PCy3 additive. This transformation allowed for the creation of two new C-C bonds in a single addition reaction. The direct C-H trifluoromethylation reaction of quinones was achived using the Togni-reagent in the presence of B2pin2 additive. The intriguing additive effects of both B2pin2 and PCy3 inspired us to examine the mechanism of these transformations. Fluoro-benziodoxole is the fluoroiodane analogue of the trifluoromethylating Togni reagent. We developed a AgBF4 mediated geminal difluorination of styrenes using this fluoroiodine reagent. In this process one fluorine atom came from the fluoroiodane, while the other fluorine was derived from the tetrafluoroborate ion. A similar approach was applied for the 1,3-oxyfluorination and difluorination of cyclopropanes. Similarly, this fluorinative ring opening of unactivated cyclopropanes involved the introduction of an electrophilic fluorine atom from the fluoroiodane reagent and a nucleophilic one from the tetrafluoroborate ion. This reaction was extended to synthesis of 1,3-oxyfluorinated products. When alkenes reacted with the fluoro-benziodoxole reagent in the presence of palladium catalyst the iodofluorination reaction occurred.  Both the iodine and fluorine atoms were derived from the fluoroiodane reagent. The iodofluorination reaction with disubstituted and cyclic alkenes proceeded with high regio- and stereoselectivity.

NMR Studies of the Hydration Equilibria of Mesylate and Dialkyl Phosphate Derivatives of Acetone; and Investigations of Novel Hypervalent Iodine Compounds

Chun, Joong-Hyun January 2005 (has links)
No description available.


Vazquez-Lopez, Andres, 0000-0001-8065-153X 05 1900 (has links)
The development of new strategies to access pyridinium salts are highly sought out due to their advantageous structures, which have diverse applications across materials science, biological processes, and organic synthesis. As synthetic intermediates, these scaffolds can be used as precursors to valuable piperidine derivatives and have recently emerged as important cross coupling handles for metal-catalyzed processes. Unfortunately, current methods to access pyridinium salts are limited; they require harsh conditions, rely on the presence of an amine functional handle, and are not amenable to diverse structural variation. In Chapter 1, a summary of various syntheses and the reactivity of pyridinium salts is provided. This dissertation provides new strategies to access pyridinium salts. The first method is via aminolactonization of alkenoic acids, resulting in 1° pyridinium salts (Chapter 2). The second method is a regioselective synthesis of 3-aminopiperidine salts via diamination of olefins (Chapter 3). Both methods are promoted by nitrogen-ligated hypervalent iodine reagents (N-HVIs). These novel class of reagents serve as “heterocyclic group transfer reagents,” incorporating diverse pyridinium salts under mild conditions and in excellent yields. Heterocyclic Group Transfer reactions have resulted in new classes of pyridinium salts that can be further functionalized via simple known methods to access diverse piperidine motifs, providing an innovative approach to substitution patterns that were previously challenging to synthesize. These strategies have also enabled pyridinium salts to be viewed as a synthetic platform for diversity-oriented amine synthesis. Chapter 4 will elaborate on the synthesis of different classes of 3-aminopiperidine motifs using hypervalent iodine reagents; these motifs have been previously synthesized using transition metal catalysis. / Chemistry


Potturi, Hima 01 August 2011 (has links)
Dynamic isomerization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) makes it difficult to ascertain the active estrogen between its E and Z isomers. An indirect approach has been used in this project to identify the active estrogen. Methoxylated E- and Z-DES (13 and 14) and 9,10-diethylphenanthrene-3,6-diol (15), a closed ring analog of Z-DES, were synthesized and tested for their estrogenicity. The estrogenicity of 13 is higher than that of 14 and 15, which indicates that E-DES is more estrogenic than Z-DES. Dimethylstilbestrol (16), another analog of DES, was also synthesized and tested. Its estrogenicity is lower than that of DES. Non-estrogenic analogs of bisphenol-A were designed based on the observation that (15) is far less estrogenic than DES. Closed ring analogs of bisphenol-A, 3,6-dihydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (34), 2,6-dihydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (35), and 2,7-dhydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (36) were synthesized and they were found to have little or no estrogenicity. An open ring analog of bisphenol-A, 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (33) was also synthesized and its estrogenicity is much lower than that of bisphenol-A. Polycarbonate of 36 was also synthesized and its glass transition temperature was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition temperature of polycarbonate of 36 was found to be 199.92 oC, which is about 50o higher than that of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (150 oC). This indicates that polycarbonate of 36 forms a harder plastic than bisphenol-A polycarbonate. Compounds 2,8-dihydroxy-5,5-dioxo-dibenzothiophene (69) and 2,8-dihydroxydibenzothiophene (70) were also synthesized and were tested as non-estrogenic alternatives for bisphenol-S and bisphenol sulfide, respectively. Compound 69 and 70 were found to be less estrogenic than bisphenol-S and bisphenol sulfide respectively agreeing with our hypothesis. Iodane/quaternary ammonium halide in nitromethane was utilized to explore aromatic bromination, N-nitrosation-dealkylation, and benzoate ester formation from benzylamines. Koser's reagent was found to be a suitable iodane for aromatic bromination reaction, whereas for N-nitrosation-dealkylation, IBX gave the best yields. Further, for N-nitrosation-dealkylation reaction, the halides of quaternary ammonium salts play a crucial role. The effectiveness of halides follows F- > Cl- > Br- ~ I-. The lack of N-nitrosation-dealkylation and ester formation in the absence of nitromethane indicates that nitromethane is playing an essential role as well. Yields of benzoate ester from benzyl amines were low (~22%). Optimization experiments will be performed in the future. Plausible reaction mechanisms for these reactions were proposed. Aromatic bromination was thought to be induced either by iodane/halide adduct or by BrOH that was formed from iodane/halide adduct. Ester formation and N-nitrosation-dealkylation were believed to be induced either by alkyl nitrite or by nitrous acid, generated from the reaction of iodane/halide adduct with nitromethane.


Sousa e Silva, Felipe Cesar January 2020 (has links)
Carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bond forming events are essential in chemistry. Although numerous stoichiometric/catalytic methods provided elegant and powerful solutions enabling those processes, the use of scarce/toxic reagents and harsh conditions is still ubiquitous in this field. As a result, extensive research has been conducted in the development of environmentally benign and inexpensive reagents for such transformations, however, general solutions remain a challenge. In this context, one of the focuses of our lab is to enable those processes in a more practical and sustainable fashion by using hypervalent iodine reagents. In this dissertation we demonstrate the synthetic applications of λ3-iodane reagents towards the formation of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds in a complementary way to the methods already reported. Chapter 1 of this dissertation outlines the general electronic structure, geometry, synthesis and reactivity of λ3-iodanes as serves and background regarding these reagents. Chapter 2 highlights the applications of λ3-iodanes to access high-oxidation state transition metals until the year of 2017. This literature review provides detailed information about how λ3-iodanes can be applied to access 1st, 2nd and 3rd row high-oxidation complexes, as well as mechanistic details and synthetic utility of high-valent transition metals. Chapter 3 demonstrates our efforts to generate selective carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon products from a high-valent nickel complex. This led to important information of this mechanism adopted by the reaction and how the choice of oxidant can impact 1e- versus 2e- oxidative pathways on “hard” nickel pincer scaffolds. Chapter 4 describes our efforts towards the selective formation of α-C(sp2)-C(sp2) bonds at the α-position of enones via a reductive Iodonium-Claisen rearrangement. We demonstrate the utility of β-pyridinium silyl enol ethers as a platform for direct α-arylation, and how the 2-iodo-aryl-α-arylated enones can be used to access diverse heterocyclic structures. Chapter 5 demonstrates our initial efforts towards the selective C2 or C3 carbon-nitrogen bond formation on indoles. By exposing different indoles to (bis)cationic nitrogen-ligated HVI (N-HVI) reagents we found that selective C2 or C3 C-H indole-pyridinium salts can be formed in good to excellent yield. Although, this project is not finished yet, we anticipate the indole-pyridinium salts generated could serve as platform for accessing diverse piperidines, pyridones and primary amines through straightforward procedures. The combined chapters of this dissertation highlight the applications of λ3-iodanes towards transition metals and emphasize the applications of these reagents to enable challenging C–C and C–N bond formation events. More importantly, this dissertation serves as a guide for future development of the hypervalent iodine field. / Chemistry

Metal-Free O- and C-Arylation with Diaryliodonium Salts

Lindstedt, Erik January 2017 (has links)
This thesis concerns the development of metal-free applications using diaryliodonium salts. The first project describes an arylation protocol of allylic and benzylic alcohols in aqueous media. The method proceeds under mild conditions and the ether products were obtained in moderate to good yields. The methodology was also expanded to include arylation of phenols, giving diaryl ethers in good to excellent yields. In the second project, an arylation method that included a wider range of aliphatic alcohols was developed. The scope of accessible alkyl aryl ethers was studied and included a comparative study of phenylation and nitrophenylation of various alcohols. Finally, a formal metal-free synthesis of butoxycain was performed, illustrating the applicability of the developed method. The third project focused on the limitations and side reactions occurring in Chapter 2 and 3. First, an approach to access symmetric diaryl ethers via arylation of hydroxide was presented. This reaction gave rise to a number of side products, which we hypothesized to originate from aryne-type intermediates. A mechanism for the formation of these side products was suggested, supported by trapping and deuterium labeling experiments. Oxidation of the alcohol to the corresponding ketone was also observed and the mechanism of this interesting side reaction was investigated. The latter was suggested to proceed via an intramolecular oxidation without the involvement of radicals or arynes. The fourth project covers a method to synthesize highly sterically congested alkyl aryl ethers via arylation of tertiary alcohols using diaryliodonium salts. The method displayed a broad scope of tertiary alcohols and was also suitable for fluorinated alcohols. The final project detailed in this thesis deals with C-arylation with diaryliodonium salts, showcasing nitroalkanes as well as a nitro ester as suitable nucleophiles for metal-free arylation. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.</p>

Ciclofuncionalizações utilizando iodo/iodo(III) / Cyclofunctionalization using iodine/iodine(III)

Scarassati Filho, Paulo 15 May 2019 (has links)
Na primeira parte da tese são apresentados os resultados referentes aos estudos mecanísticos da reação de ciclização de álcoois homoalílicos com o sistema iodo/iodo(III). Os experimentos demonstraram que essa reação ocorre pela intermediação de espécies eletrofílicas hipoiodídicas e que apenas um intermediário acíclico contribui efetivamente para a formação do produto desejado. Na segunda parte da tese são discutidos os resultados obtidos na ciclização com iodo/iodo(III) para uma série de substratos insaturados. Essa metodologia mostrou-se versátil, permitindo que uma grande variedade de derivados tetra-hidrofurânicos metóxi-substituídos pudessem ser obtidos a partir de álcoois primários e secundários. Em todas as reações uma mistura de diastereoisômeros cis/trans foi obtida em rendimentos moderados. Aplicando-se esse método a 4-alquenóis e ácidos carboxílicos insaturados, apenas produtos análogos aos obtidos em protocolos clássicos de ciclização eletrofílica puderam ser acessados. Nesses casos, devido a uma limitação dos substratos, a ciclização ocorre exclusivamente pelo ataque intramolecular da hidroxila/carboxila levando à formação do anel de cinco membros. Submetendo sulfonamidas homoalílicas ao sistema iodo/iodo(III) produtos de coiodação foram isolados. Pirrolidinas metóxi-substituídas foram obtidas empregando-se t-BuOK como base para promover a ciclização. Esse método se mostrou efetivo no caso de substratos suscetíveis à migração, contendo grupos arila na ligação dupla e também foi aplicado com sucesso para os álcoois homoalílicos primários e secundários, o que permitiu obter em alguns casos os tetra-hidrofuranos em rendimentos maiores do que no método convencional. / In the first part of the thesis are presented the results regarding the mechanistic studies of the cyclization reaction of homoalyl alcohols with the iodine/iodine(III) system. The experiments demonstrated that this reaction occurs through the intermediation of hypoiodidic electrophilic species and that only an acyclic intermediate effectively contributes to the formation of the desired product. In the second part of the thesis the results obtained in the cyclization with iodine/iodine(III) for a series of unsaturated substrates are discussed. This methodology proved to be versatile, allowing a large variety of methoxy-substituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives to be obtained from primary and secondary alcohols. In all reactions a mixture of cis/trans diastereoisomers was obtained in moderate yields. Applying this method to 4-alkenols and unsaturated carboxylic acids, only products analogous to those obtained in classical electrophilic cyclization protocols could be accessed. In these cases, due to a limitation of the substrates, the cyclization occurs exclusively by the intramolecular hydroxyl/carboxyl attack leading to the formation of the five-membered ring. Subjecting homoalyl sulfonamides to the iodine/iodine(III) system co-iodination products were isolated. Methoxy-substituted pyrrolidines were obtained using t-BuOK as a base to promote cyclization. This method proved to be effective in the case of substrates susceptible to migration, containing aryl groups in the double bond and was also successfully applied to the primary and secondary homoalyl alcohols, which in some cases allowed the tetrahydrofurans to be obtained in higher yields than in the conventional method.

Reações de alquinilação eletrofílica promovida por reagentes de iodo hipervalente / Electrophilic alkynylation reactions promoted by hypervalent iodine reagent

Teodoro, Bruno Vinicius Motta 08 January 2019 (has links)
Na primeira parte desta tese são apresentados os resultados referentes ao desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de &#945;-alquinilação eletrofílica de aldeídos com o reagente de iodo hipervalente TMS-EBX, empregando NaHMDS como base e TBAF. Aldeídos acíclicos foram submetidos a esta transformação e 9 exemplos de álcoois homopropargílicos foram obtidos em rendimentos de 50-81%, após uma etapa de redução com NaBH4. A transformação desenvolvida revelou-se aplicável também com o reagente de iodo hipervalente Ph-EBX e 2 exemplos foram obtidos em 24 e 40% de rendimento. O álcool homopropargílico precursor de um inibidor da bactéria que produz a toxina botulínica foi preparado em uma escala de 5 mmol sem a necessidade de alterar as condições reacionais já otimizadas. Na segunda parte desta tese são apresentados os resultados referentes ao desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a síntese de cetonas cíclicas e 2-cromanonas &#945;-alquinil-&#946;-substituídas por meio de uma sequência de adição 1,4/alquinilação eletrofílica empregando cumarinas e enonas como material de partida, utilizando o reagente de iodo hipervalente TMS-EBX. Os enolatos foram gerados com sucesso a partir de uma reação de adição 1,4 catalisada por cobre utilizando complexos de alumínio e reagentes de Grignard como fontes nucleofílicas. No total foram obtidos 17 exemplos em 34-89% de rendimento e em alta diastereosseletividade. Realizamos três modificações estruturais visando aumentar a complexidade estrutural dos produtos sintetizados. A reação Click, rea- ção de Sonogashira e redução mediada por NaBH4 foram aplicadas com sucesso. Por fim, na terceira parte desta tese são apresentados os resultados preliminares referentes ao desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de síntese de furanos a partir da acetofenona e do reagente de iodo hipervalente Ph-EBX, empregando NaHMDS comoviii base. A acetofenona foi submetida a esta transformação e uma mistura de furanos di- e trissubstituídos foram obtidos em 49% de rendimento. Um experimento controle demonstrou que a alquinilação do ânion terc-butóxido, em uma reação extremamente rápida, é a principal via de consumo do Ph-EBX e o composto (terc-butoxietinil)benzeno foi obtido em 92% de rendimento. Esta reação lateral é a principal responsável pelo baixo rendimento da reação de síntese dos furanos. / In the first part of this work are presented the results relative to the development of a methodology of &#945;-electrophilic alkynylation of aldehydes with the hypervalent iodine reagent TMS-EBX, employing NaHMDS as base and TBAF. Acyclic aldehydes were submitted to this transformation and 9 examples of homopropargylic alcohols were obtained in 50-81% yield, after a reduction step with NaBH4. The developed transformation proved to be works also with the hypervalent iodine reagent Ph-EBX and 2 examples were obtained in 24 and 40% yield. The homopropargylic alcohol precursor of an inhibitor of bacteria that produces a botulinic toxin was prepared at a 5 mmol scale without change the reaction condition already optimized. In the second part of the thesis are presented the results relative to the development of a methodology for the synthesis of cyclic ketones and 2-chromanones &#945;-alkynyl-&#946;-substituted by the1,4-addition/electrophilic alkynylation sequence using coumarins and enones as a starting material and the hypervalent iodine reagent TMS-EBX. The enolates were generated with success from a Cu-catalyzed 1,4 addition using aluminum complexes and Grignard reagents as nucleophilic source. In total 17 examples were obtained in 34-89% yield and high diastereoselectivity. We carried out three structural modification aiming to increase the complexity of the products synthesized. Click reaction, Sonogashira reaction and reduction promoted by NaBH4 were applied with success. Finally, in the third part of the thesis are presented the preliminary results relative to the development of a methodology for synthesis of furans from acetophenone and the hypervalent iodine reagent Ph-EBX, using NaHMDS as a base. Acetophenone was submitted to this transformation and only one example was obtained in 49% yield in a mixture of di- and trisubstituted furans. A control experimentx showed that the alkynylation of tert-butoxide anion, in an extremely fast reaction, is the main path of consumption of the Ph-EBX reagent and the compound (tert-butoxyethynyl)benzene was obtained in 92% yield. This side reaction is the main responsible for the low yield of the reaction of synthesis of furans.

Development and Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds : Powerful Arylation and Oxidation Reagents

Jalalian, Nazli January 2012 (has links)
The first part of this thesis describes the efficient synthesis of several hypervalent iodine(III) compounds. Electron-rich diaryliodonium salts have been synthesized in a one-pot procedure, employing mCPBA as the oxidant. Both symmetric and unsymmetric diaryliodonium tosylates can be isolated in high yields. An in situ anion exchange also enables the synthesis of previously unobtainable diaryliodonium triflates. A large-scale protocol for the synthesis of a derivative of Koser’s reagent, that is an isolable intermediate in the diaryliodonium tosylate synthesis, is furthermore described. The large-scale synthesis is performed in neat TFE, which can be recovered and recycled. This is very desirable from an environmental point of view. One of the few described syntheses of enantiopure diaryliodonium salts is discussed. Three different enantiopure diaryliodonium salts bearing electron-rich substituents are synthesized in moderate to high yields. The synthesis of these three salts shows the challenge in the preparation of electron-rich substituted unsymmetric salts. The second part of the thesis describes the application of both symmetric and unsymmetric diaryliodonium salts in organic synthesis. A metal-free efficient and fast method for the synthesis of diaryl ethers from diaryliodonium salts has been developed. The substrate scope is wide as both the phenol and the diaryliodonium salt can be varied. Products such as halogenated ethers, ortho-substituted ethers and bulky ethers, that are difficult to obtain with metal-catalyzed procedures, are readily prepared. The mild protocol allows arylation of racemization-prone a-amino acid derivatives without loss of enantiomeric excess. A chemoselectivity investigation was conducted, in which unsymmetric diaryliodonium salts were employed in the arylation of three different nucleophiles in order to understand the different factors that influence which aryl moiety that is transferred to the nucleophile. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 5: Submitted. Paper 6: Manuscript.</p>

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