• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 13
  • 12
  • 6
  • Tagged with
  • 37
  • 37
  • 37
  • 12
  • 12
  • 10
  • 10
  • 10
  • 8
  • 8
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Molecular pathogenesis of non-eosinophilic asthma

Baines, Katherine Joanne January 2008 (has links)
Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) / Asthma involves chronic inflammation of the airways that is heterogeneous in nature. Eosinophilic airway responses are well described in asthma, however non-eosinophilic subtypes of asthma have been recently reported, and can involve the influx of neutrophils into the airways (neutrophilic asthma). Neutrophils are important effector cells of the innate immune system. These cells are the first to migrate to inflammatory sites, where they contain and eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. Neutrophils also release cytokines and chemokines that initiate and amplify inflammatory responses. The mechanisms of neutrophilic asthma remain largely unknown; however activation of the innate immune response is implicated, particularly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1beta and gene expression of Toll Like Receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR2 have been demonstrated in induced sputum samples. This thesis examines innate immune responses of airway and circulating neutrophils, with a focus on neutrophilic asthma. Innate immune neutrophil activation occurs in response to exposure to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which activates TLR4. The activation response consists of the release of preformed granule associated mediators such as Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and Oncostatin M (OSM), new gene transcription and release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-1beta and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, and new gene transcription of TLR2 & TLR4 which serve to amplify neutrophil responses. In addition, this thesis examines whole genome gene expression profiles of circulating neutrophils in neutrophilic and eosinophilic asthma. The aims of this thesis are based on the hypothesis that dysregulation of innate immune neutrophil responses occurs with ageing and airway disease, particularly neutrophilic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With advancing age, there were alterations in the innate immune responses of neutrophils, which were characterised by enhanced spontaneous activation of both airway and circulating neutrophils, and a decreased response of circulating neutrophils to LPS. There was a decreased activation of airway neutrophils in airway disease that was most pronounced in neutrophilic asthma and COPD, with decreased production and release of proinflammatory cytokines most likely due to a downregulation of TLR4. TLR2 was downregulated in resting and LPS stimulated circulating neutrophils in asthma, particularly neutrophilic asthma. Circulating neutrophils had a decreased spontaneous release of total MMP-9, and downregulation of OSM, TLR2 and TLR4 at rest in COPD. However when stimulated with LPS, subjects with COPD had an enhanced proinflammatory cytokine release, with increases in IL-8 and TNF-alpha compared to subjects with asthma or healthy controls. Analysis of whole genome gene expression of circulating neutrophils in asthma revealed distinct gene profiles relating to asthma subtype. There was upregulation of genes relating to cell motility, inhibition of apoptosis and the NF-kB in neutrophilic asthma, which would contribute to their accumulation in the airways. The innate immune response is critical in controlling infections by bacteria and viruses. The reduced innate immune response of airway neutrophils in airway disease could contribute to impaired local defense, which may lead to an increased susceptibility to infection by invading pathogens. Systemically, the molecular mechanisms of neutrophilic asthma are distinct from eosinophilic asthma and may involve the enhancement of neutrophil chemotaxis and survival, contributing to their accumulation in the airways.
2

The innate immune kinase IKKε as a novel regulator of PSAT1 and serine metabolism

Jones, William Edward January 2018 (has links)
Induced and activated as part of the innate immune response, the first line of defence against bacterial or viral infections, Inhibitor of Kappa-B Kinase ε (IKKε) triggers NF-κB and IFNβ signalling. Whilst not expressed at basal levels in healthy cells and tissue, the kinase is overexpressed in roughly 30% of human breast cancer cases, driving oncogenesis through aberrant activation of NF-κB. The impracticality of therapeutic targeting of NF-κB for cancer treatment has led to a requirement for greater understanding of IKKε's oncogenic potential to treat tumours driven by the kinase. Considering that IKKε alters cellular metabolism in dendritic cells, promoting aerobic glycolysis akin to the metabolic phenotype observed in cancer, it was hypothesised that the kinase would play a similar role in breast cancer. Using a Flp-In 293 model of IKKε induction and suppressing IKKε expression in a panel of breast cancer cell lines using siRNA, IKKε-dependent changes in cellular metabolism were characterised using labelled metabolite analysis. IKKε was found to induce serine biosynthesis, an important pathway in breast cancer development that supports glutamine-fuelling of the TCA cycle and contributes to one carbon metabolism to maintain redox balance. Promotion of serine biosynthesis occurred via a dual mechanism. Firstly, PSAT1, the second enzyme of the pathway, was found to be phosphorylated in an IKKε-dependent manner, promoting protein stabilisation. Secondly, an IKKε-dependent transcriptional upregulation of all three serine biosynthesis enzymes, PHGDH, PSAT1 and PSPH, was observed, induced by the inhibition of mitochondrial activity and the subsequent induction of ATF4-mediated mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signalling. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterised mechanism of metabolic regulation by IKKε and highlight new potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of IKKε-driven breast cancer in the form of the enzymes of the serine biosynthesis pathway.
3

Transcriptomic Response to Immune Challenge in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata) Using RNA-SEQ

Scalf, Cassandra 01 April 2018 (has links)
Despite the convergence of rapid technological advances in genomics and the maturing field of ecoimmunology, our understanding of the genes that regulate immunity in wild populations is still nascent. Previous work to assess immune function has relied upon relatively crude measures of immunocompetence. However, with next-generation RNA-sequencing, it is now possible to create a profile of gene expression in response to an immune challenge. In this study, captive zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata; adult males) were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (2 mg/Kg BW; dissolved in 0.9% saline) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to stimulate the immune system. Two hours after injection, birds were euthanized and hypothalami, spleen, and red blood cells (RBCs) were collected. Taking advantage of the fully sequenced genome of zebra finch, total RNA was isolated, sequenced, and partially annotated in these tissue/cells. The data show 628 significantly upregulated transcripts in the hypothalamus, as well as 439 and 121 in the spleen and RBCs, respectively, relative to controls. Also, 134 transcripts in the hypothalamus, 517 in the spleen, and 61 in the RBCs were significantly downregulated. More specifically, a number of immunity-related transcripts (e.g., IL-1β, RSAD2, SOCS3) were upregulated among tissues/cells. Additionally, transcripts involved in metabolic processes (APOD, LRAT, RBP4) were downregulated, suggesting a potential trade-off in expression of genes that regulate immunity and metabolism. Unlike mammals, birds have nucleated RBCs, and these results suggest a novel transcriptomic response of RBCs to immune challenge. Lastly, molecular biomarkers could be developed to rapidly screen bird populations by simple blood sampling in the field.
4

Regulation of Interferon-Inducible 2’-5’-Oligoadenylate Synthetases by Adenovirus VAI RNA

Meng, Hui 10 1900 (has links)
Viral double-stranded RNA is a key pathogen invasion signal recognized by the human innate immune system. All adenoviruses synthesize at least one highly structured RNA (VAI) to suppress this antiviral response by attenuating the activity of antiviral proteins. Surprisingly, VAI RNA was previously shown to positively regulate the activity of one interferon-inducible antiviral protein, 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS). The present thesis focuses on investigating the regulation of a human OAS1 isoform by VAI RNA and its derivatives. An Escherichia coli protein expression and purification system has been developed for OAS1 protein production. A combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches was employed to examine VAI RNA binding affinity, activation potential for OAS1 and OAS1:VAI RNA complex formation. Taken together, I have found that while full-length VAI does indeed activate OAS1 in vitro, a truncated version lacking the terminal stem has the opposite effect, and this is the physiologically important response.
5

Regulation of Interferon-Inducible 2’-5’-Oligoadenylate Synthetases by Adenovirus VAI RNA

Meng, Hui 10 1900 (has links)
Viral double-stranded RNA is a key pathogen invasion signal recognized by the human innate immune system. All adenoviruses synthesize at least one highly structured RNA (VAI) to suppress this antiviral response by attenuating the activity of antiviral proteins. Surprisingly, VAI RNA was previously shown to positively regulate the activity of one interferon-inducible antiviral protein, 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS). The present thesis focuses on investigating the regulation of a human OAS1 isoform by VAI RNA and its derivatives. An Escherichia coli protein expression and purification system has been developed for OAS1 protein production. A combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches was employed to examine VAI RNA binding affinity, activation potential for OAS1 and OAS1:VAI RNA complex formation. Taken together, I have found that while full-length VAI does indeed activate OAS1 in vitro, a truncated version lacking the terminal stem has the opposite effect, and this is the physiologically important response.
6

Modulation of the innate immune response by the oncoviruses EBV and HPV / Modulation des réponses immunitaires innées par les oncovirus EBV et HPV

Parroche, Peggy 13 December 2011 (has links)
Le cancer représente la deuxième cause de mortalité dans les pays industrialisés. Il a été démontré que 20% des cancers sont d'origine infectieuse. Nous nous sommes intéressés à deux oncovirus HPV (virus du papillome humain) et EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) responsable du cancer de l'utérus et de divers lymphome B réciproquement. Les événements clés pour le développement d'un cancer viro-induit sont la persistance du virus via la dérégulation des réponses immunitaires et l'induction d'une instabilité gé¬nomique via une dérégulation du cycle cellulaire. Nous avons donc cherché si EBV était capable d'altérer la réponse immunitaire innée. Nous avons montré que EBV était capable d'inhiber TLR9 un acteur clef de la réponse immunitaire innée. Comme TLR9 est inhibé dans un certain nombre de cancers, nous nous sommes demandé si ce récepteur pouvait également, avoir un rôle dans l'oncogenèse. Nous avons montré que la réexpression de TLR9 induisait un ralentissement transitoire de la prolifération cellulaire. Nous nous sommes par la suite intéressés aux mécanismes de dérégulation du cycle cellulaire induits par E6 une oncoprotéine de HPV16. Nous avons trouvé un nouveau mécanisme d'inhibition de l'inhibiteur du cycle cellulaire, p21. HPV16E6 se lie et inhibe les fonctions de du facteur de transcription p150Sal2, ce qui induit une inhibition de p21 dans un contexte p53 indépendant / Cancer represents the second most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Epidemiological and biological studies have now conclusively proved that a variety of infectious agents constitute one of the main causes of cancer worldwide. It has been pointed out that more than 20% of cancers are from infectious origin. HPV high-risk mucosal types are associated to 98% of all cervical cancer cases. Regarding EBV, over 90% of the world’s population is infected and can give rise to malignancies such as Burkitt lymphoma or Hodgkin disease.(Young and Rickinson 2004) Keys features for oncoviruses to induce cancer are firstly to per¬sist by dampening host immune responses and to induce genomic instability in the host by altering the regulation of the cell cycle leading the infected cells to an uncontrolled proliferation. The purpose of this thesis was to find new mechanisms by which EBV and HPV can promote carcinogenesis. We have shown that EBV can alter the regulation and expression of TLRs, the key effectors molecules of the innate immune response. EBV infection of human primary B cells resulted in the inhibition of TLR9 functionality. Our study described a mechanism used by EBV to suppress the host immune response by deregulating the TLR9 transcript through LMP1-mediated NF-κB activation. As TLR was found deregulated in many cancers, we hypothesized that TLR9 may also a direct role in the process of cell cycle control and that loss of its expression may lead to transformation of the cell. Our overall objective here was to study the role of TLR9 in suppressing the events that initiates transformation of epithelial cells in the setting of cervical cancer (virus-associated) and in head and neck cancer (non–virus-associated). A third project dealt with the mechanism cell cycle deregulation by the oncoprotein E6 which expressed during infection with HPV16. We reported that HPV16E6 targets the cellular factor p150Sal2, which positively regulates p21 transcription. HPV16E6 associates with p150Sal2, inducing its functional inhibition by preventing its binding to cis elements on the p21 promoter. These data described a novel mechanism by which HPV16E6 induces cell cycle deregulation with a p53-independent pathway preventing G1/S arrest and allowing cellular proliferation and efficient viral DNA replication
7

INHIBITION OF HOST INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES THROUGH THE MODULATION OF CYTOPLASMIC STRESS GRANULES BY ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS PROTEASE / 脳心筋炎ウイルス(EMCV)プロテアーゼによる細胞性ストレス顆粒形成の制御と抗ウイルス自然免疫応答の阻害機構

Ng Chen Seng 24 September 2014 (has links)
Kyoto University (京都大学) / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(生命科学) / 甲第18627号 / 生博第318号 / 新制||生||42(附属図書館) / 31527 / 京都大学大学院生命科学研究科統合生命科学専攻 / (主査)教授 藤田 尚志, 教授 米原 伸, 教授 朝長 啓造 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当
8

Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of Epstein-Barr Virus-mediated inhibition of the innate sensor TLR9 / Caractérisation du mécanisme moléculaire de l'inhibition du récepteur de l'immunité innée TLR9 par le virus d'Epstein-Barr

Fathallah, Ikbal 15 December 2009 (has links)
L’infection chronique est à l’origine de 15-20% des cancers dans le monde. Dans la plupart des cas, les infections sont éliminées par le système immunitaire, sans incidence importante sur les hôtes infectés. Toutefois, les oncovirus peuvent échapper au système immunitaire et induire une transformation cellulaire, ce qui constitue deux éléments clés de la cancérogenèse associée aux virus. L’EBV est un herpesvirus ubiquitaire à ADN double brin qui infecte plus de 90% de la population, avec un tropisme spécifique pour les cellules B. Après primo-infection, le virus persiste dans l’hôte pour toujours. L’EBV est responsable de la mononucléose infectieuse bénigne et est associé à plusieurs tumeurs malignes telles que le lymphome de Burkitt, le lymphome de Hodgkin et certaines formes de cancers gastriques. Les récepteurs Toll-like (TLRs) mammaires jouent un rôle important dans la défense de l’hôte lors de l’infection pathogène en régulant et reliant les réponses immunitaires innées et adaptatives. Dans cette étude, nous avons montré que l’EBV pouvait altérer la régulation et l’expression de TLR9, une des molécules effectrices majeures de la réponse immunitaire innée. L’infection par l’EBV des lymphocytes B primaires humains a entraîné l’inhibition de la fonctionnalité de TLR9. Nous avons observé que l’EBV exerçait sa fonction inhibitrice en diminuant les niveaux d’ARNm et de la protéine du récepteur TLR9. De plus, nous avons établi que LMP1, oncoprotéine majeure de l’EBV, inhibait fortement la transcription de TLR9. La sur-expression de LMP1 par transfection transitoire ou transduction des cellules B réduit l’activité du promoteur de TLR9, l’ARNm et les niveaux protéiques. Bloquer la voie de signalisation de NF-κB induite par la signalisation de LMP1 permet de récupérer l’activité du promoteur de TLR9 et l’expression de la protéine. L’ensemble de nos résultats mettent en évidence un nouveau mécanisme utilisé par l’EBV pour supprimer la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte en dérégulant la transcription de TLR9 via l’activation de NF-κB par LMP1 / Chronic infection causes about 15-20% of cancer worldwide. In most cases, infections are cleared by the immune system with no dramatic consequence for the infected hosts. However, oncoviruses can escape the immune system and induce cellular transformation, two key events in cancer mediated by viruses. EBV is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA herpesvirus, which infects more than 90% of the population with a specific tropism to B-cells. Upon primo-infection the virus persists in the host for lifetime. EBV is responsible of the benign infectious mononucleosis and is associated to several malignancies such as the Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some forms of gastric cancers. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in host defense during pathogen infection by regulating and linking the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs belong to a family of receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are expressed on immune and non-immune cells, endowing them with the capacity to sense pathogen-derived products and to alert the immune system . In this study we show that EBV can alter the regulation and expression of TLR9, one of the key effector molecules of the innate immune response. EBV infection of human primary B cells resulted in the inhibition of TLR9 functionality. Stimulation of TLR9 on primary B cells led to the production of IL-6, TNFα and IgG, which was inhibited in cells infected with EBV. We observed that EBV exerts its inhibitory function by decreasing TLR9 mRNA and protein levels. This event was observed twelve hours post EBV infection of primary cells as well as in an immortalized B cell line, demonstrating the specific role of the virus to turn down TLR9 levels. In addition, we determined that the EBV oncoprotein LMP1 is a strong inhibitor of TLR9 transcription. Over expression of LMP1 by transient transfection or transduction of B cells, reduced TLR9 promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels. Blocking the NF-κB pathway induced by LMP1 signaling, recovered TLR9 promoter activity and protein expression. Moreover LMP1 mutants deficient in activating the NF-κB pathway inversely restored TLR9 transcription. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism used by EBV to suppress the host immune response by deregulating the TLR9 transcript through LMP1-mediated NF-κB activation
9

Avaliação dos efeitos da inflamação na infecção respiratória por Streptococcus pneumoniae em camundongos. / Evaluation of the effects of inflammation on the respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice.

Rubia Isler Mancuso 21 June 2016 (has links)
A resposta inflamatória aguda é uma importante defesa contra o Streptococcus pneumoniae, mas a persistência na inflamação pode causar danos aos tecidos. Duas linhagens de camundongos geneticamente selecionadas para resposta inflamatória aguda mínima (AIRmin) e máxima (AIRmax) foram avaliadas frente a um desafio respiratório invasivo com pneumococo. O desafio induziu a morte de 100% dos camundongos AIRmin, e apenas 36,4% dos camundongos AIRmax. A caracterização da resposta imune inata mostrou que ambas as linhagens de camundongos responderam ao desafio com secreção de citocinas pro-inflamatórias. Entretanto, apenas os camundongos AIRmax controlaram a inflamação. Diferenças significativas quanto à expressão de metaloproteases de matriz sugerem o papel destas proteínas no controle da infecção. Além disso, os camundongos AIRmin apresentaram um aumento no número de macrófagos expressando o receptor de manose CD206, após o desafio. Uma menor resistência de macrófagos e neutrófilos dos camundongos AIRmin à morte celular programada, após o desafio, também foi observada. / Acute inflammatory response is an important defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but persistence of inflammation may result in tissue damage. The susceptibility against an invasive respiratory pneumococcal challenge was evaluated in two outbred mice strains, genetically selected for maximum (AIRmax) and minimum (AIRmin) acute inflammatory responses. The challenge induced the death of 100% of the AIRmin mice and only 36.4% of the AIRmax mice. Characterization of the innate immune responses showed that both mice strains responded to the challenge with the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. However, only the AIRmax mice controlled the inflammation. Significant differences on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases suggest a role of these proteins in the control of the infection. Moreover, the AIRmin mice presented an increase in the number of macrophages expressing the CD206 mannose receptor after the challenge. A reduced resistance of macrophages and neutrophils from AIRmin mice to programmed cell death, after the challenge, was also observed.
10

Proteínas de resposta imune expressas na hemolinfa da Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: crambidae) em resposta a diferentes microrganismos / Immune response proteins expressed in the hemolymph of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: crambidae) in response to different microrganisms

Corsato, Ana Cláudia Malagutti 05 March 2018 (has links)
Submitted by Rosangela Silva (rosangela.silva3@unioeste.br) on 2018-05-24T18:44:26Z No. of bitstreams: 2 Ana Cláudia Malagutti Corsato.pdf: 1319419 bytes, checksum: c4de080588607227096826021e800839 (MD5) license_rdf: 0 bytes, checksum: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-05-24T18:44:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 Ana Cláudia Malagutti Corsato.pdf: 1319419 bytes, checksum: c4de080588607227096826021e800839 (MD5) license_rdf: 0 bytes, checksum: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-03-05 / The Diatraea saccharalis is the pest responsible for a great economic loss to the cultivation of sugar cane. As well as others members of Lepidoptera order, the D. saccharalis has a fast and efficient immune innate response, characterized by primary defense barrier, cellular immune response and humoral immune response. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are included in humoral immune response that show cationic and amphiphilic characteristics besides its low molecular weight, what makes them potentially therapeutic agents. In this study were analyzed proteins with low molecular weight differently expressed in the hemolymph of D. saccharalis, after the interval of six and twelve hours of humoral immune response induction with different microorganisms compared to non-challenged worms (control). The 5th instar worms were divided in groups (n= 50) and submitted to six and twelve hours of septic challenges: control (group 1), challenged by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6623 (group 2), challenged by Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 (group 3), and challenged by Beauveria bassiana 88 strain (group 4). In each worm was inoculated a known concentration of microorganism, and after the established time, the hemolymph was collected. The low molecular weight proteins were obtained submitting each hemolymph sample to an extraction solution containing Methanol, Acetic Acid and Water. After that, the protein extracts were concentrated in columns and protein dosage was realized in 280 nm. About 500 μg of proteins were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The spots were excised from gels, digested with Tripsin and submitted to MALDI-ToF/ToF type mass spectrometry. The identification of protein orthologs was realized using the obtained data against the data available on the MASCOT online server (Matrix science), with the database (NCBI and Swiss rot) specified for Drosophila melanogaster and an internal database of Lepidoptera. The TagIdent tool was utilized for searching proteins through their molecular weight and isoelectric point. It was possible to identify eighteen proteins, of which twelve demonstrated to be involved with immune response in D. saccharalis. The six hours septic challenge with B. subtilis was responsible for modification of expression of Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP), for increase of expression of Chitin-binding protein and for induction of expression of proteins like the Attacin-A and the Serine-protease inhibitor-like. The six hours septic challenge with E. coli increased the expression of a putative defense protein. The twelve hours septic challenge using B. subtilis and E. coli were responsible for increase of expression of Lysozyme. The six hours septic challenge with B. bassiana induced of expression of a Cecropin A2 and a Drosomycin-like. On the order hand, after twelve hours of fungal challenge, there was the induction of expression of multifunctional protein Apolipophorin-3. It was concluded that the septic challenge with different microorganisms were capable of change the expression of some proteins involved in the immune response in D. saccharalis, significant for understanding this process as well as for pointing the substances with antimicrobial functions. / A Diatraea saccharalis é a praga responsável por grandes perdas econômicas à cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Assim como outros integrantes da ordem Lepidoptera, a D. saccharalis possui resposta imunológica inata rápida e eficiente, constituída por barreira primária de defesa, resposta imune celular e resposta imune humoral. Os peptídeos antimicrobianos (PAMs) são parte da resposta imune humoral que apresentam características catiônicas e anfifílicas, além de sua massa molecular baixa, o que os tornam potenciais agentes terapêuticos. Neste estudo foram analisadas proteínas com baixa massa molecular, diferencialmente expressas na hemolinfa da D. saccharalis, após os intervalos de 6 e 12 horas de indução da resposta imune humoral com diferentes microrganismos em comparação às lagartas não desafiadas (controle). As lagartas em 5º instar foram divididas em grupos (n= 50) e submetidas a desafios sépticos de 6 e 12 horas: controle (grupo 1), desafiadas por Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6623 (grupo 2), desafiadas por Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 (grupo 3) e desafiadas por Beauveria bassiana cepa 88 (grupo 4). Em cada lagarta foi inoculada uma concentração conhecida do microrganismo e, após o tempo estabelecido, a hemolinfa foi coletada. As proteínas de baixa massa molecular foram obtidas submetendo cada amostra de hemolinfa a uma solução de extração contendo Metanol, Ácido Acético e Água. Posteriormente, os extratos proteicos foram concentrados em colunas e a dosagem proteica realizada em 280 nm. Aproximadamente 500 μg de proteínas foram submetidas à eletroforese bidimensional (2-DE). Os spots foram retirados dos géis, digeridos com Tripsina, e submetidos à espectrometria de massas do tipo MALDI-ToF/ToF. A identificação das proteínas ortólogas foi realizada utilizando os dados obtidos contra os dados disponíveis no servidor online MASCOT (Matrixscience), especificando a base de dados (NCBI e Swissprot) para Drosophila melanogaster e um banco interno de Lepidoptera. A ferramenta TagIdent foi utilizada para a busca de proteínas por meio de suas massas moleculares e ponto isoelétrico. Foram identificadas dezoito proteínas, das quais doze se mostraram envolvidas com a resposta imune em D. saccharalis. O desafio séptico de 6 horas com B. subtilis foi responsável pela alteração na expressão da proteína de reconhecimento de peptideoglicano (PGRP), pelo aumento da expressão da proteína ligadora de quitina e pela indução da expressão de proteínas como a Atacina-A e a proteína inibidora de serino-protease. O desafio imunológico de 6 horas com E. coli levou ao aumento da expressão de uma provável proteína de defesa. Os desafios de 12 horas utilizando as bactérias B. subtilis e E. coli se mostraram responsáveis pelo aumento da expressão da Lisozima. O desafio de 6 horas com B. bassiana causou indução da expressão de uma Cecropina A2 e uma possível Drosomicina. Por sua vez, após o desafio fúngico de 12 horas, houve a indução da expressão da proteína multifuncional Apolipoforina-3. Concluiu-se que desafios sépticos com diferentes microrganismos foram capazes de alterar a expressão de algumas proteínas envolvidas na resposta imune em D. saccharalis, importantes para o entendimento deste processo e também para o apontamento de substâncias com funções antimicrobianas.

Page generated in 0.0624 seconds