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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wild herbivorous mammals in South Africa

Golezardy, Habib. January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (MSc. (Veterinary Tropical Diseases)--University of Pretoria, 2006. / Includes bibliographical references.
2

Aspects of the biology of Boophilus decoloratus (Koch, 1844) (Acarina : ixodidae)

Londt, Jason G H (Jason Gilbert Hayden), 1943- January 1973 (has links)
1. The external morphology of all stages in the life cycle of B. decoloratus is described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. 2. The biological activities of B. decoloratus during its parasitic cycle are examined with special reference to the course of feeding of all stages, and to the influence of the pharate nymph and adult conditions in accelerating the completion of the cycle. 3. The pattern of dropping of replete females is considered in relation to their weight and their time of drop-off. 4. The adult male population structure is described. Two distinct weight groups are reported and the taxonomic significance of these is discussed. 5. The preoviposition period duration of B .decoloratus was studied under laboratory conditions and found to be temperature dependent and humidity independent. Female size, as implied by their engorged weights, influenced the duration of the oviposition period: ticks weighing less than 20 mg possessed longer preoviposition periods. 6. The preoviposition period of B.decoloratus females under fluctuating macroclimatic conditions was studied and found to be long in duration. The implications of this are discussed in relation to laboratory findings and the summer build-up of this species in nature. 7. The duration of the oviposition period of B. decoloratus and the number of eggs produced during this period were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Both these parameters were found to be temperature dependent and uninfluenced by humidity. The significance of a temperature dependent oviposition period is discussed. 8. The minimum amount of 'blood' required by female ticks for oviposition of eggs was found to be approximately 16 mg. under laboratory conditions. 9. The oviposition behaviour of B. decoloratus females has been described and the water relations of ovipositing and non-ovipositing females were examined and discussed . 10. The effects of handling female ticks during their oviposition period was studied and females which were handled were found to produce significantly fewer eggs. The significance of this is discussed. 11. During preliminary experiments on the incubation period of B. decoloratus it was found that the viability of eggs laid during the first half of the oviposlting period was greater than for eggs laid in the second half of the period. The critical temperature of the 'wax' coating of eggs was found to be 42⁰C while the critical humidity was approximately 70% R.H. (7,53 mmHg) at 26⁰C. The implications of these findings are discussed. 12. The development of eggs, traced throughout the incubation period by monitoring the build-up of guanine spectrophotometrically, was studied under different humidity conditions . Successful development was found to be dependent on the water content of the eggs at the time of laying. As eggs were also found to be unable to take up water vapour from the atmosphere this finding is important evidence to support the suggestion that the survival of the egg stage largely determines the spacial distribution of larvae in the field. 13. Results of work done at constant, alternating and naturally fluctuating temperatures and humidities demonstrated that the duration of the incubation period of B.decoloratus is temperature dependent and humidity independent. The significance of this is discussed in relation to the findings of previous workers and to the biology of the species. 14. Egg viability (percentage hatch) was found to be humidity dependent and temperature independent. The implications of these findings are discussed. 15. Some of the problems associated with the assessment of the effects of climatic conditions on ticks are discussed. Special reference has been made to the advocation of using saturation deficit instead of relative humidity as the parameter indicative of environmental humidity in any biological study involving fluctuating humidity conditions. 16. The problems associated with having three variables (e.g. temperature, saturation deficit and incubation period duration) are discussed and reasons given for why contour diagrams have been used in this investigation. 17. A model of the interactions between the main abiotic factors of the environment (temperature and humidity) and the biological parameters studied during the second part of this investigation is presented. 18. The effects of climatic conditions on the life cycle and distribution of B.decoloratus are discussed. Special reference has been made to the available evidence explaining the summer build-up in tick numbers known to occur in nature and the way in which the present findings have helped in an understanding of the spacial distribution of B.decoloratus in the field.
3

Aspectos ecológicos, biológicos e de resistência de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae) na região de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil /

Cruz, Breno Cayeiro. January 2017 (has links)
Orientador: Gilson Pereira de Oliveira / Coorientador: Alvimar José da Costa / Banca: Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu Sakamoto / Banca: Marcos Rogério André / Banca: Claudinei da Cruz / Banca: Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti / Resumo: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888) é o mais importante ectoparasito da pecuária brasileira, cujo controle exige conhecimentos comportamentais de seu ciclo biológico para melhor sucesso na atuação sobre e fora do hospedeiro, combatendo-o em épocas do ano desfavoráveis ao mesmo. A maioria das informações sobre sua biologia e ecologia foi originada em outros países ou então há muito tempo. Baseado nas mudanças climáticas recentes e ausência de informações sobre ecologia e biologia deste ixodídeo na região, este estudo, conduzido em bioma de Cerrado e clima tropical com estação seca (Aw), obteve tais dados pela observação, ao longo de dois anos, dos fatores envolvidos nas suas fases de vida parasitária e não parasitária, além de avaliar o comportamento desta cepa quanto à evolução do perfil de resistência/susceptibilidade aos acaricidas. Observando a fase de vida parasitária deste carrapato, foi possível perceber sua adaptação às mudanças climáticas, com cinco gerações anuais registradas em dois anos consecutivos pela primeira vez na literatura. Constatou-se que não houve correlações significativas entre seu ciclo parasitando bovinos e os níveis de chuva, temperaturas ambiental e ao nível do solo e umidade relativa do ar. Já a fase de vida livre foi influenciada pelos fatores climáticos, com correlação positiva entre pluviosidade/pré-postura, correlações negativas entre temperatura/pré-postura, incubação e pré-eclosão, entre umidade relativa do ar/incubação e ... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888) is the main ectoparasite in Brazilian cattle industry, and its control demands behavioral knowledge of its biologic cycle, for increased success in actions over and out of the hosts, with treatments in periods of the year less favorable to this tick. Most of the information about its biology and ecology was originated in other countries or a long time ago. Based in recent climate changes and absence of ecologic and biologic data on this region, the present study, conducted in the Brazilian "Cerrado" biome and tropical savanna climate (Aw), obtained such data through the observation, during two consecutive years, of factors involved on parasitic and free living phases of its cycle, also evaluating the behavior of this strain regarding evolution of its resistance/susceptibility profile against acaricides. Observing the parasitic phase of the Southern Cattle Tick, it was possible to detect adaptations of this ixodid to climate changes, with five annual generations in two consecutive years being registered for the first time in literature, without significant correlations between its period parasitizing bovines and rain levels, environmental and soil level temperatures and relative air humidity. The free living period of its cycle was affected by climatic variables, with positive correlation between rainfall and the period before oviposition, and negative correlations between temperatures and the period before oviposition, eg... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
4

Pesquisa de agentes infecciosos associados aos carrapatos de pequenos mamíferos, em área de Mata Atlântica no município de Cotia, São Paulo / Research of infectious agents associated with ticks of small mammals, in an area of Atlantic Forest of the Cotia municipality, São Paulo

Diego Garcia Ramirez 10 March 2017 (has links)
A fauna de pequenos mamíferos e de carrapatos da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, SP, foi investigada assim como microrganismos associados a eles. Coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente, e resultaram na captura de 158 pequenos mamíferos silvestres e cães, distribuídos em 126 roedores de 10 espécies, 26 marsupiais de 3 espécies, um tapiti, além de 6 cães domésticos inspecionados. Destes hospedeiros foram recolhidos 327 carrapatos de 9 espécies de 4 gêneros, e larvas de Amblyomma sp. Novos registros de hospedeiros foram acrescentados para as espécies I. aragaoi, I. loricatus, I. schulzei e de espécie morfologicamente semelhante a I. fuscipes. Simultaneamente, fizemos a pesquisa de exemplares em vida livre na vegetação por arraste e busca visual. Um total de 597 exemplares foram recolhidos e identificados, representando 9 espécies de 3 gêneros, além de larvas do gênero Amblyomma. Na sorologia por RIFI, com exceção dos cães domésticos que foram todos negativos, a soro reatividade apresentada para pequenos mamíferos silvestres sugere a circulação de cepas de Rickettsia naquela região. Dos 102 animais testados, 39 foram soro positivos e em 6 amostras nós sugerimos provável antígeno homólogo para R. bellii (3), R. rickettsii (2) e R. rhipicephali (1). Encontramos na quase totalidade dos espécimes adultos de I. aragaoi uma Rickettsia próxima à cepa endosiombionte de I. scapularis, e em uma fêmea de A. sculptum, sequências parciais do gene ompA foram similares a R. parkeri isoladas de A. triste no Brasil e na Argentina. Sequências geradas a partir de um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA de Hepatozoon sp. foram obtidas de amostras dos carrapatos I.c.f. fuscipes e I. schulzei, coletados sobre o roedor A. montensis. Outro hemoprotozoário encontrado foi um genótipo de Babesia sp. proveniente de pools de larvas e de ninfas de A. incisum, coletados em vida livre. Na investigação da presença de bactérias do gênero Coxiella, 14 amostras de diferentes espécies do gênero Amblyomma (A. aureolatum, A. brasiliense, A. incisum, A. naponense e A. sculptum) foram positivas, e as análises de homologia utilizando o marcador molecular 16S rDNA foram compatíveis com Coxiella endosimbiontes de carrapatos. / The fauna of small mammals and ticks of the reserved forest of Morro Grande (RFMG) was assessed and investigated, as well as associated infectious microorganisms. Sample collections were performed bimonthly, and resulted in 158 wild small mammals and dogs inspected, distributed in 126 rodents of 10 different species, 26 marsupials of 3 different species, a Tapiti, and also 6 domestic dogs. 327 ticks were collected from the mentioned hosts; these ticks were representatives of 9 species of 4 different genera, and Amblyomma sp. larvae. New hosts records were appended for 4 species of the genus Ixodes; I. aragaoi, I. loricatus, I. schulzei and a I. fuscipes simile species. Simultaneously, free roaming ticks were collected from the vegetation by dragging a flannel through the forest and visual search. A total of 597 ticks were collected and identified belonging to 9 species of 3 genera, as well as Amblyomma genus larvae. Serology arrays using RIFI technique were performed, and with exception of the domestic dogs that all were negative, the serum reactivity showed in the wild small mammals demonstrated the circulation of Rickettsia strains in the studied region. 39 animals of the 102 tested were positive and 6 samples had strong evidences of being homologous antigens for R. bellii (3), R. rickettsii (2), and R. rhipicephali (1). Molecular research of microorganisms in ticks showed that almost all the adult individuals of I. aragaoi were positive for a Rickettsia similar to an endosymbiont strain of I. scapularis, and in a female of A. sculptum partial sequences the gene of ompA were similar to R. parkeri isolated from A. triste in Brasil and Argentina. Sequences obtained from a fragment of the gene 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon sp. amplified from samples of the tick species I.c.f. fuscipes and I. schulzei, collected from a rodent A. montensis. Another Hemo-protozoon found was a genotype of Babesia sp. from pools of A. incisum larvae and nymphs, collected in the vegetation. For the bacteria of the genus Coxiella, 14 samples of different species of the genus Amblyomma (A. aureolatum, A. brasiliense, A. incisum, A. naponense and A. sculptum) were positive, and the similarity analyses using the 16S rDNA molecular marker were compatible with Coxiella endosymbiont of ticks.
5

Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na diapausa comportamental de larvas não-alimentadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) provenientes de Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brasil / Effect of photoperiod and temperature on the behavioral diapause of Amblyomma cajennense unfed larvae from Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil

Ricardo Ramos Cabrera 15 April 2008 (has links)
A diapausa comportamental em carrapatos é caracterizada pela perda temporária da agressividade do indivíduo, tendo como conseqüência o prolongamento do período sem alimentação, sendo detectada em larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. Esta espécie destaca-se como principal vetor da Febre Maculosa no Sudeste brasileiro. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na regulação da diapausa comportamental em larvas não-alimentadas de A. cajennense. Para isso, fêmeas ingurgitadas foram obtidas de eqüinos naturalmente infestados de Janeiro à Fevereiro de 2005 e 2006. No laboratório, cada grupo experimental foi composto por oito fêmeas ingurgitadas colocadas em vaso contendo capim braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens). Cada vaso foi exposto a uma condição de temperatura e fotoperíodo dentro de incubadoras B.O.D. (Marconi MA 402). A fotofase foi estabelecida por 4 lâmpadas (Philips TLT 75RS Extra luz do dia 20w) e a escotofase pela ausência total de luz. Os parâmetros biológicos observados foram período de pré-postura, incubação dos ovos, de permanência das larvas debaixo do capim e de presença de larvas na ponta do capim (comportamento de busca pelo hospedeiro). Paralelamente, verificou-se o poder infestante de larvas em diapausa para frangos (Gallus gallus), em comparação com larvas em não diapausa. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, sob variação de fotoperíodo com temperatura constante de 25oC, a duração do intervalo de pré-postura e de incubação dos ovos foi semelhante em todos os grupos experimentais (1 a 2 semanas para período de pré-postura e 5 semanas para período de incubação dos ovos). Observou-se que a combinação de fotoperíodo 14:10 (claro:escuro) induziu a diapausa, sendo que o fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 determinaram o término da diapausa. Em outras combinações de fotoperíodo, onde larvas estiveram no fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 desde a eclosão, a aglomeração nas pontas do capim ocorreu dentro das primeiras semanas de vida das larvas. Larvas mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 e 10:14 não entraram em dormência e larvas mantidas em condição de fotoperíodo de 14:10 permaneceram no solo por tempo maior que as outras. No entanto, a diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC, no fotoperíodo constante de 14:10, induziu o término da diapausa. Em todos os experimentos realizados sob fotoperíodo de 10:14, nenhum dos regimes de temperatura foi eficiente para induzir a diapausa. Houve diferença no intervalo de incubação dos ovos entre grupos experimentais com temperatura de 25 e 20oC. Não houve diferenças significantes (P > 0,05) entre proporções de larvas em diapausa e em não diapausa que se ingurgitaram nos frangos, embora larvas em diapausa apresentaram período parasitário significativamente mais longo (P < 0,05). Conclui-se que a diapausa em larvas de A. cajennense é induzida somente se a condição de fotoperíodo estiver com maior número de horas de claro (14:10) durante a eclosão das larvas. Temperaturas de 20 ou 25oC não são capazes de induzir a diapausa, quando mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 ou 10:14. O término da diapausa é desencadeado tanto pela mudança de fotoperíodo (14:10 para 12:12 ou 10:14) como pela diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC. / Behavioral diapause in ticks is characterized by the temporary loss of aggressiveness, and consequently, to the extension of the starvation period, as recently detected in Amblyomma cajennense larvae. This species is the main vector of spotted fever in southeastern Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the regulation of behavioral diapause of A. cajennense unfed larvae. For this purpose, engorged females were obtained from horses naturally infested from January to February in each of the years 2005 and 2006. In the laboratory, each experimental group was composed by eight engorged females, which were placed in a grass plot composed by the grass Brachiaria decumbens, held in a small basket (40 cm diameter). Each plot was exposed to a particular condition of temperature and photoperiod within a BOD incubator (Marconi MA 402). Photoperiod was provided by 4 lamps (Philips TLT 75RS 20w) and scotophase by total darkness. Evaluated tick biological parameters were preoviposition and incubation periods, as well as the period of time the larvae remained under the grass after hatching, and the period of time that larvae were seen questing on the top of the grass leaves (host questing). The infestation capacity of diapause larvae to feed on chickens (Gallus gallus) was compared to larvae without being in diapause. The results showed that under variation of photoperiod and constant temperature of 25oC, the duration of preoviposition and incubation periods were similar in all the experimental groups (1 to 2 weeks to preoviposition and 5 weeks for egg incubation). Photoperiod 14:10 (light: dark) induced recently hatched larvae to enter diapause, whereas photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 determined the end of diapause. In other combinations of photoperiod, where larvae were in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 from the eclosion, formation of larval clusters on the top of grass leaves occurred within the first weeks after larval eclosion. Larvae kept in photoperiod 12:12 and 10:14 did not enter in dormancy, whereas larvae maintained in photoperiod 14:10 since eclosion remained in the soil under the grass for longer periods. However, the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC under constant photoperiod of 14:10 triggered the end of diapause. In all experiments performed under photoperiod of 10:14, none of the temperature regimes was effective to induce diapause. There were different incubation periods between experimental groups held at 25 and 20oC. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the proportions of diapause and non-diapause larvae that engorged on chickens, although the period of parasitism of larvae in diapause was significantly longer (P < 0.05). As conclusions for the present study, diapause in A. cajennense larvae is induced only if the condition of photoperiod is with more hours of light (14:10) during larval eclosion. Temperatures of 20 or 25oC are not able to induce diapause, when kept in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14. The end of diapause is triggered both by the change in photoperiod (14:10 to 12:12 or 10:14) and the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC.
6

Pesquisa de agentes infecciosos associados aos carrapatos de pequenos mamíferos, em área de Mata Atlântica no município de Cotia, São Paulo / Research of infectious agents associated with ticks of small mammals, in an area of Atlantic Forest of the Cotia municipality, São Paulo

Ramirez, Diego Garcia 10 March 2017 (has links)
A fauna de pequenos mamíferos e de carrapatos da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, SP, foi investigada assim como microrganismos associados a eles. Coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente, e resultaram na captura de 158 pequenos mamíferos silvestres e cães, distribuídos em 126 roedores de 10 espécies, 26 marsupiais de 3 espécies, um tapiti, além de 6 cães domésticos inspecionados. Destes hospedeiros foram recolhidos 327 carrapatos de 9 espécies de 4 gêneros, e larvas de Amblyomma sp. Novos registros de hospedeiros foram acrescentados para as espécies I. aragaoi, I. loricatus, I. schulzei e de espécie morfologicamente semelhante a I. fuscipes. Simultaneamente, fizemos a pesquisa de exemplares em vida livre na vegetação por arraste e busca visual. Um total de 597 exemplares foram recolhidos e identificados, representando 9 espécies de 3 gêneros, além de larvas do gênero Amblyomma. Na sorologia por RIFI, com exceção dos cães domésticos que foram todos negativos, a soro reatividade apresentada para pequenos mamíferos silvestres sugere a circulação de cepas de Rickettsia naquela região. Dos 102 animais testados, 39 foram soro positivos e em 6 amostras nós sugerimos provável antígeno homólogo para R. bellii (3), R. rickettsii (2) e R. rhipicephali (1). Encontramos na quase totalidade dos espécimes adultos de I. aragaoi uma Rickettsia próxima à cepa endosiombionte de I. scapularis, e em uma fêmea de A. sculptum, sequências parciais do gene ompA foram similares a R. parkeri isoladas de A. triste no Brasil e na Argentina. Sequências geradas a partir de um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA de Hepatozoon sp. foram obtidas de amostras dos carrapatos I.c.f. fuscipes e I. schulzei, coletados sobre o roedor A. montensis. Outro hemoprotozoário encontrado foi um genótipo de Babesia sp. proveniente de pools de larvas e de ninfas de A. incisum, coletados em vida livre. Na investigação da presença de bactérias do gênero Coxiella, 14 amostras de diferentes espécies do gênero Amblyomma (A. aureolatum, A. brasiliense, A. incisum, A. naponense e A. sculptum) foram positivas, e as análises de homologia utilizando o marcador molecular 16S rDNA foram compatíveis com Coxiella endosimbiontes de carrapatos. / The fauna of small mammals and ticks of the reserved forest of Morro Grande (RFMG) was assessed and investigated, as well as associated infectious microorganisms. Sample collections were performed bimonthly, and resulted in 158 wild small mammals and dogs inspected, distributed in 126 rodents of 10 different species, 26 marsupials of 3 different species, a Tapiti, and also 6 domestic dogs. 327 ticks were collected from the mentioned hosts; these ticks were representatives of 9 species of 4 different genera, and Amblyomma sp. larvae. New hosts records were appended for 4 species of the genus Ixodes; I. aragaoi, I. loricatus, I. schulzei and a I. fuscipes simile species. Simultaneously, free roaming ticks were collected from the vegetation by dragging a flannel through the forest and visual search. A total of 597 ticks were collected and identified belonging to 9 species of 3 genera, as well as Amblyomma genus larvae. Serology arrays using RIFI technique were performed, and with exception of the domestic dogs that all were negative, the serum reactivity showed in the wild small mammals demonstrated the circulation of Rickettsia strains in the studied region. 39 animals of the 102 tested were positive and 6 samples had strong evidences of being homologous antigens for R. bellii (3), R. rickettsii (2), and R. rhipicephali (1). Molecular research of microorganisms in ticks showed that almost all the adult individuals of I. aragaoi were positive for a Rickettsia similar to an endosymbiont strain of I. scapularis, and in a female of A. sculptum partial sequences the gene of ompA were similar to R. parkeri isolated from A. triste in Brasil and Argentina. Sequences obtained from a fragment of the gene 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon sp. amplified from samples of the tick species I.c.f. fuscipes and I. schulzei, collected from a rodent A. montensis. Another Hemo-protozoon found was a genotype of Babesia sp. from pools of A. incisum larvae and nymphs, collected in the vegetation. For the bacteria of the genus Coxiella, 14 samples of different species of the genus Amblyomma (A. aureolatum, A. brasiliense, A. incisum, A. naponense and A. sculptum) were positive, and the similarity analyses using the 16S rDNA molecular marker were compatible with Coxiella endosymbiont of ticks.
7

Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na diapausa comportamental de larvas não-alimentadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) provenientes de Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brasil / Effect of photoperiod and temperature on the behavioral diapause of Amblyomma cajennense unfed larvae from Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil

Cabrera, Ricardo Ramos 15 April 2008 (has links)
A diapausa comportamental em carrapatos é caracterizada pela perda temporária da agressividade do indivíduo, tendo como conseqüência o prolongamento do período sem alimentação, sendo detectada em larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. Esta espécie destaca-se como principal vetor da Febre Maculosa no Sudeste brasileiro. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na regulação da diapausa comportamental em larvas não-alimentadas de A. cajennense. Para isso, fêmeas ingurgitadas foram obtidas de eqüinos naturalmente infestados de Janeiro à Fevereiro de 2005 e 2006. No laboratório, cada grupo experimental foi composto por oito fêmeas ingurgitadas colocadas em vaso contendo capim braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens). Cada vaso foi exposto a uma condição de temperatura e fotoperíodo dentro de incubadoras B.O.D. (Marconi MA 402). A fotofase foi estabelecida por 4 lâmpadas (Philips TLT 75RS Extra luz do dia 20w) e a escotofase pela ausência total de luz. Os parâmetros biológicos observados foram período de pré-postura, incubação dos ovos, de permanência das larvas debaixo do capim e de presença de larvas na ponta do capim (comportamento de busca pelo hospedeiro). Paralelamente, verificou-se o poder infestante de larvas em diapausa para frangos (Gallus gallus), em comparação com larvas em não diapausa. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, sob variação de fotoperíodo com temperatura constante de 25oC, a duração do intervalo de pré-postura e de incubação dos ovos foi semelhante em todos os grupos experimentais (1 a 2 semanas para período de pré-postura e 5 semanas para período de incubação dos ovos). Observou-se que a combinação de fotoperíodo 14:10 (claro:escuro) induziu a diapausa, sendo que o fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 determinaram o término da diapausa. Em outras combinações de fotoperíodo, onde larvas estiveram no fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 desde a eclosão, a aglomeração nas pontas do capim ocorreu dentro das primeiras semanas de vida das larvas. Larvas mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 e 10:14 não entraram em dormência e larvas mantidas em condição de fotoperíodo de 14:10 permaneceram no solo por tempo maior que as outras. No entanto, a diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC, no fotoperíodo constante de 14:10, induziu o término da diapausa. Em todos os experimentos realizados sob fotoperíodo de 10:14, nenhum dos regimes de temperatura foi eficiente para induzir a diapausa. Houve diferença no intervalo de incubação dos ovos entre grupos experimentais com temperatura de 25 e 20oC. Não houve diferenças significantes (P > 0,05) entre proporções de larvas em diapausa e em não diapausa que se ingurgitaram nos frangos, embora larvas em diapausa apresentaram período parasitário significativamente mais longo (P < 0,05). Conclui-se que a diapausa em larvas de A. cajennense é induzida somente se a condição de fotoperíodo estiver com maior número de horas de claro (14:10) durante a eclosão das larvas. Temperaturas de 20 ou 25oC não são capazes de induzir a diapausa, quando mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 ou 10:14. O término da diapausa é desencadeado tanto pela mudança de fotoperíodo (14:10 para 12:12 ou 10:14) como pela diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC. / Behavioral diapause in ticks is characterized by the temporary loss of aggressiveness, and consequently, to the extension of the starvation period, as recently detected in Amblyomma cajennense larvae. This species is the main vector of spotted fever in southeastern Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the regulation of behavioral diapause of A. cajennense unfed larvae. For this purpose, engorged females were obtained from horses naturally infested from January to February in each of the years 2005 and 2006. In the laboratory, each experimental group was composed by eight engorged females, which were placed in a grass plot composed by the grass Brachiaria decumbens, held in a small basket (40 cm diameter). Each plot was exposed to a particular condition of temperature and photoperiod within a BOD incubator (Marconi MA 402). Photoperiod was provided by 4 lamps (Philips TLT 75RS 20w) and scotophase by total darkness. Evaluated tick biological parameters were preoviposition and incubation periods, as well as the period of time the larvae remained under the grass after hatching, and the period of time that larvae were seen questing on the top of the grass leaves (host questing). The infestation capacity of diapause larvae to feed on chickens (Gallus gallus) was compared to larvae without being in diapause. The results showed that under variation of photoperiod and constant temperature of 25oC, the duration of preoviposition and incubation periods were similar in all the experimental groups (1 to 2 weeks to preoviposition and 5 weeks for egg incubation). Photoperiod 14:10 (light: dark) induced recently hatched larvae to enter diapause, whereas photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 determined the end of diapause. In other combinations of photoperiod, where larvae were in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 from the eclosion, formation of larval clusters on the top of grass leaves occurred within the first weeks after larval eclosion. Larvae kept in photoperiod 12:12 and 10:14 did not enter in dormancy, whereas larvae maintained in photoperiod 14:10 since eclosion remained in the soil under the grass for longer periods. However, the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC under constant photoperiod of 14:10 triggered the end of diapause. In all experiments performed under photoperiod of 10:14, none of the temperature regimes was effective to induce diapause. There were different incubation periods between experimental groups held at 25 and 20oC. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the proportions of diapause and non-diapause larvae that engorged on chickens, although the period of parasitism of larvae in diapause was significantly longer (P < 0.05). As conclusions for the present study, diapause in A. cajennense larvae is induced only if the condition of photoperiod is with more hours of light (14:10) during larval eclosion. Temperatures of 20 or 25oC are not able to induce diapause, when kept in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14. The end of diapause is triggered both by the change in photoperiod (14:10 to 12:12 or 10:14) and the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC.
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Studies on the biology and ecology of Amblyomma Herbraem Koch, 1844 and other tick species (Ixodidae) of the Eastern Cape

Norval, R A I January 1975 (has links)
Tick borne diseases of livestock are among the most important factors which have retarded economic development in many parts of Africa. Modification of the environment due to the expansion of agriculture into previously undeveloped areas, together with the introduction of livestock, has disturbed the natural balance which existed between ticks and indigenous hosts. Many tick species have adapted to domestic stock, and in some instances have spread over large areas which were previously uninfested. A number of tick species which are parasitic on domestic stock, eg. Amblyomma hebraeum Koch, 1844, Boophilus decoloratus (Koch, 1844), Rhipicephalus evertsi Neumann, 1897 and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Netunann, 1901, are vectors of pathogenic micro-organisms. Unlike indigenous hosts however, domestic stock have no innate immunity to tickborne diseases. Intro., p. 1.
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Ticks (Acari : Ixodidae) associated with wild herbivorous mammals in South Africa

Golezardy, Habib 08 May 2007 (has links)
The Republic of South Africa is rich in the species of large and small wild herbivores and ixodid ticks that infest them and the domestic livestock within its borders. The primary objective of this study was to determine the species composition and actual size of the tick burdens of a variety of small and large herbivorous animals in several localities in South Africa. To this end a total of 95 wild herbivores ranging in size from hares to giraffes and belonging to 25 species were examined at 20 various localities in South Africa. The survey localities in alphabetical sequence were the Addo Elephant National Park, “Bucklands” farm, the Eastern Shores Nature Reserve, the Hluhluwe Nature Reserve, the Karoo National Park, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, a farm at Kirkwood, eight localities within the Kruger National Park, the Mountain Zebra National Park, the Tembe Elephant Reserve, the Thomas Baines Nature Reserve, the Umfolozi Nature Reserve, and the West Coast National Park. Sampling took place between 1982 and 1996. The animal species surveyed were giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis; African buffalo, Syncerus caffer; eland Taurotragus oryx; Burchell’s zebra, Equus burchelli; black wildbeest, Connochaetes gnou; blue wildbeest, Connochaetes taurinus; tsessebe, Damaliscus lunatus; Lichtenstein’s hartebeest, Sigmoceros lichtensteinii; bontebok, Damalisus pygargus dorcas; red hartebeest, Alcelaphus buselaphus; nyala, Tragelaphus angasii; bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus; greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros; gemsbok, Oryx gazella; springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis; grey rhebok, Pelea capreolus; mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula; boer goats, Capra hircus; a domestic calf, Bos sp.; suni, Neotragus moschatus; steenbok, Raphicerus campestris; rock hyrax, Procavia capensis; cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris; scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis; and Smith’s red rock rabbits, Pronolagus rupestris. Ticks were collected from the survey animals after they had been killed by a process of soaking in a tick-detaching agent followed by scrubbing and sieving, or by careful scrutiny after the animals had been chemically immobilized. Thirty ixodid tick species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis parmata, Haemaphysalis silacea, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus arnoldi, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus distinctus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus kochi, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus muehlensi, Rhipicephalus neumanni, Rhipicephalus sp. near pravus, Rhipicephalus theileri, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis, and an unidentified Ixodes and Rhipicephalus species were recovered from the animals. All the tick species recovered in this study have been tabulated according to their distributions within the climatic zone of the Republic of South Africa. A total of 64 of the abovementioned herbivores ranging in size from medium to very large, belonging to 15 various species were examined in 11 national parks, or nature reserves or farms during 1982 - 1996. The tick species infesting the medium and small-sized animals were to some extent similar to those of very large animals. The medium-sized survey animals mostly harboured A. hebraeum, R. (B.) decoloratus, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. glabroscutatum whereas the tick burdens of the very large antelopes consisted mostly of A. hebraeum, R. (B.) decoloratus, R. appendiculatus, R. maculatus and R. muehlensi. The very large hosts harboured proportionately more adult ticks than the smaller animals which harboured proportionately more immature ticks. An interesting finding was the recovery of Rhipicephalus sp. near R. pravus from giraffes in the north-eastern Mpumalanga province and these very closely resembled the true R. pravus which occurs in East Africa. A further objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three of the western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end the tick burdens of a total of 45 animals in the Karoo National Park, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and the West Coast National Park were determined. Fourteen ixodid tick species were recovered, of which H. truncatum, R. exophthalmos and R. glabroscutatum were commonly present in two reserves and the remaining species each only in one reserve. H. truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok and mountain reedbuck with R. glabroscutatum. Nine very small antelopes, six of which were steenbok and three were sunis and to my knowledge whose total tick burdens had never before been determined were also examined. The steenbok were examined in three nature reserves and harboured nine tick species and the sunis were examined in a fourth reserve and were infested with eight tick species. The steenbok and sunis were generally infested with the immature stages of the same tick species that infest larger animals in the same geographic regions. In addition the sunis harboured H. parmata, which in South Africa is present only in the eastern and north-eastern coastal and adjacent areas of KwaZulu-Natal Province. They were also infested with R. kochi, which in South Africa occurs only in the far north-east of the KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces. A further objective of the study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes for the one-host tick R. (B.) decoloratus. To this end the R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN) nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP), Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B.) decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B.) decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs. / Dissertation (MSc (Veterinary Science))--University of Pretoria, 2007. / Veterinary Tropical Diseases / unrestricted
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Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae) presentes em várias fitofisionomias de uma reserva no cerrado em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

Veronez, Viviane Aparecida [UNESP] 30 November 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:33:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2009-11-30Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:05:16Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 veronez_va_dr_jabo.pdf: 622519 bytes, checksum: 8c09bda0244e349ed6030a5dfb6aedd7 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Cerrado, considerado a savana sul-americana, abrange cerca de dois milhões de km2 e é muito rica em espécies endémicas, mas ameaçada pela agricultura. Neste trabalho são apresentadas espécies de carrapatos e sua distribuição sazonal e relativa dentro das diferentes fitofisionomias na Estação Ecológica do Panga, uma pequena reserva de Cerrado, no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Ao longo de dois anos foram coletados do ambiente 2.694 carrapatos. Destes, 73,5% eram da espécie Amblyomma cajennense e 0,6%. Amblyomma dubitatum Todos os outros carrapatos (25,9%) eram formas imaturas e caracterizados como Amblyomma spp. Os carrapatos adultos de A. cajennense apresentaram picos numéricos na primavera e as ninfas no inverno dos dois anos. Bolos de larval Amblyomma spp foram encontrados no outono e inverno. Os carrapatos adultos (46,7%) e ninfas (39,5%) foram mais freqüentemente encontrados em matas, enquanto a maioria dos grupos de larvas foram encontradas nas veredas ou próximo a elas (39%). Amblyomma cajennense, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus foram encontrados em animais domésticos de propriedades vizinhas. Não foram encontradas formas características de Rickettsia na hemolinfa de 497 A. cajennense e de um A. dubitatum. Os resultados confirmam relatos anteriores sobre a prevalência esmagadora de carrapatos A. cajennense no bioma Cerrado do Brasil e acrescentou informações sobre as preferências de habitat desta espécie de carrapato, um vetor importante no Brasil da febre maculosa. / Cerrado biome, the South American savannah, covers about two million km2 and is very rich in endemic species but threatened by agriculture. In this work free-living tick species are presented, and their seasonal and relative distribution within the various phytophysiognomies in a Stacey Ecologic Panga, small Cerrado reserve, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Overall 2,694 free-living ticks were found during a two years sampling period with CO2 traps and cloth dragging. Of these, 73.5% were Amblyomma cajennense and 0.6% Amblyomma dubitatum. All other ticks (25.9%) were retained as Amblyomma spp. Adults of A. cajennense peaked in spring, the nymphs in winter of both years. Amblyomma larval clusters were found in autumn and winter. Adult ticks (46.7%) and nymphs (39.5%) were most often found in woodlands, whereas most larval clusters were found in valley-side marshes (39%). Amblyomma cajennense, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were found on domestic animals from neighboring properties. Search for Rickettsia in the hemolymph of 497 A. cajennense and one A. dubitatum ticks yielded negative results. Results confirmed earlier reports on the overwhelming prevalence of A. cajennense ticks in the Cerrado biome of Brazil and added information to habitat preferences of this tick species, a major vector in Brazil of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

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