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Participation in out-of-school activities and the socio-economic gap in children's academic outcomesKadar Satat, Gitit January 2015 (has links)
Social stratification research has consistently found persistent inequalities in the academic outcomes of children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. Research in the sociology of education has shown that students from higher SES groups outperform peers from lower SES groups on various academic indicators as well as make greater academic progress when assessed at two or more separate points in time. Recent evidence from the US has also shown that participation in leisure out-of-school activities (OSA) is among the factors which may contribute to maintaining or even widening these inequalities. Similar evidence is lacking in the UK. The present research focuses on this issue by analysing the role of participation in leisure OSA in the process of reproduction of social inequalities in academic outcomes among British school-aged children. The study draws on social and cultural capital theories to address the following questions: a) Are there differences in participation in OSA among school-aged children in dissimilar SES groups?; b) Taking into account children’s SES, is participation in OSA associated with their academic outcomes?; c) Does the association between participation in OSA and children’s academic outcomes vary across different SES groups? Using data from the third and fourth sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), when cohort members were aged 5 and 7 years old, the research explores participation in three categories of leisure activities; a) social-group activities, b) commercial-public activities, and c) home-centred activities. Children’s academic outcomes are assessed using verbal and non-verbal standardised tests, as well as by teachers’ assessment. The study applied regression models to examine the relationships between children’s SES, participation in OSA and academic outcomes. The statistical analyses were carried out in a multilevel framework which enabled the MCS hierarchical data structure and area variations to be accounted for. The findings suggest that participation in some, but not all leisure OSA is one of the factors which contributes to socio-economic inequalities in educational outcomes among British school-aged children. This is because participation in OSA is associated with better academic performance among all students, however those in high SES groups are more likely to be exposed to such activities. After controlling for SES, gender, family characteristics, school type, absenteeism and geographical variation, there is a small to moderate positive relationship between participation in a number of different leisure OSA and 7-year-olds' academic performance. Interestingly, variations among children from different SES groups were found in the extent to which attendance at certain OSA (e.g. after-school clubs) is associated with academic development between age 5 and 7: children from lower SES who attend such activities tend to progress more academically than children from intermediate and higher SES.
Loneliness as a risk factor for mortality and morbidityPatterson, Andrew C 11 1900 (has links)
Studies over the past couple of decades have depicted loneliness as a significant concern to physical health, although its meaning for overall health outcomes is still unclear. The precise impact of loneliness on life expectancy and on specific disease processes remains unknown. With regression modeling techniques, this thesis uses data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study to characterize the impact of loneliness on self-rated health, mortality, and fatalities from specific diseases. A key hypothesis is that loneliness as a health problem hinges on its persistence over time. This hypothesis is also tested by examining the reliability of the loneliness measure across the full 34 years of the survey. A second test is to examine its interplay with marital status as a mutable social circumstance. Results show that loneliness is a risk factor for poor self-rated health, non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, infections, and overall mortality. Results also show that loneliness need not be a stable problem across the life span in order to pose health risks. The reliability of the loneliness measure fades across time and levels of loneliness also vary with changes in marital status. Loneliness did not clearly mediate the impact of marital status on self-rated health, mortality, or specific causes of death. / Arts, Faculty of / Sociology, Department of / Graduate
Assessment of Intra- and Inter-individual Variability of Outcome Measures in Ankylosing Spondylitis and the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Anti-TNF TherapyMaxwell, Lara J January 2011 (has links)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, inflammatory rheumatic disease that has a highly variable disease course. Three biologic agents, adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab, have been developed for the treatment of AS. We conducted three studies: 1) an exploratory analysis of a year-long longitudinal dataset to gain insight into the variability of disease activity, physical function, and well-being and to explore the relationship between these outcome measures; 2) a systematic review of the available evidence for the efficacy of biologic treatment; 3) a systematic review of potential adverse effects of this treatment. We found that repeated measures of disease activity, function and well-being fluctuate considerably between patients, with complex patterns occurring over time within patients. There was mostly high quality evidence that these biologics are efficacious against placebo. We did not find evidence of an increase in serious adverse events or serious infections from short-term randomized controlled trials.
Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity RisksWang, Liang, Collins, Candice, Ratliff, Melanie, Xie, Bin, Wang, Youfa 01 June 2017 (has links)
Background: The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. Methods: U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. Results: During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Conclusions: Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.
Multistate Markov chains and their application to the Biologically Resilient Adults in Neurological Studies cohortAbner, Erin L 01 January 2013 (has links)
Dementia is increasingly recognized as a major and growing threat to public health worldwide, and there is a critical need for prevention and treatment strategies. However, it is necessary that appropriate methodologies are used in the identification of risk factors. The purpose of this dissertation research was to develop further the body of literature featuring Markov chains as an analytic tool for data derived from longitudinal studies of aging and dementia. Data drawn from 649 participants in the University of Kentucky’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center’s (UK ADC) Biologically Resilient Adults in Neurological Studies (BRAiNS) cohort, which was established in 1989 and follows adults age 60 years and older who are cognitively normal at baseline to death, were used to conduct three studies. The first study, “Mild cognitive impairment: Statistical models of transition using longitudinal clinical data,” shows that mild cognitive impairment is a stable clinical entity when a rigorous definition is applied. The second study, “Self-reported head injury and risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s-type pathology in a longitudinal study of aging and dementia,” shows that when the competing risk of death is properly accounted for, self-reported head injury is a clear risk factor for late-life dementia and is associated with increased beta-amyloid deposition in the brain. The third study, “Incorporating prior-state dependence among random effects and beta coefficients improves multistate Markov chain model fit,” shows that the effect of risk factors, like age, may not be constant over time and may be altered based on the subject’s cognitive state and that model fit is significantly improved when this is taken into account.
Living conditions in old age: Coexisting disadvantages across life domainsHeap, Josephine January 2016 (has links)
The aim of this thesis was to analyse coexisting disadvantages in the older Swedish population. Coexisting disadvantages are those that occur simultaneously in various life domains. A person who simultaneously experiences several disadvantages may be particularly vulnerable and less well-equipped to manage daily life and may also need support from several different welfare service providers. Concerted actions may be needed for older people who experience not only physical health problems and functional limitations, but also other problems. Research that encompasses a wide range of living conditions provides a basis for setting political priorities and making political decisions. The studies in this thesis used data from two Swedish nationally representative surveys: the Level of Living Survey, which includes people aged 18 through 75, and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, which includes people aged 77 and older. Study I showed that the probability of experiencing coexisting disadvantages was higher in people 77 and older than in those aged 18 through 76. These age differences were partly driven by a high prevalence of physical health problems in older people. In all age groups, coexisting disadvantages were more common in women than men. The longitudinal analyses in Study II indicated that coexisting disadvantages in old age persist in some people but are temporary in others. Moreover, the results suggested a pattern of accumulating disadvantages: reporting one disadvantage in young old age (in particular, psychological health problems) increased the probability of reporting coexisting disadvantages in late old age. Study III showed that physical health problems were a central component of coexisting disadvantages. The results also showed that being older; female; previously employed as a manual labourer; and divorced/separated, widowed or never married were associated with an increased probability of experiencing coexisting disadvantages. However, the experience of coexisting disadvantages differed: the groups associated with coexisting disadvantages tended to report different combinations of disadvantage. Study IV showed that the prevalence of coexisting disadvantages in those 77 and older increased slightly between 1992 and 2011. Physical health problems became more common over time, whereas limited ability to manage daily activities (ADL limitations), limited financial resources and limited political resources became less common. Associations between different disadvantages were found in all survey years, but certain associations changed over time. The results suggest that in general, the composition of coexisting disadvantages in the older population may have altered over time. In sum, results showed that coexisting disadvantages were associated with specific demographic and socio-economic groups. Physical health problems and psychological health problems were of particular importance to the accumulation and coexistence of disadvantages in old age. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.</p><p> </p>
Využití času v závislosti na přítomnosti dítěte v domácnosti v generacích 40. až 70. let 20. století ve Spojených státech amerických / Time use dependent on presence of children in household for generation 40s to 70s of the 20th century in the United States of AmericaSlabá, Jitka January 2016 (has links)
Time use dependent on presence of children in household for generation 40s to 70s of the 20th century in the United States of America Abstract: The fertility of women has declined under reproduction level 2.1 children per women in economic developed countries during the last few decades. At the same time the employment of women has risen and time use has changed. Main aim of this thesis is to understand how generations born in 1940-1979 living in the USA changed the spending of their time. The AHTUS data set is analysed by comparing averages of times spent by total work, paid work, unpaid work and child care. The time spent by total work declined between generations born at 40s and 70s. Average time spent by paid work declined too. The men's average time spent by unpaid work increased and women's average time decreased. In spite of fertility decrease between 40s and 70s generations, the women's and men's time spent by childcare extremely increased. The men's time spent by child care increased five times, while women's time spent by child care increased more than three times. The rise of time spent by child care is realized by increasing in primary and secondary activities. Primary activities contain time spent by childcare, secondary activities include all activities where childcare was declared e as a...
A Longitudinal Analysis of Pharmacy Student Wellbeing: The First Professional YearHagemeier, Nicholas E., Beavers, Chelsea L., Carlson, Tucker S. 23 July 2018 (has links)
Abstract available in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.
A longitudinal approach to social exclusion in SwedenBask, Miia January 2008 (has links)
This thesis consists of four papers, and has as its central theme the accumulation of welfare problems and social exclusion. We use Swedish data and all analyses are based on individuals of working age. We perform longitudinal analyses to scrutinize the accumulation of disadvantages over the individual life courses as well as to detect the general trends in social exclusion occurrence in Swedish society during the past two decades. In Paper I, in an analysis of social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden, we find that immigrants suffer more often from social exclusion than native Swedes do. We also find that even if the accumulation of welfare problems is more common among immigrants than native Swedes, the connections between welfare disadvantages are stronger among Swedes. Furthermore, a logistic regression analysis revealed that time spent in Sweden decreases the risk of social exclusion among immigrants. However, even though we control for several demographic variables, human capital indicators and socio-economic class, the odds for social exclusion are still greater for immigrants than for native Swedes. Some form of discrimination can therefore not be excluded. Paper II is co-written with Björn Halleröd. This paper involves a longitudinal analysis of the accumulation of closely related welfare disadvantages, showing that the initial deprivation increases over time. Latent growth curve models reveal that a high initial deprivation is related to low socio-economic class and being single. It is also shown that a high initial deprivation decreases the probability of upward class-mobility as well as the probability of deprived singles becoming cohabiting. Moreover, a high initial deprivation increases the risk that couples will experience a household break-up. In Paper III, we perform a longitudinal analysis of social exclusion in Sweden during the period 1979-2003, in which several logistic regression models for panel data are fitted to our data. We find no support that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that integration has become worse. We also find weak signs that the higher social exclusion risk that men have relative to women has decreased during the past two decades. Furthermore, comparing with couples without children, the odds for social exclusion among singles with children have increased and the odds for couples with children have decreased during the period 1979-2003. Paper IV utilizes latent class factor models to scrutinize the connections between welfare problems and a set of demographic variables, human capital indicators and socio-economic class. We find that welfare problems do cluster. Our results also support several of the findings in the previous paper. Family type, especially being single or living in a relationship, makes a clear difference in the propensity to accumulate welfare problems. Furthermore, immigrants characterize the factors with a high problem accumulation. Additionally, there is no general difference between the sexes in the problem accumulation itself, but experiences of threat or violence and having sleeping problems seem to be more often related to being a woman, whereas the lack of a close friend is most often related to being a man. To conclude, this thesis reveals several interesting facts concerning the accumulation of welfare problems and social exclusion in Sweden. Considering the implications for policy, the situations of immigrants and single parents need to be underlined. That is, the integration of immigrants should be given more emphasis and measures should be taken to support single parents as well as to promote a discussion on how to make relationships last.
Procedural Justice and Legal Socialization Among Serious Adolescent Offenders: A Longitudinal ExaminationJanuary 2016 (has links)
abstract: Research on Tyler’s process-based model has found strong empirical support. The premise of this model is that legitimacy and legal cynicism mediate the relationship between procedural justice and compliance behaviors. Procedural justice and legitimacy in particular have been linked to compliance and cooperation and a small, but growing body of literature has examined how these factors relate to criminal offending. There remains a number of unanswered questions surrounding the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms of procedural justice and legal socialization. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this study will build upon recent trends in the literature to examine what factors influence changes in perceptions of procedural justice and legal socialization attitudes over time. In order to do so, the effects of a number of time-stable and time-varying covariates will be assessed. Second, this study will evaluate the effects of four possible mediating measures—legitimacy, legal cynicism, anger, and prosocial motivation—underlying the relationship between procedural justice and criminal offending. This section of the study will use a multilevel mediation method to assess whether mediation occurs between or within the individual. Data from the Pathways to Desistance Study—a longitudinal study of 1,354 adolescents adjudicated of a serious offense followed-up for seven years—are used to address this research agenda. Results from this study offer three general conclusions. First, results show that perceptions of procedural justice are malleable, that is, they can change over time and are influenced by a number of factors. Legal socialization beliefs, however, demonstrate only marginal change over time, suggesting these beliefs to be more stable. Second, analyses indicate differing pathways and effects for direct and vicarious experiences of procedural justice. Finally, the multilevel mediation analyses reveal that within-individual changes in direct experiences of procedural justice remains a robust predictor of offending, regardless of the presence of mediating variables. Legitimacy was found to have the strongest mediation effect on between-individual differences in direct procedural justice, whereas anger partially mediated the effects of between-individual differences in vicarious procedural justice. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and avenues for future research. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Criminology and Criminal Justice 2016
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