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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

MÄTNING AV ANDNINGSMUSKELSTYRKA

Fendi, Ranya January 2019 (has links)
No description available.
42

Avaliação de diferentes técnicas de preparo de amostras e perspectiva de síntese de um polímero seletivo para a concentração de N-nitrosodietanolamina (NDELA) em matrizes cosméticas / Evaluation of different sample preparation techniques and perspective synthesis of selective polymer for N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in personal care products

Liporini, Amanda Quatrocchio 11 March 2016 (has links)
A ocorrência de N-nitrosaminas em produtos cosméticos e de higiene pessoal está relacionada com os ingredientes utilizados na formulação de tais artefatos. A N-nitrosodietanolamina (NDELA) é formada na presença da dietanolamina associada a outros componentes, tais como íons nitrito empregados como conservantes em matrizes cosméticas. São cancerígenas e, portanto, as condições em que tais itens de consumo são fabricados é um fator que deve ser mensurado. Assim, é aconselhável a realização de estudos que mostrem a ocorrência de NDELA em cosméticos, seus principais métodos de determinação, bem como os aspectos legais que indicam os níveis de concentração deste contaminante presente em diversas formulações. Foi avaliado neste trabalho o potencial de algumas técnicas de preparo de amostras na concentração de NDELA, tais como microextração líquido-líquido dispersiva em fase reversa (DLLME-RP), extração líquido-líquido com salting out e clean up no modo on-line. Os resultados obtidos foram confrontados com os dados presentes na literatura. Adicionalmente, utilizando os conceitos de polimerização via sol-gel e via precipitação para a síntese de polímeros molecularmente impressos (MIP), propõem-se uma possível rota sintética para a confecção de materiais seletivos para a pré-concentração da nitrosamina. / The occurrence of N-nitrosamines in cosmetic and personal hygiene are related to the ingredients used in the formulation of such artefacts. N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) is formed in the presence of diethanolamine associated with other components such as nitrite ions employed as preservatives in cosmetic matrices. They are carcinogenic and, therefore, the conditions under which such consumer items are produced is a factor that must be measured. It is therefore advisable to carry out studies that show the occurrence of NDELA in cosmetics, their main methods of determination as well as the legal aspects that indicate the levels of concentration of this contaminant present in various formulations. It was evaluated in this study the potential for some sample preparation techniques in the concentration of NDELA such as liquid-liquid microextraction dispersive reverse phase (DLLME-RP) liquid-liquid extraction with salting out and clean up online. The results were compared with data in the literature. Additionally, using the concepts of polymerization via sol-gel and precipitation route for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are proposed as a possible synthetic route for the preparation of materials for selective pre-concentration of nitrosamine.
43

Avaliação de diferentes técnicas de preparo de amostras e perspectiva de síntese de um polímero seletivo para a concentração de N-nitrosodietanolamina (NDELA) em matrizes cosméticas / Evaluation of different sample preparation techniques and perspective synthesis of selective polymer for N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in personal care products

Amanda Quatrocchio Liporini 11 March 2016 (has links)
A ocorrência de N-nitrosaminas em produtos cosméticos e de higiene pessoal está relacionada com os ingredientes utilizados na formulação de tais artefatos. A N-nitrosodietanolamina (NDELA) é formada na presença da dietanolamina associada a outros componentes, tais como íons nitrito empregados como conservantes em matrizes cosméticas. São cancerígenas e, portanto, as condições em que tais itens de consumo são fabricados é um fator que deve ser mensurado. Assim, é aconselhável a realização de estudos que mostrem a ocorrência de NDELA em cosméticos, seus principais métodos de determinação, bem como os aspectos legais que indicam os níveis de concentração deste contaminante presente em diversas formulações. Foi avaliado neste trabalho o potencial de algumas técnicas de preparo de amostras na concentração de NDELA, tais como microextração líquido-líquido dispersiva em fase reversa (DLLME-RP), extração líquido-líquido com salting out e clean up no modo on-line. Os resultados obtidos foram confrontados com os dados presentes na literatura. Adicionalmente, utilizando os conceitos de polimerização via sol-gel e via precipitação para a síntese de polímeros molecularmente impressos (MIP), propõem-se uma possível rota sintética para a confecção de materiais seletivos para a pré-concentração da nitrosamina. / The occurrence of N-nitrosamines in cosmetic and personal hygiene are related to the ingredients used in the formulation of such artefacts. N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) is formed in the presence of diethanolamine associated with other components such as nitrite ions employed as preservatives in cosmetic matrices. They are carcinogenic and, therefore, the conditions under which such consumer items are produced is a factor that must be measured. It is therefore advisable to carry out studies that show the occurrence of NDELA in cosmetics, their main methods of determination as well as the legal aspects that indicate the levels of concentration of this contaminant present in various formulations. It was evaluated in this study the potential for some sample preparation techniques in the concentration of NDELA such as liquid-liquid microextraction dispersive reverse phase (DLLME-RP) liquid-liquid extraction with salting out and clean up online. The results were compared with data in the literature. Additionally, using the concepts of polymerization via sol-gel and precipitation route for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are proposed as a possible synthetic route for the preparation of materials for selective pre-concentration of nitrosamine.
44

Síntese e emprego de polímeros molecularmente impressos em técnicas miniaturizadas acopladas a cromatografia liquida para análises de triazinas e sulfoniluréias em amostras de milho / Synthesis and use of molecularly printed polymers with miniaturized techniques coupled to liquid chromatography for triazines and sulfonylureas analysis in corn samples

Andrade, Felipe Nascimento 18 December 2015 (has links)
As triazinas e sulfoniluréias tem sido muito empregadas, devido ao crescente aumento na produção agrícola e aplicação de herbicidas nas lavouras, podendo causar sérios riscos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma problemática é a baixa concentração que estes analitos são encontrados, tornando-se necessário o emprego do preparo da amostra para a sua determinação. Com isso, a busca por técnicas de preparo de amostras miniaturizadas, simples, de baixo custo, com menores riscos de contaminações ambientais e baixo consome de solventes, tem grande predominância. Dentre as microtécnicas de preparo de amostra podemos destacar a microextração em dispositivos preenchidos com sorventes (MEPS, do inglês, Microextraction by Packed Sorbent) e a microextração adsortiva em barra (BAμE, do inglês, Bar Adsorptive Microextraction). Outro aspecto desejado no preparo de amostras é a obtenção de uma maior seletividade quanto ao sorvente empregado, quando comparado àqueles convencionais como, por exemplo, sílica modificada (ex. C18), resinas Amberlite XAD, entre outros. Nesse âmbito, o presente trabalho apresenta a síntese de dois polímeros impressos molecularmente (MIP, do inglês, Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) e suas aplicações na adsorção seletiva de moléculas de triazinas e sulfoniluréias, com separação, identificação e quantificação feitas por LC-TOF-ESI e HPLC-DAD. A primeira metodologia desenvolvida foi a síntese dos polímeros impressos empregando o ácido metacrílico e o etileno glicol dimetacrilato. Após a síntese, os polímeros foram caracterizados através da espectroscopia de infravermelho e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O coeficiente de seletividade para o MIP foi comparado com o coeficiente de seletividade do polímero não impresso (NIP, do inglês, non imprinted polymers) para misturas binárias de atrazina/picloram, atrazina/propanil, bensulfuron/betazon e bensulfuron/prometon onde os valores dos coeficientes de seletividade relativa (k\') obtidos foram de 17,2, 3,2, 10,6 e 8,5. A seguir, foram desenvolvidos dois métodos empregando MEPS para as triazinas e sulfoniluréias, respectivamente. Os métodos validados baseando-se nas recomendações da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) e com diretrizes da Comunidade Europeia, apresentaram linearidade, seletividade, precisão, exatidão e recuperação adequadas para as triazinas e sulfoniuréias. Os limites de quantificação obtidos foram da ordem de 5,0-10,0 μg kg-1 para as triazinas e 2,5 μg kg-1 para as sulfoniluréias. Ainda com propósito de determinar esses herbicidas em milho, dois novos métodos de preparo de amostra foram desenvolvidos, empregando a BAμE. A BAμE, foi desenvolvida recentemente e combinada com os polímeros molecularmente impressos, avaliou-se sua determinação para as triazinas e sulfoniluréias. As variáveis da técnica BAμE foram otimizadas e, em seguida, validadas. Os limites de quantificação obtidos foram da ordem de 0,7 μg kg-1 para as triazinas e 0,4 μg kg-1 para as sulfoniluréias. Os métodos propostos foram aplicados com sucesso para determinação de triazinas em diferentes amostras de milho verde, com valores de recuperação satisfatórios na faixa de 80,0 -120,9%. / Triazines and sulfonylureas have been much used due to the growing in agricultural production and application of herbicides on crops, which may cause serious risks to human health and the environment. One problem is the low concentration found of these analytes, making it necessary the use of the sample preparation. Thus, the search for miniaturized sample preparation such as techniques simple, low cost, with less risk of environmental contamination and low solvent consumes has great predominance. Among the sample preparation microtechnology we can highlight the microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and bar adsorptive microextraction (BA?E). Another desired aspect for sample preparation is to obtain a higher selectivity concerning the sorbent employed as compared to their conventional format; for example, modified silica (ex. 18), Amberlite XAD resins, and others. In this context, this paper presents the synthesis of two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and their applications in the selective adsorption of triazines and sulfonylureas molecules being the separation, identification and quantification steps made by LC-TOF-ESI and HPLC-DAD. The first step developed was the synthesis of imprinted polymers using methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. After synthesizing, the polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The MIP selectivity coefficient was compared with the NIP (non imprinted polymer) selectivity coefficient employing binary mixtures of atrazine / picloram, atrazine / propanil, bensulfuron / betazon and bensulfuron / prometon where the values of relative selectivity coefficients (k \') obtained were 17.2, 3.2, 10.6 and 8.5. Next, we developed two methods for MEPS triazines and sulfonylureas, respectively. The methods were validated based on the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and the European Community directives, and presented linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and adequate recovery for the triazines and sulfoniuréias. The quantification limits were obtained in the range of 5.0-10.0 μg kg-1 for triazines and 2.5 μg kg-1 for sulfonylureas. Aiming determining these herbicides in corn samples, two new sample preparation methods were developed, using the BAμE. The recently developed BAμE, was combined with molecularly imprinted polymers to evaluate the determination to triazines and sulfonylureas. The BAμE variables were optimized and validated. The quantification limits were obtained in the range of 0.7 μg kg-1 for triazines and 0.4 μg kg-1 for sulfonylureas. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of triazines in different samples of corn, with satisfactory recovery values in the range of 80.0 -120.9%.
45

Síntese e emprego de polímeros molecularmente impressos em técnicas miniaturizadas acopladas a cromatografia liquida para análises de triazinas e sulfoniluréias em amostras de milho / Synthesis and use of molecularly printed polymers with miniaturized techniques coupled to liquid chromatography for triazines and sulfonylureas analysis in corn samples

Felipe Nascimento Andrade 18 December 2015 (has links)
As triazinas e sulfoniluréias tem sido muito empregadas, devido ao crescente aumento na produção agrícola e aplicação de herbicidas nas lavouras, podendo causar sérios riscos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma problemática é a baixa concentração que estes analitos são encontrados, tornando-se necessário o emprego do preparo da amostra para a sua determinação. Com isso, a busca por técnicas de preparo de amostras miniaturizadas, simples, de baixo custo, com menores riscos de contaminações ambientais e baixo consome de solventes, tem grande predominância. Dentre as microtécnicas de preparo de amostra podemos destacar a microextração em dispositivos preenchidos com sorventes (MEPS, do inglês, Microextraction by Packed Sorbent) e a microextração adsortiva em barra (BAμE, do inglês, Bar Adsorptive Microextraction). Outro aspecto desejado no preparo de amostras é a obtenção de uma maior seletividade quanto ao sorvente empregado, quando comparado àqueles convencionais como, por exemplo, sílica modificada (ex. C18), resinas Amberlite XAD, entre outros. Nesse âmbito, o presente trabalho apresenta a síntese de dois polímeros impressos molecularmente (MIP, do inglês, Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) e suas aplicações na adsorção seletiva de moléculas de triazinas e sulfoniluréias, com separação, identificação e quantificação feitas por LC-TOF-ESI e HPLC-DAD. A primeira metodologia desenvolvida foi a síntese dos polímeros impressos empregando o ácido metacrílico e o etileno glicol dimetacrilato. Após a síntese, os polímeros foram caracterizados através da espectroscopia de infravermelho e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O coeficiente de seletividade para o MIP foi comparado com o coeficiente de seletividade do polímero não impresso (NIP, do inglês, non imprinted polymers) para misturas binárias de atrazina/picloram, atrazina/propanil, bensulfuron/betazon e bensulfuron/prometon onde os valores dos coeficientes de seletividade relativa (k\') obtidos foram de 17,2, 3,2, 10,6 e 8,5. A seguir, foram desenvolvidos dois métodos empregando MEPS para as triazinas e sulfoniluréias, respectivamente. Os métodos validados baseando-se nas recomendações da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) e com diretrizes da Comunidade Europeia, apresentaram linearidade, seletividade, precisão, exatidão e recuperação adequadas para as triazinas e sulfoniuréias. Os limites de quantificação obtidos foram da ordem de 5,0-10,0 μg kg-1 para as triazinas e 2,5 μg kg-1 para as sulfoniluréias. Ainda com propósito de determinar esses herbicidas em milho, dois novos métodos de preparo de amostra foram desenvolvidos, empregando a BAμE. A BAμE, foi desenvolvida recentemente e combinada com os polímeros molecularmente impressos, avaliou-se sua determinação para as triazinas e sulfoniluréias. As variáveis da técnica BAμE foram otimizadas e, em seguida, validadas. Os limites de quantificação obtidos foram da ordem de 0,7 μg kg-1 para as triazinas e 0,4 μg kg-1 para as sulfoniluréias. Os métodos propostos foram aplicados com sucesso para determinação de triazinas em diferentes amostras de milho verde, com valores de recuperação satisfatórios na faixa de 80,0 -120,9%. / Triazines and sulfonylureas have been much used due to the growing in agricultural production and application of herbicides on crops, which may cause serious risks to human health and the environment. One problem is the low concentration found of these analytes, making it necessary the use of the sample preparation. Thus, the search for miniaturized sample preparation such as techniques simple, low cost, with less risk of environmental contamination and low solvent consumes has great predominance. Among the sample preparation microtechnology we can highlight the microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and bar adsorptive microextraction (BA?E). Another desired aspect for sample preparation is to obtain a higher selectivity concerning the sorbent employed as compared to their conventional format; for example, modified silica (ex. 18), Amberlite XAD resins, and others. In this context, this paper presents the synthesis of two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and their applications in the selective adsorption of triazines and sulfonylureas molecules being the separation, identification and quantification steps made by LC-TOF-ESI and HPLC-DAD. The first step developed was the synthesis of imprinted polymers using methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. After synthesizing, the polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The MIP selectivity coefficient was compared with the NIP (non imprinted polymer) selectivity coefficient employing binary mixtures of atrazine / picloram, atrazine / propanil, bensulfuron / betazon and bensulfuron / prometon where the values of relative selectivity coefficients (k \') obtained were 17.2, 3.2, 10.6 and 8.5. Next, we developed two methods for MEPS triazines and sulfonylureas, respectively. The methods were validated based on the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and the European Community directives, and presented linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and adequate recovery for the triazines and sulfoniuréias. The quantification limits were obtained in the range of 5.0-10.0 μg kg-1 for triazines and 2.5 μg kg-1 for sulfonylureas. Aiming determining these herbicides in corn samples, two new sample preparation methods were developed, using the BAμE. The recently developed BAμE, was combined with molecularly imprinted polymers to evaluate the determination to triazines and sulfonylureas. The BAμE variables were optimized and validated. The quantification limits were obtained in the range of 0.7 μg kg-1 for triazines and 0.4 μg kg-1 for sulfonylureas. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of triazines in different samples of corn, with satisfactory recovery values in the range of 80.0 -120.9%.
46

Ordonnancement d’un système de production industriel complexe : flow shop hybride avec des machines dédiées soumis à différentes contraintes temporelles / Scheduling of a complex industrial production system : hybrid flow shop with dedicated machines and different time constraints

Harbaoui, Houda 14 December 2018 (has links)
L’accroissement des profits, à travers l’amélioration de la productivité et la réduction des pertes de matières, représente un objectif primordial pour les entreprises industrielles. Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons à la résolution d’un problème industriel complexe réel avec des contraintes de temps. Nous nous sommes intéressés, tout d’abord, à un objectif principal, soit la minimisation des dates de fin de production, suivi d’un objectif secondaire qui est la minimisation des quantités de déchets non recyclables. Dans un premier temps, nous avons modéliséle problème par des modèles mathématiques, que nous avons résolu à l’aide d’un solveur. Dans un second temps, nous avons proposé une méthode approchée en forme d’algorithmes évolutionnistes. Cette méthode est appliquée aux deux objectifs mentionnés ci-dessus séparément. Une troisième méthode est ensuite appliquée à l’objectif principal, à savoir une méthode arborescente approchée. Nous avons testé les algorithmes proposés sur des instances inspirées d’un cas réel ; issues d’une entreprise du secteur agroalimentaire et sur des instances inspirées de la littérature. / Increasing profits, through the improvement of productivity and minimizing waste, is a primary objective for industrial companies. In this thesis, we are interested insolving a real complex industrial problem with time constraints. Firstly, we were interested in minimizing completion time (Cmax). Secondly, we focused on minimizing of non-recyclable waste. As a first step, we formulated the problem by mathematical models, which we solved using a solver. In a second step, we proposed an approximate method in the form of evolutionary algorithms. Both methods were applied to the two objectives mentioned above separately. Then, a third method which is a tree-search algorithm was applied only to the main objective. We tested the proposed algorithms on instances inspired from a real case; from an agri-food business, and also on instances inspired from the literature.
47

Komprese výškových map / Height map compression techniques

Lašan, Michal January 2016 (has links)
The goal of this thesis is to design a suitable method for lossy compression of heightmap terrain data. This method should accept blocks of float samples of dimensions 2^n x 2^n as an input, for which it should be able to perform progressive decompression of mip-maps (lower-resolution representations). It should keep the reconstructed data within a certain maximum per-sample error bound for each mip-map level. This bound should be in the unit of meters and adjustable by the user. Given these constraints, it should be as efficient as possible. Our method is inspired by the second generation of progressive wavelet-based compression scheme modified to satisfy the~maximum-error constraint. We simplified this scheme by factoring out unnecessary computations in order to improve the efficiency. Our method can compress a 256x256 block in about 30 ms and decompress it in about 2 ms. Thanks to these attributes, the method can be used in a real-time planet renderer. It achieves the compression ratio of 37:1 on the whole Earth 90m/sample terrain dataset transformed and separated into square blocks, while respecting the maximum error of 5m. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
48

Optical and electrochemical sensing methods for the detection of food contaminants / Méthodes de détection optique et électrochimique pour la détection des contaminants alimentaires

Bueno Hernandez, Diana 13 May 2016 (has links)
Un appareil de mesure de la fluorescence, à faible coût et portable a été développé pour quantifier les concentrations d’Ochratoxine A (OTA) dans des échantillons réels. Le système est basé sur l’excitation par une UV-LED à 365 nm et un photo détecteur contrôlé par une interface dans LabVIEW. Aussi, une image capteur, CMOS, contrôlée par une interface conçue dans MATLAB. L’OTA est une molécule naturellement fluorescente. Après excitation par une UV-, l’image de la fluorescence émise est captée par une caméra et traitée en vue de la mesure de la concentration de l’OTA. Le système d’analyse a été basé sur les 3 composants rouge, vert et bleu (RGB, selon l'acronyme anglais). La gamme est linéaire entre de 2-40 µg/L. L’extraction de l’OTA est réalisée par des colonnes d'immuno affinité (IAC, selon l'acronymeanglais) et les colonnes à empreinte moléculaire (MIP, selon l'acronyme anglais) pour les échantillons de cacao, de la bière et du vin. Les résultats obtenus ont été validés par la méthode chromatographique (HPLC). L'appareil conçu est facile à utiliser, économique et portable. En outre, l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies a été inclus tels que l'emploi du smartphone pour détecter l'OTA et la création d'un APP. Des données d'image de fluorescence provenant de la caméra du smartphone et sont analysées par un ordinateur personnel et présentés dans les composantes RGB, où l'image est envoyée à l'ordinateur par WIFI et le téléphone intelligent est utilisé comme source d'énergie trop. Enfin, une APP pour le système Android a été créé pour capturer l'image et fournit les valeurs RGB. Enfin l'utilisation du traitement de l'image a été utilisée pour quantifier l'OTA dans les échantillons réels sans colonnes IAC ou MIP, employée pour extraire la mycotoxine. L’analyse a été réalisée par des techniques colorimétriques et d’analyse de la couleur. / A portable and low cost fluorescence set-up to quantify the concentrations of Ochratoxin A(OTA) in real samples was developed. The detection through the device consist of anultraviolet light at 365 nm and an photo detector or a CMOS sensor controlled by anexecutable interface designed in LabVIEW or MATLAB. It has been reported that OTA is naturally fluorescent, so it allows the user to get a UV LED to excite the sample, get a value involtage when a photodetector is employed or a photograph of the OTA under excitationconditions, and process that image in order to predict the concentrations of the sample. Tocapture and process the image, in an automatically manner, the system was completely basedon the Red, Green and Blue (RGB) components. The linearity for OTA obtained in the rangeof concentrations corresponds to 2-40 µg/L. Immunoaffinity columns (IAC) and molecularimprinted polymer columns (MIP) were used with cocoa, beer and wine samples. Theobtained results were cross-validated using chromatographic method such as HPLC and theFluoroskan equipment. The developed setup is easy to use, economical and portable. Besides,the use of new tendencies was included such as employ the smartphone to detect OTA and thecreation of an APP. Fluorescence image data from the smartphone camera are analyzed by apersonal computer and presented in RGB components, where the image is sent to thecomputer by WIFI and the smartphone is used as a power source too. Finally, an APP forandroid system was created to capture the image and provides the RGB values. At the end, theuse of image processing to quantify the OTA in real samples without incorporated IAC or MIPcolumns to extract the mycotoxin from a complex solution, employing colorimetric techniquesand color analysis.
49

Photorealistic Surface Rendering with Microfacet Theory

Dupuy, Jonathan 09 1900 (has links)
La synthèse d'images dites photoréalistes nécessite d'évaluer numériquement la manière dont la lumière et la matière interagissent physiquement, ce qui, malgré la puissance de calcul impressionnante dont nous bénéficions aujourd'hui et qui ne cesse d'augmenter, est encore bien loin de devenir une tâche triviale pour nos ordinateurs. Ceci est dû en majeure partie à la manière dont nous représentons les objets: afin de reproduire les interactions subtiles qui mènent à la perception du détail, il est nécessaire de modéliser des quantités phénoménales de géométries. Au moment du rendu, cette complexité conduit inexorablement à de lourdes requêtes d'entrées-sorties, qui, couplées à des évaluations d'opérateurs de filtrage complexes, rendent les temps de calcul nécessaires à produire des images sans défaut totalement déraisonnables. Afin de pallier ces limitations sous les contraintes actuelles, il est nécessaire de dériver une représentation multiéchelle de la matière. Dans cette thèse, nous construisons une telle représentation pour la matière dont l'interface correspond à une surface perturbée, une configuration qui se construit généralement via des cartes d'élévations en infographie. Nous dérivons notre représentation dans le contexte de la théorie des microfacettes (conçue à l'origine pour modéliser la réflectance de surfaces rugueuses), que nous présentons d'abord, puis augmentons en deux temps. Dans un premier temps, nous rendons la théorie applicable à travers plusieurs échelles d'observation en la généralisant aux statistiques de microfacettes décentrées. Dans l'autre, nous dérivons une procédure d'inversion capable de reconstruire les statistiques de microfacettes à partir de réponses de réflexion d'un matériau arbitraire dans les configurations de rétroréflexion. Nous montrons comment cette théorie augmentée peut être exploitée afin de dériver un opérateur général et efficace de rééchantillonnage approximatif de cartes d'élévations qui (a) préserve l'anisotropie du transport de la lumière pour n'importe quelle résolution, (b) peut être appliqué en amont du rendu et stocké dans des MIP maps afin de diminuer drastiquement le nombre de requêtes d'entrées-sorties, et (c) simplifie de manière considérable les opérations de filtrage par pixel, le tout conduisant à des temps de rendu plus courts. Afin de valider et démontrer l'efficacité de notre opérateur, nous synthétisons des images photoréalistes anticrenelées et les comparons à des images de référence. De plus, nous fournissons une implantation C++ complète tout au long de la dissertation afin de faciliter la reproduction des résultats obtenus. Nous concluons avec une discussion portant sur les limitations de notre approche, ainsi que sur les verrous restant à lever afin de dériver une représentation multiéchelle de la matière encore plus générale. / Photorealistic rendering involves the numeric resolution of physically accurate light/matter interactions which, despite the tremendous and continuously increasing computational power that we now have at our disposal, is nowhere from becoming a quick and simple task for our computers. This is mainly due to the way that we represent objects: in order to reproduce the subtle interactions that create detail, tremendous amounts of geometry need to be queried. Hence, at render time, this complexity leads to heavy input/output operations which, combined with numerically complex filtering operators, require unreasonable amounts of computation times to guarantee artifact-free images. In order to alleviate such issues with today's constraints, a multiscale representation for matter must be derived. In this thesis, we derive such a representation for matter whose interface can be modelled as a displaced surface, a configuration that is typically simulated with displacement texture mapping in computer graphics. Our representation is derived within the realm of microfacet theory (a framework originally designed to model reflection of rough surfaces), which we review and augment in two respects. First, we render the theory applicable across multiple scales by extending it to support noncentral microfacet statistics. Second, we derive an inversion procedure that retrieves microfacet statistics from backscattering reflection evaluations. We show how this augmented framework may be applied to derive a general and efficient (although approximate) down-sampling operator for displacement texture maps that (a) preserves the anisotropy exhibited by light transport for any resolution, (b) can be applied prior to rendering and stored into MIP texture maps to drastically reduce the number of input/output operations, and (c) considerably simplifies per-pixel filtering operations, resulting overall in shorter rendering times. In order to validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of our operator, we render antialiased photorealistic images against ground truth. In addition, we provide C++ implementations all along the dissertation to facilitate the reproduction of the presented results. We conclude with a discussion on limitations of our approach, and avenues for a more general multiscale representation for matter.
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Vliv některých faktorů na postižení ledvin u AA amyloidózy / The influence of some factors on renal impairment in AA amyloidosis

Potyšová, Zuzana January 2011 (has links)
Introduction: Available data suggest an association between presence of secondary (AA) amyloidosis and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoatracttant protein-1) and MIP-1alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha) genes polymorphisms. Some studies have also shown an impact of polymorphisms in exon 3 of SAA 1 (serum amyloid A 1) gene on the incidence of AA amyloidosis in different populations. Methods: The incidence of single genotypes MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and SAA 1 genes was investigated. Serum levels of SAA, MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were measured and potential relation between serum levels and genotypes were analyzed. All examinations were performed in patients with AA amyloidosis (43), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without amyloidosis and healthy control group (100). Results: Significantly more frequent occurrence of 1.1/1.1 genotype in SAA 1 was recorded in AA amyloidosis group compared to RA group as well as in control group (p<0,001). No statistically significant differences in distribution of another genotypes were found. Distribution of neither 1.1/1.1 genotype nor another ones did not vary among RA group and control group. No significant difference in distribution of another examined genotypes was recorded among all three groups. Serum concentrations of SAA were statistically significantly higher in AA amyloidosis group...

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