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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Teacher preparedness in dealing with learners' social problems

Abbas, Faheema January 2008 (has links)
Dissertation (Master of Education( Education))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2008 / The purpose of the study was to investigate how teachers dealt with learners’ social problems. Another concern of the study was to investigate the extent to which pre-service and in-service teacher-training prepared teachers to deal with learners’ social problems. The research used qualitative methodology. The major advantage of using qualitative research was that it focused on researching teachers in their school setting, to determine how teachers dealt with learners’ social problems. The main instrument used was interviews as it yielded rich in-depth knowledge and allowed me to probe responses and investigate the teachers’ feelings and emotions. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The study population was confined to four public high schools in Cape Town. It was composed of three newly qualified teachers and one experienced teacher. The results reflected that teachers dealt with learners’ social problems by trial and error and there was no evidence of deliberate planning in identifying learners with social problems. The preservice teacher training programmes did not equip teachers with the skills to deal with learners’ social problems. Although teachers received some form of training at schools, the training was not effective in assisting them. The thesis argues that social problems cannot be dealt with solely by the school or the teacher. It is recommended that the Department of Education, the community and the parents, as well as other social service organisations, should jointly create preventive and intervention strategies to assist learners with social problems. Such a holistic approach, the study asserts, could assist schools and teachers to deal with learners’ social problems more effectively. Teachers should receive pre-service training to deal with learners’ social problems, for example, by adding a module such as Sociology of Education. The teachertraining programmes and continuous in-service training programmes should ensure that teachers are exposed to current Departmental policies and documents that can assist them in dealing with learners’ social problems.

Continuous bioremediation of electroplating effluent

Santos, Bruno Alexandre Quistorp January 2013 (has links)
Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Technologiae: Chemical Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology 2013 / There are significant quantities of free cyanide (F-CN) and heavy metal contaminated effluent being discharged from electroplating operations globally. However, there is an overwhelming tendency in the industry to use physical and/or chemical treatment methods for cyanides (CNs) and heavy metals in effluent. Although these methods may be effective for certain CNs and heavy metals, they produce toxic by-products and also involve high operational and capital investment costs when compared to bioremediation methods. In this study, the design of a two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was conceptualised for the bioremediation of CNs and heavy metals in the effluent which was collected from an electroplating facility located in the Western Cape, South Africa. The design included a primary inactive bioremediation stage, to reduce the impact of contaminate concentration fluctuations, and a secondary active bioremediation stage, to remove the residual contaminants, in the effluent under alkaline pH conditions which typify most industrial effluent containing these contaminants. An analysis of the electroplating effluent revealed that the effluent contained an average of 149.11 (± 9.31) mg/L, 5.25 (± 0.64) mg/L, 8.12 (± 4.78) mg/L, 9.05 (± 5.26) mg/L and 45.19 (± 25.89) mg/L of total cyanide (T-CN), F-CN, weak acid dissociable cyanides (WAD-CNs), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), respectively. An Aspergillus sp., which displayed the characteristic black conidiophores of the Aspergillus section Nigri, was isolated from the electroplating facilities’ effluent discharge using a selective pectin agar (PA) and subcultured on 2% (v/v) antibiotic (10,000 units/L penicillin and 10 mg streptomycin/mL) potato dextrose agar (PDA). The isolate was tolerant to F-CN up to 430 mg F-CN/L on F-CN PDA plates which were incubated at 37 ˚C for 5 days. However, a significant decline in microbial growth was observed after 200 mg F-CN/L, thus indicating that the isolate was suitable for the bioremediation of the electroplating effluent. The identification of the isolate as Aspergillus awamori (A. awamori) was definitively determined using a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, utilising ITS (internal transcribed spacer), -tubulin and calmodulin gene regions. Although an anomaly in the morphology of the conidia of the isolate was observed during the morphological analysis, indicating a possible morphological mutation in the isolate. A comparative study between “sweet orange” (Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis)) pomace, “apple” (Malus domestica (M. domestica)) pomace, “sweetcorn” (Zea mays (Z. mays)) cob and “potato” (Solanum tuberosum (S. tuberosum)) peel, i.e. waste materials considered to be agricultural residues, was conducted in order to assess their potential and as a sole carbon source supplement for A. awamori biomass development for the bioremediation of CNs and heavy metals. The suitability of these agricultural residues for these activities were as follows: C. sinensis pomace ˃ M. domestica pomace ˃ Z. mays cob ˃ S. tuberosum peel. For purpose of the sensitivity analysis, a temperature range of 20 to 50 ˚C and an alkaline pH range of 7 to 12 showed that: (1) optimal conditions for the uptake of Ni, Zn and Cu occurred at pH 12 and a temperature of 37.91 and 39.78 ˚C using active and inactive A. awamori biomass and unhydrolysed and hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace, respectively; (2) F-CN conversion increased linearly with an increase in pH and temperature using unhydrolysed and hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace; and (3) optimal conditions for the F-CN conversion and the respective by-products and sugar metabolism using active A. awamori biomass occurred at 37.02 ˚C and pH 8.75 and at conditions inversely proportional to F-CN conversion, respectively. The heavy metal affinity was Ni > Zn > Cu for all the biomaterials used and with the heavy metal uptake capacity being inactive A. awamori biomass > active A. awamori biomass > hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace > unhydrolysed C. sinensis pomace, respectively. Hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace had a 3.86 fold higher conversion of F-CN compared to the unhydrolysed C. sinensis pomace. The use of C. sinensis pomace extract as a nutrient media, derived from the acid hydrolysis of C. sinensis pomace, showed potential as a rich carbon-based supplement and also that low concentrations, < 0.1% (v/v), were required for the bioremediation of CNs and heavy metals. The two-stage MBR system was operated at 40 ˚C since this temperature was conducive to the bioremediation of CN and heavy metals. The primary bioremediation stage contained hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace while the secondary bioremediation stage contained active A. awamori biomass, supplemented by the C. sinensis pomace extract. After the primary and secondary bioremediation stages, 76.37%, 95.37%, 93.26% and 94.76% (primary bioremediation stage) and 99.55%, 99.91%, 99.92% and 99.92% (secondary bioremediation stage) average bioremediation efficiencies for T-CN, Ni, Zn and Cu were achieved. Furthermore, the secondary bioremediation stage metabolised the CN conversion by-products with an efficiency of 99.81% and 99.75% for formate (CHOO-) and ammonium (NH4+), respectively. After the first, second and third acid regeneration cycles of the hydrolysed C. sinensis pomace, 99.13%, 99.12% and 99.04% (first regeneration cycle), 98.94%, 98.92% and 98.41% (second regeneration cycle) and 98.46%, 98.44% and 97.91% (third regeneration cycle) recovery efficiencies for Ni, Zn and Cu were achieved. However, the design only managed to treat the effluent for safe discharge and the use of a post-treatment stage, such as reverse osmosis, is recommended to remove the remainder of the trace contaminants and colour from the effluent to ensure that the effluent met the potable water standards for reuse. There was a relatively insignificant standard deviation (≤ 3.22%) detected in all the parameters measured in the continuous operation and this indicates the reproducibility of the bioremediation efficiency in this continuous system.

The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes amongst the middle aged population of Bellville South community, Cape Town, South Africa

Soita, David Jonah January 2009 (has links)
THESIS SUBMITED IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN THE FACULTY OF HEALTH AND WELLNESS SCIENCES AT THE CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2009 / Numerous sources including the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) reported that a diabetes epidemic, with a parallel rise in obesity and insulin resistance is presently enveloping the world. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for over 80% of all diabetics in most countries and has been recognized as a global epidemic, with its prevalence increasing at a rapid rate in both developed and developing countries. Up to 80% of type 2 diabetic cases can be preventable by changing diet, increasing physical activity and improving the living environment. The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa varies from one province to another and within different population groups. The highest rates have been reported among Asian Indians and the mixed ancestry populations, however, data is limited. Urbanization and industrialization which come along with westernized lifestyles such as sedentarism, consumption of high fat diets consequently resulting into obesity are some of the factors implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. With type 2 diabetes prevalence rate increasing at an alarming rate, both in industrialized and also in developing countries, every factor associated with the development of diabetes needs to be explored and addressed. Before progression to diabetes, the diabetic state is preceded by a glucose regulation disorder commonly referred to as impaired glucose tolerance which may last for several years. Another form of glucose metabolism disorder other than diabetes is impaired fasting blood glucose level. While some cases of diabetes are often undiagnosed, it has also been noted that for every one diagnosed diabetic, there could be another that is undiagnosed. As has been shown in this study, many people could be walking with diabetes which is undiagnosed. The aims of this study were to determine: The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes mellitus and the risk factors for developing diabetes amongst the 35 – 65 year old population of Bellville South, Cape Town South Africa. In a cross-sectional survey, 600 subjects within the age group of 35-65 years selected through stratified random sampling within the Bellville South area of Cape Town underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes, IGT and IFG were determined using both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the revised WHO criteria. Subjects also underwent several anthropometric measurements. Personal demographic, family, health and lifestyle data were extrapolated by use of a questionnaire. The prevalence of diabetes did vary between the two criterion used. The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was 77 (12.8%) using the WHO criteria and 62 (10.3%) using the ADA criteria. Overall, the prevalence of diabetes was 25.6 % of which 12.8 % were newly diagnosed. IGT was present in 24 (4.0%) whilst IFG was in 179 (29.8%) using the WHO and ADA criterion respectively. Females were more affected than males and the prevalence of diabetes increased with age. Although overweight did not differ significantly between males and females, the latter were significantly more obese across all age groups (p < 0.05). Presence of a first degree relative with diabetes mellitus, particularly the father was significantly associated with development of diabetes, (odds ratio = 2.092, 95% CI 1.109 – 3.949, p = 0.023). Though more than 40% of the population studied was shown to engage in heavy drinking (30g of alcohol per day), it was not associated with diabetes. There has been a 10.4% increase in the prevalence of diabetes in this population group compared to what was reported more than a decade ago. Of great concern is the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes.

An investigation into the perceptions of Grade 7 learners of the effectiveness of a guided reading programme

Kohler, Valerie January 2008 (has links)
A minor dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Education Presented to the Faculty of Education and Social Sciences, CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 2008 / Reading is a critical tool for the mastery of all learning areas and is one of the best predictors of long term learning achievement. Reading must be considered a priority area in efforts to improve the quality of basic education, particularly for learners from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many learners in South Africa come from a largely oral culture in which reading of books is not common and many come from disadvantaged communities that cannot afford to buy books. The provincial and national systemic evaluation results (2003, 2005) for reading showed that at least 40% of Grade 3 and 6 learners were reading below grade level. In January 2005, in the present study, 50 % of the Grade 7 learners were reading below Grade 7 level. Many learners were discouraged because they could not master the reading tasks set to them. Others responded to the task with boredom and disdain. The learners who could read seem to be the only ones who were enthusiastic about starting and completing the reading tasks. By the end of the year, after using a guided reading programme, all students had developed a love for reading and many were reading on Grade 7 level. The present empirical study is grounded in the social constructivist framework, originating from the works of Piaget (1978), Vygostky (1929) and Cambourne (2004). Their foundational principals together with the learning outcomes specified in the Revised National Curriculum Statement (2002) formed the basis of this literacy study. A questionnaire was administered to forty-four learners at the end of a complete year where I had used the guided reading programme. The questionnaire consisted of ten closed questions and six open-ended questions. The results were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of this study showed that the learners responded positively to reading in groups, that learners developed an interest in reading, that they acquired reading skills that they needed to become independent readers, all of which ultimately improved their self esteem and self confidence.

Oleanic acid: its isolation and derivatisation to potential antimicrobial compounds

Wicht, Merril Margaret January 2007 (has links)
A thesis submitted to the Cape Peninsula University of Technology in fulfilment of the requirements for the MASTERS DEGREE IN TECHNOLOGY (CHEMISTRY) Department of Chemistry January 2007 / An increasing number of natural products possessing the oleanolic acid moiety have been shown to demonstrate a wide spectrum of biological activity. This thesis deals with the extraction and isolation of oleanolic acid from Syzigium aromaticum and the examination of its stereochemistry and crystal structure by X-ray diffraction. The synthetic routes used for converting functional groups on the oleanolic acid molecule to afford derivatives are described in Chapter 5. Oleanolic acid and its derivatives were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Three different procedures viz. Kirby-Bauer, Broth dilution and Tetrazolium salt chemosensitivity were used. Acceptable results were obtained from the last method and these were used to arrive at conclusions regarding this study.

Design and development of an infrared heater for waste plastic gasification / by .

Haruon, Zuhair Eltigani Matar January 2013 (has links)
Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Technology: Electrical Engineering in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology 2013 / This research outlines the design, manufacturing and analysis of a far infrared ceramic heater for waste plastic gasification. The study includes the theoretical overview which concentrated on the mathematical modelling of the far infrared ceramic heater, as well as mathematical modelling of infrared gasifier. Secondly, the study presents an overview of the manufacturing process of the ceramic infrared heaters. Testing of the manufactured heaters has been performed to validate the efficacy of the heaters. The model includes non-grey radiative heat transfer between the different parts of the heaters, conduction in ceramic material, convective cooling of the surface, surface balances, and blackbody radiation theories. Using infrared module voltage as input, model predictions of temperature and wavelengths using Fourier equations were found to agree well with experimental data. The ceramic infrared heaters developed in this research are fully functional and all intended test results were obtained. The spectral analyses of different plastics (Polyethylene terephthalate, Polypropylene, Low-density polyethylene and High-density polyethylene) have been performed. ‘Heat rate’ and ‘cool rate’ of the infrared ceramic heaters have also been characterised. Gasification of plastic waste as carbonaceous material, basic reactions during gasification of plastics, and gasification products have also been discussed, including gasifier properties. The results obtained from the experiments show that using infrared heaters in gasification is practically sound because of the ability of infrared radiation to gasify waste plastics and production of syngas. This project recommended the infrared radiation because of its high efficiency in gasification of waste plastic and the production of syngas. This article reviews the infrared radiation heating and discusses the theoretical aspects of infrared radiation and the validity of infrared radiation heating in gasification of waste plastics. This research also provides a review of literature in the applications and benefits of infrared heaters.

Non-Newtonian loss coefficients for Saunders diaphragm valves

Kabwe, Aime Mume January 2009 (has links)
Dissertation submitted in fulfilment of requirements for the degree Master Technology: Chemical Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING at the CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 2009 / The prediction of the energy losses when designing pipeline and pumping systems requires accurate loss coefficient data. But the loss coefficient data found in the open literature was not adequate for predicting the loss coefficient for Saunders straight-through diaphragm valves. As more accurate loss coefficient data to enable more efficient pipeline designs are scarce in the open literature, it is problematic to predict the head loss due to the pipeline fittings, and particularly for diaphragm valves. Most of the data given in the literature are for turbulent flow based on water. Due to water shortages mining operations are forced to increase their solids concentrations and to operate in laminar flow (Slatter, 2002). Consequently there is a need to determine loss coefficient data in laminar flow for valves used in these industries to ensure energy efficient designs (Pienaar et al., 2001; 2004) or if needed, to derive a new correlation to predict losses through Saunders diaphragm valves. However, a systematic study of various sizes of diaphragm valves of different manufacturers to ascertain, if the same loss coefficient can be applied, has never been done. Therefore a comparison will be made between the data produced in this work and the existing correlations. The objective of this research was to determine loss coefficient data in laminar, transitional and turbulent flow for the Saunders type straight-through diaphragm valves ranging from 40 mm to 100 mm in the fully open, 75 %, 50 % and 25 % open positions, using a range of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The test work was conducted on the valve test rig in the Flow Process Research Centre at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. This work investigated only Newtonian and time independent homogeneous non-Newtonian fluids or slurries flowing through Saunders straight-through diaphragm valves in the turbulent, transitional and laminar regimes. Weir-type Saunders valves and time-dependent fluid behaviour were not investigated in this study. Preamble Non-Newtonian Loss Coefficients for Saunders Diaphragm Valves A Mume Kabwe The results for each test are presented in the form of valve loss coefficient (kvalve) against Reynolds number (Re). This thesis adds new loss coefficient data to the open literature, and a new correlation, which will be useful for designing pipelines in industries, as well as contributing to the academic debate in this discipline.

Search engine optimisation or paid placement systems: user preference

Neethling, Riaan January 2007 (has links)
Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Technologiae in Information Technology in the Faculty of Informatics and Design at the CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2007 / The objective of this study was to investigate and report on user preference of Search Engine Optimisation (SEO), versus Pay Per Click (PPC) results. This will assist online advertisers to identify their optimal Search Engine Marketing (SEM) strategy for their specific target market. Research shows that online advertisers perceive PPC as a more effective SEM strategy than SEO. However, empirical evidence exists that PPC may not be the best strategy for online advertisers, creating confusion for advertisers considering a SEM campaign. Furthermore, not all advertisers have the funds to implement a dual strategy and as a result advertisers need to choose between a SEO and PPC campaign. In order for online advertisers to choose the most relevant SEM strategy, it is of importance to understand user perceptions of these strategies. A quantitative research design was used to conduct the study, with the purpose to collect and analyse data. A questionnaire was designed and hosted on a busy website to ensure maximal exposure. The questionnaire focused on how search engine users perceive SEM and their click response towards SEO and PPC respectively. A qualitative research method was also used in the form of an interview. The interview was conducted with representatives of a leading South African search engine, to verify the results and gain experts’ opinions. The data was analysed and the results interpreted. Results indicated that the user perceived relevancy split is 45% for PPC results, and 55% for SEO results, regardless of demographic factors. Failing to invest in either one could cause a significant loss of website traffic. This indicates that advertisers should invest in both PPC and SEO. Advertisers can invest in a PPC campaign for immediate results, and then implement a SEO campaign over a period of time. The results can further be used to adjust a SEM strategy according to the target market group profile of an advertiser, which will ensure maximum effectiveness.

Effectiveness of mentoring programs regarding employee job satisfaction

Shitemba, Fudheni January 2008 (has links)
Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the MTech: Human Resources Management Degree in the faculty of BUSINESS at the CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2008 / Mentoring is an informal and flexible approach to leadership, supevision and professional development. It involves the mentor and protégé setting goals that are focused on the protégé’s professional and personal development needs. Mentoring relationships can occur between a mentor and a protégé or a small group of protégés or it may involve peers who act as mentors for each other (Skinner, Roche, O'Connor, Pollard & Todd, 2005:2). Mentoring programs are increasing rapidly in response to needs for new and innovative ways to develop people, allow them to grow in their jobs and the need for change. However, typical problem areas include expectations and objectives which may be misunderstood, and these are areas that are necessary to determine whether the mentoring program was effective or not. Due to the vague understanding of mentoring programs and their effectiveness, techniques and methods were reviewed and discussed to figure these out. Mentors and proteges who were already on programs and those who had begun new programs were randomly selected to participate in this evaluation; the reason why these two groups were chosen is that there is a need to determine how the groups went about making their programs a success or not, since these groups were already on the program or starting out, and interest in a mentoring program was already existent. An attempt to motivate new groups would defeat the aim, since it could sabotage the aim of the research and end-results in several ways, for example, groups would require guidance to begin their programs. The groups were monitored over a five month period, and evaluated at the end of every four weeks in order to make sure that no information would be omitted at the end of the five months. Furthermore, information from literature on mentoring was used in order to compare respondents' information that was gathered over the monitoring period. Participant groups were randomly chosen from the Karas region and from different industries and fields in order to obtain a good reading from different work environments; the work areas were chosen from seven companies. Each month had an area of interest, which was examined throughout the five months. Once questionnaires were completed and returned, data was examined to determine positive and negative impacts that mentoring relationships and approaches (within in the relationships), had on both parties and their styles of participation. Participants were assessed six months after the fifth evaluation to determine the long term effect that mentoring had on participants, the mentor and protege. A reason for this was that some participants might have grasped the knowledge and skills for a only a short period of time and then forget or ignore it, while others may have taken time to understand and implement the new knowledge, which would have given them time to absorb the information, knowledge and skills that were acquired. The mentor, protege, as well as the organization, should be clear on what they expect and want from mentoring, and should communicate thoroughly, while the program should be tailored to the needs of participants and the culture. The mentor should be trained, if necessary and evaluation and reviews methods should be established in order to ensure smooth running and, eventually, the effectiveness of the program. Both employees and the organizations can benefit; employees can benefit through career development initiatives and find a sense of belonging and empowerment, while organizations can benefit as this helps the firm to communicate its values and behaviours, provide opportunities to expand networks and boost training efforts, as well as facilitate knowledge.

The crossover point between keyword rich website text and spamdexing

Zuze, Herbert January 2011 (has links)
Thesis Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE In BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS in the FACULTY OF BUSINESS at the CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2011 / With over a billion Internet users surfing the Web daily in search of information, buying, selling and accessing social networks, marketers focus intensively on developing websites that are appealing to both the searchers and the search engines. Millions of webpages are submitted each day for indexing to search engines. The success of a search engine lies in its ability to provide accurate search results. Search engines’ algorithms constantly evaluate websites and webpages that could violate their respective policies. For this reason some websites and webpages are subsequently blacklisted from their index. Websites are increasingly being utilised as marketing tools, which result in major competition amongst websites. Website developers strive to develop websites of high quality, which are unique and content rich as this will assist them in obtaining a high ranking from search engines. By focusing on websites of a high standard, website developers utilise search engine optimisation (SEO) strategies to earn a high search engine ranking. From time to time SEO practitioners abuse SEO techniques in order to trick the search engine algorithms, but the algorithms are programmed to identify and flag these techniques as spamdexing. Search engines do not clearly explain how they interpret keyword stuffing (one form of spamdexing) in a webpage. However, they regard spamdexing in many different ways and do not provide enough detail to clarify what crawlers take into consideration when interpreting the spamdexing status of a website. Furthermore, search engines differ in the way that they interpret spamdexing, but offer no clear quantitative evidence for the crossover point of keyword dense website text to spamdexing. Scholars have indicated different views in respect of spamdexing, characterised by different keyword density measurements in the body text of a webpage. This raised several fundamental questions that form the basis of this research. This research was carried out using triangulation in order to determine how the scholars, search engines and SEO practitioners interpret spamdexing. Five websites with varying keyword densities were designed and submitted to Google, Yahoo! and Bing. Two phases of the experiment were done and the results were recorded. During both phases almost all of the webpages, including the one with a 97.3% keyword density, were indexed. The aforementioned enabled this research to conclusively disregard the keyword stuffing issue, blacklisting and any form of penalisation. Designers are urged to rather concentrate on usability and good values behind building a website. The research explored the fundamental contribution of keywords to webpage indexing and visibility. Keywords used with or without an optimum level of measurement of richness and poorness result in website ranking and indexing. However, the focus should be on the way in which the end user would interpret the content displayed, rather than how the search engine would react towards the content. Furthermore, spamdexing is likely to scare away potential clients and end users instead of embracing them, which is why the time spent on spamdexing should rather be used to produce quality content.

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