abstract: State-owned Enterprises (SOE) in China were described as Government Business Enterprises (GBE) in planned economy time. Not only as investor and owner, but also manager, government at that time was an all-powerful role in GBE. All factors of production, such as money, raw materials, production, sell, human affairs, were all decided by administrative orders. After reform and opening up, especially since 90s of last century, some related laws, including The Companies Act, were gradually promulgated and carried out, State-owned Enterprises have been found fairly like modern enterprises in appearance, but observe carefully, you will find that with the growing up of the market mechanism, Non-market mechanism still exists stubbornly during the whole company's actual operation. This study focus on two cases of State-owned Enterprises, which are administrated by myself. Trying to find out the difference in business efficiency and group cohesiveness, this study examines the effects of the market mechanism and non-market mechanism, which are respectively operated as a pivotal figure in the two companies. Under the background of the social transformation and State-owned Enterprises’ deepen reform, for stimulating the vitality and efficiency of companies, this study tries to find an optimization management model for State-owned Enterprises. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Business Administration 2015
Guevara, Marisabel Alejandra
<p>Heterogeneous design presents an opportunity to improve energy efficiency but raises a challenge in management. Whereas prior work separates the two, we coordinate heterogeneous design and management. We present a market-based resource allocation mechanism that navigates the performance and power trade-offs of heterogeneous architectures. Given this management framework, we explore a design space of heterogeneous processors and show a 12x reduction in response time violations when equipping a datacenter with three processor types over a homogeneous system that consumes the same power. To better understand trade-offs in large heterogeneous design spaces, we explore dozens of design strategies and present a risk taxonomy that classifies the reasons why a deployed system may underperform relative to design targets. We propose design strategies that explicitly mitigate risk, such as a strategy that minimizes the coefficient of variation in performance. In our experiments, we find that risk-aware design accounts for more than 70% of the strategies that produce systems with the best service quality. We also present a new datacenter management mechanism that fairly allocates processors to latency-sensitive applications. Tasks express value for performance using sophisticated piecewise-linear utility functions. With fairness in market allocations, we show how datacenters can mitigate envy amongst latency-sensitive users. We quantify the price of fairness and detail efficiency-fairness trade-offs. Finally, we extend the market to fairly allocate heterogeneous processors.</p> / Dissertation
20 July 2007
In the phases of Taiwan¡¦s economic growth, state-owned enterprises were playing important roles in accelerating economic development, so as to satisfy the needs to downstream industries. State-owned enterprises had successfully played a key role as the ¡§locomotive of Taiwan¡¦s economy¡¨. But after the 1980s, liberalization of economy, free competition and privatization were the thoughts that became the central theme of government¡¦s economic development. Hence, how to improve the operation of state-owned enterprises and remove restricting regulations, so as to improve the operation performance and bring about synergetic results of state-owned enterprises, soon became the main objective of state-owned enterprises business management. Entrepreneurship is the fundamental criteria in management of every business. But, what problems have state-owned enterprises encountered in implementing entrepreneurship in its management? Why, after many years of effort, state-owned business still could not unleash itself of the image that ¡§state-owned business = poor operations performance¡¨. This background motivated the study of the problems in entrepreneurship in state-owned enterprises. It is hoped that the study of this problem will result in finding ways to tackle the problem. State-owned enterprises that are suitable for free market competition are the subject of this study. External limitations and internal worries faced by state-owned enterprises were investigated. Furthermore, the study looked at the problems and barriers encountered by state-owned enterprises in improving its operating efficiency. With reference to modern management theory on corporate environment and behavior between organization and members, interview questions were developed. Middle to senior management personnel whose work was related to entrepreneurship development of state-owned enterprises were interviewed. Written records of the interview were maintained, interviewers were asked to check the description for any inconsistency with their expressions. Then, the content of the interview were cross-analyzed with the extent of influence of various internal and external stakeholders in state-owned enterprises in implementing entrepreneurship. The process attempted to clarify the best response to problems faced by state-owned enterprises in promoting entrepreneurship. It is found from the analysis, ¡§free market competition mechanism¡¨ is the source of energy for state-owned enterprises in implementing entrepreneurship. However, the factors that influence this program not only include ¡§restriction by unnecessary regulations¡¨ and ¡§passive state serviceman mindset¡¨, as discussed often in related studies, the other three important forces are: government decision and execution, practicality of leadership, and redefining the role of unions. Because state-owned enterprises must operate in balanced-power network consisting of leadership level, government, shareholder, consumer, civilian representatives, union, employee, supplier, and, competing suppliers, the aforementioned 5 influencing factors may seem independent in affecting the extent of state-owned enterprise in implementing entrepreneurship, but in reality they are highly interactive. This situation stagnate state-owned enterprises, stalling them to catch up with private businesses. Since entrepreneurship is the basis of business management, state-owned enterprises can only through its own strength and effort, do away the influence of this invisible balanced-power. Only by doing so, can state-owned enterprises break out of its limitations and show real revolutionary change.
Critical Theory and Dialectics of Contemporary Economics / Critical Theory and Dialectics of Contemporary EconomicsMaialeh, Robin January 2017 (has links)
The subject of this dissertation thesis is a confrontation of contemporary economic thought with critical theory. Based on the holistic critique of the production process, the author deals with elementary principles of wealth creation and allocation, mirroring themselves in the issue of economic inequality. An applied transdisciplinary approach leads to dialectical understanding of market mechanism which accentuates an antagonistic character of its actors´ aims and reveals its non-empirical causalities. These abstract connections then become a viable explanatory complement to already advanced empirical apparatus of economic inequality. The goal of the thesis is to formulate an economic model that takes into consideration both empirical findings of contemporary studies on economic inequality and reflection of the critical theory. The value added lies in the fact that the economic model presents an interaction of economic agents and through probabilistic drive towards deepening economic inequalities exposes market mechanism as the diverging factor of social reproduction. Further, the model shows that Pareto-optimization, a frequently used analytically-normative tool of contemporary economics, principally does not suffice in grasping market-based inequalities. The contribution of the thesis is researching particular economic phenomena from the unique perspective which has not been yet fully accomplished in the context of modern economics.
The power of market mechanism in school choice in three junior middle schools in Nanning : a case studyWu, Xiaoxin January 2011 (has links)
The practice of parent-initiated school choice in China is characterized by the involvement of substantial amounts of money, various forms of capital, the explicit government policy of banning the practice in words but accommodating it in deeds. This research investigates the school choice situation in three middle schools in Nanning, China. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theory of the forms of capital and cultural and social reproduction and Brown’s Positional Conflict Theory, this thesis argues that the use of cultural, social and economic capital is widespread in the school choice process. With more capital of various types available, middle class families are at a competitive advantage compared to their working class counterparts in the current struggle to gain a place in a good school. The resources of the former families enable their children to gain more cultural capital through extracurricular enrichment activities, exercise more social capital through existing guanxi1 networks and focus more economic capital with which to pay large sums for choice fees, all of which result in the greater chances of entering a desired school. The change of the school admission policy since the mid-1990s from universal entrance examination for junior middle schools to the present school place assignment by proximity has resulted in an unintentional shift from meritocracy to “parentocracy”2. School choice effectively closes out opportunities for quality education for working class families, because they lack the cultural, social and economic capital that is necessary to “work the system”. As a result, school choice tends to insure the intergenerational transmission of existing social classes and to decrease the possibility of upward mobility for the next generation. 1 A network of contacts which an individual may draw upon to secure resources or advantage in the course of social life (see 4.1.2 for detail). 2 See Brown (1990).
Intégration dans le réseau électrique et le marché de l’électricité de production décentralisée d’origine renouvelable : gestion des congestions locales / Integration in the electrical grid and in the electricity market of dispersed generation from renewables : the local congestion problemVergnol, Arnaud 29 November 2010 (has links)
Le développement de la production éolienne permet de satisfaire les objectifs de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. Cependant, dans certaines zones du réseau électrique, l’intégration d’un volume important de production peut créer des congestions qui traduisent l'incapacité du réseau à évacuer cette production. Les méthodes actuelles pour gérer les congestions sont basées sur des calculs prévisionnels de restrictions de production qui peuvent entrainer des pertes de production importantes pour le renouvelable. Cependant, dans le cadre d’un développement important du renouvelable, il est nécessaire de définir une méthodologie de gestion des congestions fiable, optimale du point de vue économique et non discriminatoire pour la production renouvelable.Dans le cadre de cette thèse, la méthodologie de gestion des congestions locales proposée repose sur l’usage d’un contrôle correctif. Le contrôle correctif est basé sur une boucle de régulation et un algorithme utilisant les réseaux de Petri. Une étude de stabilité de la boucle de régulation a montré que les marges de stabilité dépendantes des gains composant la boucle sont suffisantes. L’algorithme permet de définir les groupes de production à choisir pour la gestion des congestions en considérant leur coût d’utilisation et leur impact sur la congestion. Les essais, effectués sous le logiciel EUROSTAG, ont montré la pertinence de la méthodologie proposée et sa capacité à s’adapter à l’insertion des moyens de production. De plus, des conclusions générales sur les différents coûts associés à la gestion des congestions en fonction des différentes règlementations régissant la production renouvelable ont été obtenues / Development of wind generation is a mean towards global warming reduction. However, in some parts of the electrical grid, the massive integration of renewable generation can lead to congestion problems. These congestions are related to the impossibility for the power grid to transport the generation. Nowadays, congestion management methods are based on day(s)-ahead computation of generation restriction which leads to important production losses for renewables. Based on this context, it’s therefore important to develop a methodology which is optimal, reliable and non-discriminatory for renewable.In this work, the proposed congestion management method is based on corrective actions. These actions are computed in real-time using regulation loops and Petri net-based algorithms. A stability study proved that gain margins are sufficient to assure the stability of the corrective actions. The algorithm allows an optimal selection of the generators than will participate in the congestion management. This selection is based on their cost and efficiency for congestion alleviation. Simulation results using the software EUROSTAG have shown the efficiency of the method and its adaptability to different generator types. Furthermore, general conclusions on congestions costs according to different regulations on the renewable generation were obtained
The diploma thesis will be devoted to the principles of market economy and its teaching in Civics classes at primary school. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part introduces the basic principles of market economy, explains the concepts of market, market mechanism, supply, demand, competition, monopoly, price and profit, including the interrelationships. The following is an insight to the curriculum and the theory of didactics. At the end of the theoretical part, space is set aside for introduction to the basic issues of teaching economic topics at primary school. In the practical part I present project teaching, a didactic analysis of the principles of market economy is performed, a teaching unit was designed and evaluated, which was implemented at the primary school and kindergarten Kralupy nad Vltavou, Třebízského 523. The diploma thesis is ended with self-evaluation.
從政治控制到市場機制：台灣報業發行之變遷 / From political control to market mechanism-the change of newspaper circulation system in Taiwan陶芳芳, Tao, Fang-Fang Unknown Date (has links)
在報禁開放後，由報業市場中不斷推陳出新的發行競爭以及目前三報鼎立 的發行態勢，本研究意欲探究報禁開放前後台灣報業發行作法的差異， 並以政治控制以及市場影響力的兩個方向，來思考形成台灣報業發行變化 的原因。在現存的傳播研究中，對於報業發行的文獻極為有限，而本研究 是第一份以報業立場分析台灣報業發行變遷的研究，一方面以報業整體的 發行狀況作為分析的起點，也以報業的觀點來分析台灣報業的發行競爭。 本文採取質化研究法中的個案研究法以及非結構性訪談法，藉著與台灣 北中南三地涉及報業發行業務的人士進行五十次以上的訪談，蒐集報禁 開放前後報業發行狀況的資料。研究結果發現，過去在報禁時期，台灣 吻合了發展中國家所普遍出現的媒介環境，為報禁政策提出合理化的 背書，而隨著經濟的發展，報禁政策對於報業發行發展的限制與控制則 愈來愈明顯，而在報禁開放後的自由市場競爭之中，強者愈強弱者愈弱的 報業發行特性，重塑台灣報業的發展趨勢。 / After the lifting of martial law in Taiwan
在企業網路運作下我國中小企業管理政策的特性 / The Characteristics of Management Policy of Small Business under Networks in Taiwan R.O.C.劉嘉蓀, Liu, Chia Sun Unknown Date (has links)
資源基礎理論指出，策略要建立在自有的資源基礎上，並發展出對應資源 的能力，以取得持久的競爭優勢。中小企業受限於資源不足，只能專精於 整個價值活動中的一個小片斷，要連結其他成員，組織成綿密的企業網路 ，結合大家的資源，共同創造競爭優勢。在企業網路的架構下，專業分工 ，資源需求不高，成員各有專精，效率、效果、規模經濟、學習曲線等優 勢皆可獲得。在企業網路組織中，既合作又競爭，對無法配合的網路成員 ，以市場機制加以淘汰，保持全網路的競爭力。中小企業的小，機動性強 ，遇到問題，彈性應對，可使組織運作順暢。中小企業的管理政策，生產 、行銷、人事、研發、財務，不能自外於網路的需求，這些政策的訂定與 實施，都要能配合網路中的其他成員。以全網路為思考單位，創造全網路 的優勢。同時，也要考量到持全網路的競爭力。
公共設施保留地容積移轉市場交易機制之研究 / Study on the market transaction mechanism of the transferable development rights of land reservations for public facilities劉厚連 Unknown Date (has links)
公共設施保留地容積移轉在於藉由市場交易機制，使公共設施保留地地主在等待政府徵收之前，得透過容積出售給開發業者獲致價金補償之機會，並免除政府直接辦理徵收之財政壓力。容積移轉制度基本精神是以市場效率解決土地分區使用之公平問題，然現行制度下，不同地區之公共設施保留地移出容積可得價金懸殊缺乏公平性，且容積交易集中於特定地區，造成當地生活環境品質之惡化。故本研究在制度建立之政策層面，尋求達到「受損補償，受益付費」公平原則，使容積購買者付出合理的價金購買公共設施保留地地主持有容積並透過制度設計控管容積移轉對生活環境品質衝擊之問題。在容積交易市場層面，則透過市場機制設計，塑造有助於市場形成與價格維繫之環境及降低容積買賣雙方之交易成本，以促進市場交易之效率並實現前述對地主之公平為目標。 本研究首先從市場供需之角度，分析容積供需失衡，對公共設施保留地容積移轉市場中容積價格之影響，並檢視影響TDR方案成功之市場運作因素與供需條件。其次，就買賣雙方交易盈餘分配進行探討，運用賽局理論中那許均衡之概念，分析討價還價之均衡解，以闡明信息不對稱下，如何解決地主在容積交易中議價資訊不足之問題，提高容積移轉價格，增進該制度在保障公共設施保留地地主財產權之貢獻。第三，引用中間層理論探討TDR銀行在解決交易成本問題之優勢，並闡明非營利性質因減少中介費用支出，增加交易雙方之交易剩餘，較能使TDR方案成功。第四，藉由前述理論之探討，本研究研擬改善現行公共設施保留地容積移轉的市場機制之相關議題，透過學者專家問卷及權利關係人的問卷調查之設計，汲取市場機制改善之建議。 本研究認為我國容積移轉市場存在容積總量超出環境容受力、市場所能提供之交易資訊不足、容積價格落差過大、中介者所提供的服務仍待加強及交易成本偏高等問題，需透過政府介入加以解決。因此，提出以容積銀行為容積移轉政策執行核心之市場交易機制，由各直轄市、縣市政府成立一個非營利性質的容積銀行，作為容積移轉交易平台，並成立專款專用之容積銀行運作基金，作為政策性購買容積取得所需公共設施保留地之用，賦予容積銀行資訊提供、中介媒合、價格引導、確保交易等功能，降低容積移轉交易成本，創造有利之交易環境，確保公共設施保留地地主，能以合理價格出售變現、政府財政可以負荷及都市居住環境品質得到掌控與維護的政策目標。根據研究結果提出建立公共設施保留容積移轉政策之決策與實踐機制及以容積銀行交易平台為主之交易市場機制等制度建議，作為政府未來改善公共設施容積移轉制度之參考。 / The transferable development rights (TDR) of land reservations for public facilities are a unique transferring method of development rights in Taiwan. This system allows the owners of land reservations for public facilities to sell the land, through market transaction mechanism and before the acquisition by the government, to developers through TDR in order to earn land transferring compensation. This system can also reduce the financial burden on the government on land acquisition. However, TDR has been questioned for deteriorating the urban living environment due to overdevelopment, and the transaction mechanism may reduce the market function and efficiency due to high transaction costs. Therefore, this study aims to design a market mechanism that can control the impact of TDR on the living environment, create an environment that is conducive to market formulation and price maintenance, and reduce the transaction costs of sellers and buyers, in order to facilitate the efficiency of market transaction and realize the fairness on the land owners. This paper first analyzes the imbalance between the TDR supply and demand from the market supply and demand perspective, and examines the effect of TDR of land reservations for public facilities on volume price in the market, as well as the market operational factors and supply/demand conditions that affect the success of TDR plans. Then, it discusses the surplus distribution of buyers and sellers, and applies the concept of Nash Equilibrium in the Game Theory to analyze the equilibrium solution of price bargaining. It aims to expound on how land owners could raise the TDR price under insufficient information due to information asymmetry during the bargaining process, and enhance the contribution of this system on the proprietorship of the land owners on land reservations for public facilities. Third, this paper applies the intermediation theory to discuss the advantages of TDR banks in solving the problem of transaction costs, and explains the reason that non-profit characteristics are more likely to guarantee the success of TDR plans. Fourth, based on the above discussions, this paper aims to improve the market mechanism of the TDR of land reservations for public facilities, and conduct questionnaire survey on experts and interest parties in order to collect opinions on the improvement schemes. Lastly, this paper proposes the market mechanism of using TDR bank as the policy executor of TDR, and establishing a non-profit TDR bank in each city/county by the local government as a transaction platform for TDR transaction. TDR bank operational fund should be established for exclusive use on the policy-oriented purchase of TDR of land reservations for public facilities. Thus, the TDR bank has the functions of providing information, mediating, price guiding, and transaction guaranteeing, in order to reduce the TDR transaction costs, create a favorable transaction environment, ensure the land owners of land reservations for public facilities to sell their lands at reasonable prices, reduce the financial burden of the government, and maintain a fair urban living environment. Suggestions are provided based on the research findings as a reference to the government on improving the TDR system of land reservations for public facilities.
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