abstract: State-owned Enterprises (SOE) in China were described as Government Business Enterprises (GBE) in planned economy time. Not only as investor and owner, but also manager, government at that time was an all-powerful role in GBE. All factors of production, such as money, raw materials, production, sell, human affairs, were all decided by administrative orders. After reform and opening up, especially since 90s of last century, some related laws, including The Companies Act, were gradually promulgated and carried out, State-owned Enterprises have been found fairly like modern enterprises in appearance, but observe carefully, you will find that with the growing up of the market mechanism, Non-market mechanism still exists stubbornly during the whole company's actual operation. This study focus on two cases of State-owned Enterprises, which are administrated by myself. Trying to find out the difference in business efficiency and group cohesiveness, this study examines the effects of the market mechanism and non-market mechanism, which are respectively operated as a pivotal figure in the two companies. Under the background of the social transformation and State-owned Enterprises’ deepen reform, for stimulating the vitality and efficiency of companies, this study tries to find an optimization management model for State-owned Enterprises. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Business Administration 2015
The power of market mechanism in school choice in three junior middle schools in Nanning : a case studyWu, Xiaoxin January 2011 (has links)
The practice of parent-initiated school choice in China is characterized by the involvement of substantial amounts of money, various forms of capital, the explicit government policy of banning the practice in words but accommodating it in deeds. This research investigates the school choice situation in three middle schools in Nanning, China. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theory of the forms of capital and cultural and social reproduction and Brown’s Positional Conflict Theory, this thesis argues that the use of cultural, social and economic capital is widespread in the school choice process. With more capital of various types available, middle class families are at a competitive advantage compared to their working class counterparts in the current struggle to gain a place in a good school. The resources of the former families enable their children to gain more cultural capital through extracurricular enrichment activities, exercise more social capital through existing guanxi1 networks and focus more economic capital with which to pay large sums for choice fees, all of which result in the greater chances of entering a desired school. The change of the school admission policy since the mid-1990s from universal entrance examination for junior middle schools to the present school place assignment by proximity has resulted in an unintentional shift from meritocracy to “parentocracy”2. School choice effectively closes out opportunities for quality education for working class families, because they lack the cultural, social and economic capital that is necessary to “work the system”. As a result, school choice tends to insure the intergenerational transmission of existing social classes and to decrease the possibility of upward mobility for the next generation. 1 A network of contacts which an individual may draw upon to secure resources or advantage in the course of social life (see 4.1.2 for detail). 2 See Brown (1990).
20 July 2007
In the phases of Taiwan¡¦s economic growth, state-owned enterprises were playing important roles in accelerating economic development, so as to satisfy the needs to downstream industries. State-owned enterprises had successfully played a key role as the ¡§locomotive of Taiwan¡¦s economy¡¨. But after the 1980s, liberalization of economy, free competition and privatization were the thoughts that became the central theme of government¡¦s economic development. Hence, how to improve the operation of state-owned enterprises and remove restricting regulations, so as to improve the operation performance and bring about synergetic results of state-owned enterprises, soon became the main objective of state-owned enterprises business management. Entrepreneurship is the fundamental criteria in management of every business. But, what problems have state-owned enterprises encountered in implementing entrepreneurship in its management? Why, after many years of effort, state-owned business still could not unleash itself of the image that ¡§state-owned business = poor operations performance¡¨. This background motivated the study of the problems in entrepreneurship in state-owned enterprises. It is hoped that the study of this problem will result in finding ways to tackle the problem. State-owned enterprises that are suitable for free market competition are the subject of this study. External limitations and internal worries faced by state-owned enterprises were investigated. Furthermore, the study looked at the problems and barriers encountered by state-owned enterprises in improving its operating efficiency. With reference to modern management theory on corporate environment and behavior between organization and members, interview questions were developed. Middle to senior management personnel whose work was related to entrepreneurship development of state-owned enterprises were interviewed. Written records of the interview were maintained, interviewers were asked to check the description for any inconsistency with their expressions. Then, the content of the interview were cross-analyzed with the extent of influence of various internal and external stakeholders in state-owned enterprises in implementing entrepreneurship. The process attempted to clarify the best response to problems faced by state-owned enterprises in promoting entrepreneurship. It is found from the analysis, ¡§free market competition mechanism¡¨ is the source of energy for state-owned enterprises in implementing entrepreneurship. However, the factors that influence this program not only include ¡§restriction by unnecessary regulations¡¨ and ¡§passive state serviceman mindset¡¨, as discussed often in related studies, the other three important forces are: government decision and execution, practicality of leadership, and redefining the role of unions. Because state-owned enterprises must operate in balanced-power network consisting of leadership level, government, shareholder, consumer, civilian representatives, union, employee, supplier, and, competing suppliers, the aforementioned 5 influencing factors may seem independent in affecting the extent of state-owned enterprise in implementing entrepreneurship, but in reality they are highly interactive. This situation stagnate state-owned enterprises, stalling them to catch up with private businesses. Since entrepreneurship is the basis of business management, state-owned enterprises can only through its own strength and effort, do away the influence of this invisible balanced-power. Only by doing so, can state-owned enterprises break out of its limitations and show real revolutionary change.
Guevara, Marisabel Alejandra
<p>Heterogeneous design presents an opportunity to improve energy efficiency but raises a challenge in management. Whereas prior work separates the two, we coordinate heterogeneous design and management. We present a market-based resource allocation mechanism that navigates the performance and power trade-offs of heterogeneous architectures. Given this management framework, we explore a design space of heterogeneous processors and show a 12x reduction in response time violations when equipping a datacenter with three processor types over a homogeneous system that consumes the same power. To better understand trade-offs in large heterogeneous design spaces, we explore dozens of design strategies and present a risk taxonomy that classifies the reasons why a deployed system may underperform relative to design targets. We propose design strategies that explicitly mitigate risk, such as a strategy that minimizes the coefficient of variation in performance. In our experiments, we find that risk-aware design accounts for more than 70% of the strategies that produce systems with the best service quality. We also present a new datacenter management mechanism that fairly allocates processors to latency-sensitive applications. Tasks express value for performance using sophisticated piecewise-linear utility functions. With fairness in market allocations, we show how datacenters can mitigate envy amongst latency-sensitive users. We quantify the price of fairness and detail efficiency-fairness trade-offs. Finally, we extend the market to fairly allocate heterogeneous processors.</p> / Dissertation
Critical Theory and Dialectics of Contemporary Economics / Critical Theory and Dialectics of Contemporary EconomicsMaialeh, Robin January 2017 (has links)
The subject of this dissertation thesis is a confrontation of contemporary economic thought with critical theory. Based on the holistic critique of the production process, the author deals with elementary principles of wealth creation and allocation, mirroring themselves in the issue of economic inequality. An applied transdisciplinary approach leads to dialectical understanding of market mechanism which accentuates an antagonistic character of its actors´ aims and reveals its non-empirical causalities. These abstract connections then become a viable explanatory complement to already advanced empirical apparatus of economic inequality. The goal of the thesis is to formulate an economic model that takes into consideration both empirical findings of contemporary studies on economic inequality and reflection of the critical theory. The value added lies in the fact that the economic model presents an interaction of economic agents and through probabilistic drive towards deepening economic inequalities exposes market mechanism as the diverging factor of social reproduction. Further, the model shows that Pareto-optimization, a frequently used analytically-normative tool of contemporary economics, principally does not suffice in grasping market-based inequalities. The contribution of the thesis is researching particular economic phenomena from the unique perspective which has not been yet fully accomplished in the context of modern economics.
30 May 2023
In today’s Data Centers, a combination of factors leads to the static allocation of physical servers and switches into dedicated clusters such that it is difficult to add or remove hardware from these clusters for short periods of time. This silofication of the hardware leads to inefficient use of clusters. This dissertation proposes a novel architecture for improving the efficiency of clusters by enabling them to add or remove bare-metal servers for short periods of time. We demonstrate by implementing a working prototype of the architecture that such silos can be broken and it is possible to share servers between clusters that are managed by different tools, have different security requirements, and are operated by tenants of the Data Center, which may not trust each other. Physical servers and switches in a Data Center are grouped for a combination of reasons. They are used for different purposes (staging, production, research, etc); host applications required for servicing specific workloads (HPC, Cloud, Big Data, etc); and/or configured to meet stringent security and compliance requirements. Additionally, different provisioning systems and tools such as Openstack-Ironic, MaaS, Foreman, etc that are used to manage these clusters take control of the servers making it difficult to add or remove the hardware from their control. Moreover, these clusters are typically stood up with sufficient capacity to meet anticipated peak workload. This leads to inefficient usage of the clusters. They are under-utilized during off-peak hours and in the cases where the demand exceeds capacity the clusters suffer from degraded quality of service (QoS) or may violate service level objectives (SLOs). Although today’s clouds offer huge benefits in terms of on-demand elasticity, economies of scale, and a pay-as-you-go model yet many organizations are reluctant to move their workloads to the cloud. Organizations that (i) needs total control of their hardware (ii) has custom deployment practices (iii) needs to match stringent security and compliance requirements or (iv) do not want to pay high costs incurred from running workloads in the cloud prefers to own its hardware and host it in a data center. This includes a large section of the economy including financial companies, medical institutions, and government agencies that continue to host their own clusters outside of the public cloud. Considering that all the clusters may not undergo peak demand at the same time provides an opportunity to improve the efficiency of clusters by sharing resources between them. The dissertation describes the design and implementation of the Market Driven Elastic Secure Infrastructure (MESI) as an alternative to the public cloud and as an architecture for the lowest layer of the public cloud to improve its efficiency. It allows mutually non-trusting physically deployed services to share the physical servers of a data center efficiently. The approach proposed here is to build a system composed of a set of services each fulfilling a specific functionality. A tenant of the MESI has to trust only a minimal functionality of the tenant that offers the hardware resources. The rest of the services can be deployed by each tenant themselves MESI is based on the idea of enabling tenants to share hardware they own with tenants they may not trust and between clusters with different security requirements. The architecture provides control and freedom of choice to the tenants whether they wish to deploy and manage these services themselves or use them from a trusted third party. MESI services fit into three layers that build on each other to provide: 1) Elastic Infrastructure, 2) Elastic Secure Infrastructure, and 3) Market-driven Elastic Secure Infrastructure. 1) Hardware Isolation Layer (HIL) – the bottommost layer of MESI is designed for moving nodes between multiple tools and schedulers used for managing the clusters. It defines HIL to control the layer 2 switches and bare-metal servers such that tenants can elastically adjust the size of the clusters in response to the changing demand of the workload. It enables the movement of nodes between clusters with minimal to no modifications required to the tools and workflow used for managing these clusters. (2) Elastic Secure Infrastructure (ESI) builds on HIL to enable sharing of servers between clusters with different security requirements and mutually non-trusting tenants of the Data Center. ESI enables the borrowing tenant to minimize its trust in the node provider and take control of trade-offs between cost, performance, and security. This enables sharing of nodes between tenants that are not only part of the same organization by can be organization tenants in a co-located Data Center. (3) The Bare-metal Marketplace is an incentive-based system that uses economic principles of the marketplace to encourage the tenants to share their servers with others not just when they do not need them but also when others need them more. It provides tenants the ability to define their own cluster objectives and sharing constraints and the freedom to decide the number of nodes they wish to share with others. MESI is evaluated using prototype implementations at each layer of the architecture. (i) The HIL prototype implemented with only 3000 Lines of Code (LOC) is able to support many provisioning tools and schedulers with little to no modification; adds no overhead to the performance of the clusters and is in active production use at MOC managing over 150 servers and 11 switches. (ii) The ESI prototype builds on the HIL prototype and adds to it an attestation service, a provisioning service, and a deterministically built open-source firmware. Results demonstrate that it is possible to build a cluster that is secure, elastic, and fairly quick to set up. The tenant requires only minimum trust in the provider for the availability of the node. (iii) The MESI prototype demonstrates the feasibility of having a one-of-kind multi-provider marketplace for trading bare-metal servers where providers also use the nodes. The evaluation of the MESI prototype shows that all the clusters benefit from participating in the marketplace. It uses agents to trade bare-metal servers in a marketplace to meet the requirements of their clusters. Results show that compared to operating as silos individual clusters see a 50% improvement in the total work done; up to 75% improvement (reduction) in waiting for queues and up to 60% improvement in the aggregate utilization of the test bed. This dissertation makes the following contributions: (i) It defines the architecture of MESI allows mutually non-trusting tenants of the data center to share resources between clusters with different security requirements. (ii) Demonstrates that it is possible to design a service that breaks the silos of static allocation of clusters yet has a small Trusted Computing Base (TCB) and no overhead to the performance of the clusters. (iii) Provides a unique architecture that puts the tenant in control of its own security and minimizes the trust needed in the provider for sharing nodes. (iv) A working prototype of a multi-provider marketplace for bare-metal servers which is a first proof-of-concept that demonstrates that it is possible to trade real bare-metal nodes at practical time scales such that moving nodes between clusters is sufficiently fast to be able to get some useful work done. (v) Finally results show that it is possible to encourage even mutually non-trusting tenants to share their nodes with each other without any central authority making allocation decisions. Many smart, dedicated engineers and researchers have contributed to this work over the years. I have jointly led the efforts to design the HIL and the ESI layer; led the design and implementation of the bare-metal marketplace and the overall MESI architecture.
從政治控制到市場機制：台灣報業發行之變遷 / From political control to market mechanism-the change of newspaper circulation system in Taiwan陶芳芳, Tao, Fang-Fang Unknown Date (has links)
在報禁開放後，由報業市場中不斷推陳出新的發行競爭以及目前三報鼎立 的發行態勢，本研究意欲探究報禁開放前後台灣報業發行作法的差異， 並以政治控制以及市場影響力的兩個方向，來思考形成台灣報業發行變化 的原因。在現存的傳播研究中，對於報業發行的文獻極為有限，而本研究 是第一份以報業立場分析台灣報業發行變遷的研究，一方面以報業整體的 發行狀況作為分析的起點，也以報業的觀點來分析台灣報業的發行競爭。 本文採取質化研究法中的個案研究法以及非結構性訪談法，藉著與台灣 北中南三地涉及報業發行業務的人士進行五十次以上的訪談，蒐集報禁 開放前後報業發行狀況的資料。研究結果發現，過去在報禁時期，台灣 吻合了發展中國家所普遍出現的媒介環境，為報禁政策提出合理化的 背書，而隨著經濟的發展，報禁政策對於報業發行發展的限制與控制則 愈來愈明顯，而在報禁開放後的自由市場競爭之中，強者愈強弱者愈弱的 報業發行特性，重塑台灣報業的發展趨勢。 / After the lifting of martial law in Taiwan
Intégration dans le réseau électrique et le marché de l’électricité de production décentralisée d’origine renouvelable : gestion des congestions locales / Integration in the electrical grid and in the electricity market of dispersed generation from renewables : the local congestion problemVergnol, Arnaud 29 November 2010 (has links)
Le développement de la production éolienne permet de satisfaire les objectifs de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. Cependant, dans certaines zones du réseau électrique, l’intégration d’un volume important de production peut créer des congestions qui traduisent l'incapacité du réseau à évacuer cette production. Les méthodes actuelles pour gérer les congestions sont basées sur des calculs prévisionnels de restrictions de production qui peuvent entrainer des pertes de production importantes pour le renouvelable. Cependant, dans le cadre d’un développement important du renouvelable, il est nécessaire de définir une méthodologie de gestion des congestions fiable, optimale du point de vue économique et non discriminatoire pour la production renouvelable.Dans le cadre de cette thèse, la méthodologie de gestion des congestions locales proposée repose sur l’usage d’un contrôle correctif. Le contrôle correctif est basé sur une boucle de régulation et un algorithme utilisant les réseaux de Petri. Une étude de stabilité de la boucle de régulation a montré que les marges de stabilité dépendantes des gains composant la boucle sont suffisantes. L’algorithme permet de définir les groupes de production à choisir pour la gestion des congestions en considérant leur coût d’utilisation et leur impact sur la congestion. Les essais, effectués sous le logiciel EUROSTAG, ont montré la pertinence de la méthodologie proposée et sa capacité à s’adapter à l’insertion des moyens de production. De plus, des conclusions générales sur les différents coûts associés à la gestion des congestions en fonction des différentes règlementations régissant la production renouvelable ont été obtenues / Development of wind generation is a mean towards global warming reduction. However, in some parts of the electrical grid, the massive integration of renewable generation can lead to congestion problems. These congestions are related to the impossibility for the power grid to transport the generation. Nowadays, congestion management methods are based on day(s)-ahead computation of generation restriction which leads to important production losses for renewables. Based on this context, it’s therefore important to develop a methodology which is optimal, reliable and non-discriminatory for renewable.In this work, the proposed congestion management method is based on corrective actions. These actions are computed in real-time using regulation loops and Petri net-based algorithms. A stability study proved that gain margins are sufficient to assure the stability of the corrective actions. The algorithm allows an optimal selection of the generators than will participate in the congestion management. This selection is based on their cost and efficiency for congestion alleviation. Simulation results using the software EUROSTAG have shown the efficiency of the method and its adaptability to different generator types. Furthermore, general conclusions on congestions costs according to different regulations on the renewable generation were obtained
The diploma thesis will be devoted to the principles of market economy and its teaching in Civics classes at primary school. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part introduces the basic principles of market economy, explains the concepts of market, market mechanism, supply, demand, competition, monopoly, price and profit, including the interrelationships. The following is an insight to the curriculum and the theory of didactics. At the end of the theoretical part, space is set aside for introduction to the basic issues of teaching economic topics at primary school. In the practical part I present project teaching, a didactic analysis of the principles of market economy is performed, a teaching unit was designed and evaluated, which was implemented at the primary school and kindergarten Kralupy nad Vltavou, Třebízského 523. The diploma thesis is ended with self-evaluation.
住宅市場之價格搜尋行為-定錨效果、仲介服務與市場機制選擇之影響 / Housing Price Search Bebavior: The Effects of Anchoring, Brokerage Service, and Market Mechanism Choice廖仲仁, Liao，Chung-Jen Unknown Date (has links)
住宅市場是典型的不完全訊息市場，每個市場參與者並不知道潛在交易對象的所在位置、偏好，與保留價格。不完全訊息意涵著，交易者必須透過搜尋才能找到交易對象，因而必須支付搜尋成本，也會形成搜尋市場。不論是住宅交易的買方或者賣方，都可以選擇是自行搜尋交易對象，或者透過仲介業者來協助交易的達成。然而，仲介業者對於住宅搜尋市場之影響，目前仍存在著許多問題是尚待釐清的，而拍賣市場在台灣所扮演的重要性愈來愈高，其市場機制的價格效果也是值得關注的問題： 一、跨區購屋、定錨行為與仲介服務效果 買賣房屋幾乎必然會有議價過程，雙方的議價能力除了受到市場條件的影響外，賣方對於本身所蓋或者所擁有的房屋及附近地區市場等資訊都較買方為多，因此賣方處於較有利的地位。因此，本研究的第一個研究問題即是：就購屋者彼此之間，在地購屋者是否比跨區購屋者具有訊息優勢？參考價格偏誤是否存在？具有訊息優勢的仲介服務能否改善購屋者的搜尋成本與參考價格偏誤？本研究實證結果顯示，基於搜尋成本較高的原因，跨鄉鎮市區的跨區購屋者相對於未跨區者需要多支付3.8%的價格貼水。其次，參考價格愈高的地區，其購屋者會因為定錨效果或參考點偏誤而多支付1%的價格貼水，此外，高價格分配信念的購屋者，平均會支付4.9%的價格貼水。第三，地價上漲率較高地區的購屋者，會誤用自身地區的外推性預期，以為遷入地區也有同等的價格增值空間，而多支付約11.4%的價格貼水。最後，購屋者若尋求仲介服務亦能改善其出價能力，約可降低2.9%的價格貼水，然而，仲介服務在改善搜尋成本與定錨的效果方面則不顯著。 二、仲介服務對於價格分散之影響 本研究利用搜尋成本與價格分散的觀點，檢視具有訊息優勢的仲介服務業者是否真能提高住宅市場的價格搜尋效率。以台北地區的住宅市場資料，指出仲介服務的存在的確可以提高購屋者的搜尋能力。價格分散的估計與檢定結果則顯示：第一，購屋者成交價價格分散小於訂價價格分散；第二，透過仲介服務搜尋者訂價價格分散未顯著異於自行搜尋者的訂價價格分散，可是透過仲介服務搜尋者的成交價價格分散則顯著小於自行搜尋者的成交價價格分散，同時透過仲介服務的價格收斂比率較高。此乃表示，仲介服務業者並未運用其訊息優勢協助賣方進行較有效率的訂價，但是能有效地協助買賣雙方透過配對與議價活動，大幅地降低成交價的價格分散程度。此外，進一步比較國內相關研究結果，目前台北市的住宅市場訊息效率已較過去有顯著的改善，特別是透過仲介服務的改善效果更為明顯。 三、不對稱的仲介服務價格效果 過去有關仲介服務對於交易價格影響的實證結果卻出現許多分歧而不一致的現象，本研究認為過去相關文獻的差異，可能源自以普通最小平方迴歸的方式來估計仲介服務的價格效果時，會忽略住宅價格條件分配的差異。以分量迴歸估計後發現，仲介服務係數在各價格分量呈現很大的差異且顯著，仲介服務的價格效果，在0.10分量約有4.4%的溢價，而 0.75分量以上則約有-5.6%的折價現象。因此，本研究嘗試以高低價格分量的不對稱訂價策略，作為仲介服務價格效果不一致的現象的檢視觀點，並得到實證上的支持。 四、搜尋與拍賣市場機制選擇及拍賣市場績效之再檢視 拍賣市場為購屋者的重要次級市場之一，因此拍賣市場的績效就顯得愈來愈重要。本研究考慮了購屋者的搜尋成本對於市場機制自我選擇偏誤的影響，重新檢視拍賣市場的績效。本研究實證結果顯示，在未考慮自我選擇偏誤下，拍賣市場機制的估計係數為-22.6%，且達1%統計顯著水準。但是，在控制買方與物件的自我選擇偏誤後，我國拍賣市場與搜尋市場間並無顯著的價格差異存在，因而本研究對於過去國內相關文獻認為拍賣市場一定比搜尋市場折價較多的說法，提出了相當的質疑。惟此三年間我國北部地區拍賣市場的拍定率從10%快速成長到30%，而市場條件的快速變化，很可能會造成較大的拍賣價格變異。因此在後續研究上，可以比較拍定率差異較大的時間進行比較研究，以了解本研究結果之穩定度。 / This dissertation employs search theory and behavior theory to study four relative essays. The first essay is to test three questions using a unique data base in the viewpoint of search cost and Anchoring behavior: First, is there anchoring effect or reference price bias on home-purchasing behavior? Second, is there any extrapolative expectation effect of reference price change on homebuyers? Third, can homebuyers reduce price premium from their high search cost or perceived bias? Those answers can help us understand if we can get alternative interpretation to housing price dispersion and if government should provide housing information service. Empirically, we find that out-of-town/district buyers pay a statistically significant price premium in the Taipei area. We also find some evidence consistent with the price premium being driven by high search costs, anchoring effect and extrapolative expectation from heuristics. Finally, homebuyers can lower price premium through real estate brokers in the market. The second essay is to examine the efficiency of housing and brokerage markets in view of price dispersion. We find brokerage service enhance the search ability of homebuyers. We use listing price prices as the prices before search and the actual transaction prices as the price after search, and we also separate the sample into search by homebuyers and search by broker. We find that search by broker decreases the price dispersion compared to search by homebuyers. The third essay is try to explain a number of past and recent studies provided conflicting empirical answers to the effect of real estate brokerage service on housing price. We employ quantile regression to capture the behavior at each quantile of conditional house price distribution and to test the asymmetric effects of brokerage service. An important findings of this paper is that the price effects of real estate brokerage service are significant heterogeneous across the conditional price distribution. The contribution of this paper to the prior literature is to provide empirical evidence by showing that broker might have a positive, negative, or zero impact on the housing prices. The final essay is to discuss the decision making behavior of housing markets mechanism choice. Real estate auction market has been one of main market mechanisms of home purchase. Therefore, the performance of real estate auctions is a very important issue. This article reviews the price premium or discount of real estate auctions by correcting the self-selectivity bias in a view of homebuyers’ search cost. The empirical result shows that the availability of an auction as an alternative has the result of high search cost buyers attending auctions. Next, after accounting for the endogenous nature of this choice and controlling for property and buyer characteristics, prices of properties sold at auction were not lower than those of comparable properties sold in a search market. It is questionable to say the performance of real estate auctions is inferior to that of negotiated sales at Taiwan.
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