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1 
ZI Round, a MIP Rounding HeuristicWallace, Chris 01 October 2010 (has links)
We introduce a new pure integer rounding heuristic, ZI Round, and compare this heuristic to recent extremely fast pure integer rounding heuristic Simple Rounding. Simple Rounding was introduced in the noncommercial code SCIP. ZI Round attempts to round each fractional variable while using row slacks to maintain primal feasibility. We use the MIPLIB 2003 library for the test set. The average time in our run per instance for both Simple Rounding and ZI Round was 0.8 milliseconds, but ZI Round found more feasible solutions with a the same or better objective value. Also the average time to solve the lp relaxation per instance was 2.2 seconds, so these two rounding heuristics are several magnitudes faster than other heuristics which must use the lp solver, including diving heuristics.We also show that ZI Round performs well on a set covering class and a railway crew scheduling class.

2 
A Case Study of Network Design for Middle East Water DistributionBullene, Rachel 28 May 2010 (has links)
The Middle Eastern region encompassing Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Territories (West Bank and Gaza) is an arid region with fast growing populations. Adequate and equitable access to water for all the people of the region is crucial to the future of Middle East peace. However, the current water distribution system not only fails to provide an adequate and equitable allocation of water, but also results adverse impacts on the environment. This project involves building a mathematical model to aid decisionmakers in designing an optimal water distribution network. A new method for incorporating uncertainty in optimization that is based on Bayesian simulation of posterior predictive distributions is used to represent uncertainty in demands and costs. The output of the model is a mostprobable leastcost modication to the existing water distribution infrastructure. Additionally, the model output includes the probability that a network component (new desalination plant, new pipe, new canal) is part of a leastcost installation.

3 
A mixedinteger model for optimal gridscale energy storage allocationHarris, Chioke Bem 03 January 2011 (has links)
To meet ambitious upcoming state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs), respond to customer demand for “green” electricity choices and to move towards more renewable, domestic and clean sources of energy, many utilities and power producers are accelerating deployment of wind, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal generating facilities. These sources of electricity, particularly wind power, are highly variable and difficult to forecast. To manage this variability, utilities can increase availability of fossil fueldependent backup generation, but this approach will eliminate some of the emissions benefits associated with renewable energy. Alternately, energy storage could provide needed ancillary services for renewables. Energy storage could also support other operational needs for utilities, providing greater system resiliency, zero emission ancillary services for other generators, faster responses than current backup generation and lower marginal costs than some fossil fueled alternatives. These benefits might justify the high capital cost associated with energy storage. Quantitative analysis of the role energy storage can have in improving economic dispatch, however, is limited. To examine the potential benefits of energy storage availability, a generalized unit commitment model of thermal generating units and energy storage facilities is developed. Initial study will focus on the city of Austin, Texas. While Austin Energy’s proximity to and collaborative partnerships with The University of Texas at Austin facilitated collaboration, their ambitious goal to produce 3035% of their power from renewable sources by 2020, as well as their continued leadership in smart grid technology implementation makes them an excellent initial test case. The model developed here will be sufficiently flexible that it can be used to study other utilities or coherent regions. Results from the energy storage deployment scenarios studied here show that if all costs are ignored, large quantities of seasonal storage are preferred, enabling storage of plentiful wind generation during winter months to be dispatched during high cost peak periods in the summer. Such an arrangement can yield as much as $94 million in yearly operational cost savings, but might cost hundreds of billions to implement. Conversely, yearly cost reductions of $40 million can be achieved with one CAES facility and a small fleet of electrochemical storage devices. These results indicate that small quantities of storage could have significant operational benefit, as they manage only the highest cost hours of the year, avoiding the most expensive generators while improving utilization of renewable generation throughout the year. Further study using a modified unit commitment model can help to narrow the performance requirements of storage, clarify optimal storage portfolios and determine the optimal siting of this storage within the grid. / text

4 
Probabilistic covering problemsQiu, Feng 25 February 2013 (has links)
This dissertation studies optimization problems that involve probabilistic covering constraints. A probabilistic constraint evaluates and requires that the probability that a set of constraints involving random coefficients with known distributions hold satisfy a minimum requirement. A covering constraint involves a linear inequality on nonnegative variables with a greater or equal to sign and nonnegative coefficients. A variety of applications, such as set cover problems, node/edge cover problems, crew scheduling, production planning, facility location, and machine learning, in uncertain settings involve probabilistic covering constraints.
In the first part of this dissertation we consider probabilistic covering linear programs. Using the sampling average approximation (SAA) framework, a probabilistic covering linear program can be approximated by a covering kviolation linear program (CKVLP), a deterministic covering linear program in which at most k constraints are allowed to be violated. We show that CKVLP is strongly NPhard. Then, to improve the performance of standard mixedinteger programming (MIP) based schemes for CKVLP, we (i) introduce and analyze a coefficient strengthening scheme, (ii) adapt and analyze an existing cutting plane technique, and (iii) present a branching technique. Through computational experiments, we empirically verify that these techniques are significantly effective in improving solution times over the CPLEX MIP solver. In particular, we observe that the proposed schemes can cut down solution times from as much as six days to under four hours in some instances. We also developed valid inequalities arising from two subsets of the constraints in the original formulation. When incorporating them with a modified coefficient strengthening procedure, we are able to solve a difficult probabilistic portfolio optimization instance listed in MIPLIB 2010, which cannot be solved by existing approaches.
In the second part of this dissertation we study a class of probabilistic 01 covering problems, namely probabilistic kcover problems. A probabilistic kcover problem is a stochastic version of a set kcover problem, which is to seek a collection of subsets with a minimal cost whose union covers each element in the set at least k times. In a stochastic setting, the coefficients of the covering constraints are modeled as Bernoulli random variables, and the probabilistic constraint imposes a minimal requirement on the probability of kcoverage. To account for absence of full distributional information, we define a general ambiguous kcover set, which is ``distributionallyrobust." Using a classical linear program (called the Boolean LP) to compute the probability of events, we develop an exact deterministic reformulation to this ambiguous kcover problem. However, since the boolean model consists of exponential number of auxiliary variables, and hence not useful in practice, we use two linear program based bounds on the probability that at least k events occur, which can be obtained by aggregating the variables and constraints of the Boolean model, to develop tractable deterministic approximations to the ambiguous kcover set. We derive new valid inequalities that can be used to strengthen the linear programming based lower bounds. Numerical results show that these new inequalities significantly improve the probability bounds. To use standard MIP solvers, we linearize the multilinear terms in the approximations and develop mixedinteger linear programming formulations. We conduct computational experiments to demonstrate the quality of the deterministic reformulations in terms of cost effectiveness and solution robustness. To demonstrate the usefulness of the modeling technique developed for probabilistic kcover problems, we formulate a number of problems that have up till now only been studied under data independence assumption and we also introduce a new applications that can be modeled using the probabilistic kcover model.

5 
Optimal randomized and nonrandomized procedures for multinomial selection problemsTollefson, Eric Sander 20 March 2012 (has links)
Multinomial selection problem procedures are ranking and selection techniques that aim to select the best (most probable) alternative based upon a sequence of multinomial observations. The classical formulation of the procedure design problem is to find a decision rule for terminating sampling. The decision rule should minimize the expected number of observations taken while achieving a specified indifference zone requirement on the prior probability of making a correct selection when the alternative configurations are in a particular subset of the probability space called the preference zone. We study the constrained version of the design problem in which there is a given maximum number of allowed observations.
Numerous procedures have been proposed over the past 50 years, all of them suboptimal. In this thesis, we find via linear programming the optimal selection procedure for any given probability configuration. The optimal procedure turns out to be necessarily randomized in many cases. We also find via mixed integer programming the optimal nonrandomized procedure. We demonstrate the performance of the methodology on a number of examples.
We then reformulate the mathematical programs to make them more efficient to implement, thereby significantly expanding the range of computationally feasible problems. We prove that there exists an optimal policy which has at most one randomized decision point and we develop a procedure for finding such a policy. We also extend our formulation to replicate existing procedures.
Next, we show that there is very little difference between the relative performances of the optimal randomized and nonrandomized procedures. Additionally, we compare existing procedures using the optimal procedure as a benchmark, and produce updated tables for a number of those procedures.
Then, we develop a methodology that guarantees the optimal randomized and nonrandomized procedures for a broad class of variable observation cost functions  the first of its kind. We examine procedure performance under a variety of cost functions, demonstrating that incorrect assumptions regarding marginal observation costs may lead to increased total costs.
Finally, we investigate and challenge key assumptions concerning the indifference zone parameter and the conditional probability of correct selection, revealing some interesting implications.

6 
Optimisation of the Distribution of COVID19 Vaccines / Optimering av distribution av COVID19 vaccinIsacson, Paula, Maslov, Daniel January 2021 (has links)
This paper explores how to optimally distribute vaccines by deciding what middle warehouses to use for storage. For this purpose, a network has been designed with a central warehouse, a set of middle warehouses and a set of local hospitals. The supply has been defined by two different types of vaccines to incorporate their logistical requirements, and the demand has been defined by the elderly population of Sweden. The model was constructed as a mixedinteger program in the optimisation programming language GAMS. The results was a set of 13 middle warehouses allocated such that the total distances when distributing the vaccines are minimised. It was also identified how much of each type of vaccines that was being shipped. The integer program was then relaxed to test whether the optimal value was in fact a global optima. Both the objective value for the original problem and for the relaxed problem was 10189.8 km, which means that it could be identified as a global optima. Furthermore, this paper explored ways to mitigate the supply chain risks with the help of mathematical methods and supply chain management literature. This paper presents scenariobased stochastic programming, how to construct a supplier portfolio, reliability engineering and distributionbased stochastic programming as useful methods when dealing with the risks. In essence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate modeling opportunities for distributions of vaccines rather than the quantitative results since the data was limited. The aim was to present a general model that could be used with different sets of data, and provide the most optimal allocation of warehouses. Recommended improvements to the paper are greater accuracy in data, in probability distributions and expansion of model with consideration of time. / Detta arbete utforskar hur man kan optimera distributionen av vaccin genom att bestämma placering av en mängd mellanlager. I detta syfte har ett nätverk designats med ett centrallager, en utspridd mängd mellanlager och en mängd lokala sjukhus. Utbudet har definerats som två olika typer av vaccin för att ta hänsyn till deras olika logistiska krav och efterfrågan har definerats som Sveriges äldre befolkning. Modellen var konstruerad som ett blandat heltalsproblem i programmeringsspråket GAMS. Resultatet blev 13 mellanlager som är optimala för en så effektiv distribution av vaccin som möjligt. Resultaten visar också vilken typ av vaccin som ska skickas var. Heltalsprogrammet använder sedan relaxation för att undersöka om resultatet är ett globalt optimum och inte endast ett lokalt optimum. Målfunktionens värde är 10189,8 km både för det ordinarie problemet och för det relaxerade, vilket inneär att man kan dra slutsaten att värdet är ett globalt optimum. Dessutom utforskars sätt att mildra försörjningskedjans risker med hjälp av matematiska metoder och litteratur inom logistik av försörjningskedjor. Denna uppsats presenterar scenariobaserad och distributionbaserad stokastisk programmering, konstruktion av leverantörsportföljer och tillförlitlighetsteknik som användbara metoder för att hantera riskerna. Sammanfattningsvis är detta ett arbete som utforskar möjligheter med modelleringen av vaccindistribution snarare än en rigid kvantitativ analys eftersom datan är begränsad. Syftet var därför att utveckla en generell modell som med olika dataset kan ge den optimala allokeringen av mellanlager. De förbättringar av arbetet som rekommenderas är mer noggrann data, exakthet kring sannolikhetsfördelningarna och en expansion av modellen som tar hänsyn till tid.

7 
Uma contribuição para o problema de programação de operações flow shop com buffer zero e tempos de setup dependente da sequência e da máquina / A contribution to the flow shop problem with zero buffer and sequence and machine dependent setup timesTakano, Mauricio Iwama 03 August 2016 (has links)
O problema do sequenciamento da produção diz respeito à alocação das tarefas nas máquinas em um ambiente de fabricação, o qual vem sendo amplamente estudado. O sequenciamento pode variar em tamanho e complexidade dependendo do tipo de ambiente onde ele é aplicado, do número e tipos de restrições tecnológicas e da função objetivo do problema. A utilização de métodos de decisão para a solução de problemas de sequenciamento na indústria depende de modelos que sejam capazes de oferecer soluções para os problemas reais, que geralmente envolvem diversas restrições, os quais devem ser considerados simultaneamente. No presente trabalho o problema de sequenciamento da produção em ambientes flow shop permutacionais, com bloqueio com buffer zero, e com tempos de setup dependente da sequência e da máquina, com o objetivo de minimização do makespan é estudado, sendo este considerado um problema NPCompleto. O problema é pouco explorado na literatura. No presente trabalho é apresentado um procedimento de cálculo para o makespan e três métodos de solução para o problema: quatro limitantes inferiores para o procedimento BranchandBound; quatro modelos MILP, sendo dois deles adaptados; e 28 modelos heurísticos construtivos adaptados para o problema. Os métodos desenvolvidos baseiamse em propriedades matemáticas do problema que são apresentadas neste trabalho como limitante inferior e limitante superior. Dentre todos os modelos MILP, o modelo adaptado RBZBS1 obteve os melhores resultados para os problemas menores e o modelo desenvolvido TNZBS1 obteve os melhores desvios relativos médios do makespan para os problemas maiores, que não foram resolvidos dentro do limite de tempo computacional estipulado. O limitante inferior para o BranchandBound LBTN2 foi melhor que os demais tanto no tempo computacional e no número de nós explorados como também no número de problemas não resolvidos e no desvio relativo médio do makespan. Foi realizado uma comparação entre o melhor modelo MILP e o melhor limitante inferior para o BranchandBound, sendo que o último obteve melhores resultados para os problemas testados. Entre os métodos heurísticos adaptados, o PF foi o que obteve, de uma forma geral, os melhores resultados em todas as fases. / Production scheduling is defined as a problem of allocating jobs in machines in a production environment and it has been largely studied. The scheduling can vary in difficulty and complexity depending on the environment, the variety and types of technological restraints and the objective function of the problem. The use of decision making methods to solve scheduling problems in the industry needs models that are capable to solve real problems, that usually involve a big variety of restraints that have to be simultaneously studied. At the present work the scheduling problem in a permutational flow shop environment, considering blocking with zero buffer, and sequence and machine dependent setup times, with the objective of minimizing makespan is studied, which is considered a NPComplete problem and little explored in literature. The work presents a calculation procedure for the makespan and three solution methods for the problem: four lower bounds for the BranchandBound procedure; four MILP models, two of which are adapted; and 28 constructive heuristic methods adapted to the problem. The methods developed are based on mathematical properties of the problem that are presented in this work as a lower bound and an upper bound. Among all the MILP models, the adapted model RBZBS1 was the one to obtain the best results for the smaller problems, and the developed model TNZBS1 obtained the smallest mean relative deviation of the makespan for the bigger problems that were not solved within the specified computational time limit. The lower bound for the BranchandBound LBTN2 obtained smaller computational times and number of explored nodes as well as the number of unsolved problems and the mean relative deviation for the makespan than all other lower bounds. Also, a comparison among the best MILP model and the best lower bound for the BranchandBound was performed, being that the last obtained better results for the tested problems. Among the adapted heuristic methods, the PF heuristic was the one that obtained, in general, the better results in all phases.

8 
Uma contribuição para o problema de programação de operações flow shop com buffer zero e tempos de setup dependente da sequência e da máquina / A contribution to the flow shop problem with zero buffer and sequence and machine dependent setup timesMauricio Iwama Takano 03 August 2016 (has links)
O problema do sequenciamento da produção diz respeito à alocação das tarefas nas máquinas em um ambiente de fabricação, o qual vem sendo amplamente estudado. O sequenciamento pode variar em tamanho e complexidade dependendo do tipo de ambiente onde ele é aplicado, do número e tipos de restrições tecnológicas e da função objetivo do problema. A utilização de métodos de decisão para a solução de problemas de sequenciamento na indústria depende de modelos que sejam capazes de oferecer soluções para os problemas reais, que geralmente envolvem diversas restrições, os quais devem ser considerados simultaneamente. No presente trabalho o problema de sequenciamento da produção em ambientes flow shop permutacionais, com bloqueio com buffer zero, e com tempos de setup dependente da sequência e da máquina, com o objetivo de minimização do makespan é estudado, sendo este considerado um problema NPCompleto. O problema é pouco explorado na literatura. No presente trabalho é apresentado um procedimento de cálculo para o makespan e três métodos de solução para o problema: quatro limitantes inferiores para o procedimento BranchandBound; quatro modelos MILP, sendo dois deles adaptados; e 28 modelos heurísticos construtivos adaptados para o problema. Os métodos desenvolvidos baseiamse em propriedades matemáticas do problema que são apresentadas neste trabalho como limitante inferior e limitante superior. Dentre todos os modelos MILP, o modelo adaptado RBZBS1 obteve os melhores resultados para os problemas menores e o modelo desenvolvido TNZBS1 obteve os melhores desvios relativos médios do makespan para os problemas maiores, que não foram resolvidos dentro do limite de tempo computacional estipulado. O limitante inferior para o BranchandBound LBTN2 foi melhor que os demais tanto no tempo computacional e no número de nós explorados como também no número de problemas não resolvidos e no desvio relativo médio do makespan. Foi realizado uma comparação entre o melhor modelo MILP e o melhor limitante inferior para o BranchandBound, sendo que o último obteve melhores resultados para os problemas testados. Entre os métodos heurísticos adaptados, o PF foi o que obteve, de uma forma geral, os melhores resultados em todas as fases. / Production scheduling is defined as a problem of allocating jobs in machines in a production environment and it has been largely studied. The scheduling can vary in difficulty and complexity depending on the environment, the variety and types of technological restraints and the objective function of the problem. The use of decision making methods to solve scheduling problems in the industry needs models that are capable to solve real problems, that usually involve a big variety of restraints that have to be simultaneously studied. At the present work the scheduling problem in a permutational flow shop environment, considering blocking with zero buffer, and sequence and machine dependent setup times, with the objective of minimizing makespan is studied, which is considered a NPComplete problem and little explored in literature. The work presents a calculation procedure for the makespan and three solution methods for the problem: four lower bounds for the BranchandBound procedure; four MILP models, two of which are adapted; and 28 constructive heuristic methods adapted to the problem. The methods developed are based on mathematical properties of the problem that are presented in this work as a lower bound and an upper bound. Among all the MILP models, the adapted model RBZBS1 was the one to obtain the best results for the smaller problems, and the developed model TNZBS1 obtained the smallest mean relative deviation of the makespan for the bigger problems that were not solved within the specified computational time limit. The lower bound for the BranchandBound LBTN2 obtained smaller computational times and number of explored nodes as well as the number of unsolved problems and the mean relative deviation for the makespan than all other lower bounds. Also, a comparison among the best MILP model and the best lower bound for the BranchandBound was performed, being that the last obtained better results for the tested problems. Among the adapted heuristic methods, the PF heuristic was the one that obtained, in general, the better results in all phases.

9 
Optimizing global Combat Logistics Force support for sea base operationsDeGrange, Walter C. 03 1900 (has links)
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited / The Navy has to choose the number of, and designs for, ships in the Combat Logistics Force (CLF), and then plan how to use them to provide logistical support to our Carrier Strike Groups, Expeditionary Strike Groups, and Seabasing platforms engaged in any variety of worldwide conflicts. CLF ships are very expensive to build and equip and our budget is limited  we need to make sure the ships we buy and the way we integrate these with our CLF fleet can continue to provide the flexible support our Navy requires. We introduce a decision support tool using a global sea route and resupply base model, and a daily time resolution optimization of CLF ship activities to support any complete, worldwide scenario. Our result is an optimal, facevalid daily operational logistics plan  a schedule of evolutions for each available CLF ship. We discover exactly how to use CLF ships to support a notional, but particularly relevant, preemptive combat scenario with followon humanitarian assistance missions. Finally, we study how changing CLF ship numbers and missions can enhance operational effectiveness. / Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

10 
Twostage combinatorial optimization framework for air traffic flow management under constrained capacityKim, Bosung 08 June 2015 (has links)
Air traffic flow management is a critical component of air transport operations because at some point in time, often very frequently, one of more of the critical resources in the air transportation network has significantly reduced capacity, resulting in congestion and delay for airlines and other entities and individuals who use the network. Typically, these “bottlenecks” are noticed at a given airport or terminal area, but they also occur in en route airspace. The twostage combinatorial optimization framework for air traffic flow management under constrained capacity that is presented in this thesis, represents a important step towards the full consideration of the combinatorial nature of air traffic flow management decision that is often ignored or dealt with via prioritybased schemes. It also illustrates the similarities between two traffic flow management problems that heretofore were considered to be quite distinct.
The runway systems at major airports are highly constrained resources. From the perspective of arrivals, unnecessary delays and emissions may occur during peak periods when one or more runways at an airport are in great demand while other runways at the same airport are operating under their capacity. The primary cause of this imbalance in runway utilization is that the traffic flow into and out of the terminal areas is asymmetric (as a result of airline scheduling practices), and arrivals are typically assigned to the runway nearest the fix through which they enter the terminal areas. From the perspective of departures, delays and emissions occur because arrivals take precedence over departures with regard to the utilization of runways (despite the absence of binding safety constraints), and because arrival trajectories often include level segments that ensure “procedural separation” from arriving traffic while planes are not allowed to climb unrestricted along the most direct path to their destination. Similar to the runway systems, the terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) boundary fixes are also constrained resources of the terminal airspace. Because some arrival traffic from different airports merges at an arrival fix, a queue for the terminal areas generally starts to form at the arrival fix, which are caused by delays due to heavy arriving traffic streams. The arrivals must then absorb these delays by path stretching and adjusting their speed, resulting in unplanned fuel consumption. However, these delays are often not distributed evenly. As a result, some arrival fixes experience severe delays while, similar to the runway systems, the other arrival fixes might experience no delays at all. The goal of this thesis is to develop a combined optimization approach for terminal airspace flow management that assigns a TRACON boundary fix and a runway to each flight while minimizing the required fuel burn and emissions. The approach lessens the severity of terminal capacity shortage caused by and imbalance of traffic demand by shunting flights from current positions to alternate runways. This is done by considering every possible path combination. To attempt to solve the congestion of the terminal airspace at both runways and arrival fixes, this research focuses on two sequential optimizations. The fix assignments are dealt with by considering, simultaneously, the capacity constraints of fixes and runways as well as the fuel consumption and emissions of each flight. The research also develops runway assignments with runway scheduling such that the total emissions produced in the terminal area and on the airport surface are minimized.
The twostage sequential framework is also extended to en route airspace. When en route airspace loses its capacity for any reason, e.g. severe weather condition, air traffic controllers and flight operators plan flight schedules together based on the given capacity limit, thereby maximizing en route throughput and minimizing flight operators' costs. However, the current methods have limitations due to the lacks of consideration of the combinatorial nature of air traffic flow management decision. One of the initial attempts to overcome these limitations is the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP), which will be initiated soon by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The developed twostage combinatorial optimization framework fits this CTOP perfectly from the flight operator's perspective. The first stage is used to find an optimal slot allocation for flights under satisfying the ration by schedule (RBS) algorithm of the FAA. To solve the formulated first stage problem efficiently, two different solution methodologies, a heuristic algorithm and a modified branch and bound algorithm, are presented. Then, flights are assigned to the resulting optimized slots in the second stage so as to minimize the flight operator's costs.

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