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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Spina bifida at a pre-Columbian Cuban site: a molecular and paleoepidemiological perspective

Armstrong, Stephanie D. 23 August 2012 (has links)
Health in archaeological populations needs to be investigated using a holistic approach. Molecular techniques, particularly multiplex PCR, can be used with paleopathology and dietary analysis to understand aspects of population health. This thesis demonstrates how spina bifida, a multi-factorial disease, can be investigated using this paleoepidemiological approach. Based on skeletal evidence, spina bifida was present in a pre-Columbian Cuban population from the archaeological site of Canimar Abajo. Molecular techniques were employed to examine disease potential, examining individuals for five single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with spina bifida. It is postulated that the combined effect of these polymorphisms, as well as dietary factors, determines the risk of the population for spina bifida, and that these factors came together to create the observed high disease prevalence. Therefore, this thesis demonstrates how the methods of molecular paleopathology, corroborated by dietary analyses, can be used within a paleoepidemiological framework to understand population health and disease.
2

Spina bifida at a pre-Columbian Cuban site: a molecular and paleoepidemiological perspective

Armstrong, Stephanie D. 23 August 2012 (has links)
Health in archaeological populations needs to be investigated using a holistic approach. Molecular techniques, particularly multiplex PCR, can be used with paleopathology and dietary analysis to understand aspects of population health. This thesis demonstrates how spina bifida, a multi-factorial disease, can be investigated using this paleoepidemiological approach. Based on skeletal evidence, spina bifida was present in a pre-Columbian Cuban population from the archaeological site of Canimar Abajo. Molecular techniques were employed to examine disease potential, examining individuals for five single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with spina bifida. It is postulated that the combined effect of these polymorphisms, as well as dietary factors, determines the risk of the population for spina bifida, and that these factors came together to create the observed high disease prevalence. Therefore, this thesis demonstrates how the methods of molecular paleopathology, corroborated by dietary analyses, can be used within a paleoepidemiological framework to understand population health and disease.
3

Parasitismo em populações pré-colombianas: helmintos de animais em coprólitos de origem humana do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, PI, Brasil / Parasitism in pre-Columbian populations: helminths of animals in human coprolites from the National Park Serra da Capivara, PI, Brazil

Sianto, Luciana January 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2011-05-04T12:42:02Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2009 / O parque Nacional Serra da Capivara possui os mais antigos registros de presença humana das Américas, com datações que superam 50.000 anos. Apresenta, em sua história de ocupação, grupos caçadores coletores e grupos agricultores. Por possuir sítios arqueológicos em áreas de diferentes fisionomias, oferece uma excelente oportunidade para aprofundar o conhecimento da diversidade parasitária das espécies humana e da fauna silvestre em populações pré-históricas e suas modificações / adaptações ao longo do tempo. Coprólitos e sedimentos de até 30.000 anos, de origem humana e animal, retirados de escavações de 16 sítios arqueológicos foram reidratados e analisados em microscópio óptico. Das 204 amostras analisadas, 110 foram positivas e pelo menos 24 parasitos identificados. Foram identificadas 37 amostras de origem humana, destas 19 (51,35 por cento) foram positivas para: Ancylostomidae, Ascaridae, Oxyuridae, Trematoda, Trichuris sp., Parapharyngodon sp., Hymenolepisnana, Eimeria sp. além de Nematoda não identificado e um possível Acanthor. Nas amostras de animais foram identificados parasitos capazes de causar zoonoses em humanos como Spirometra sp., Toxocara sp., Capillaria sp. e Acanthocephala. Os resultados obtidos fornecem oportunidade de se construir cenários a respeito das relações parasitárias existentes entre os diversos hospedeiros e a evolução destasrelações no tempo e no espaço. / The National Park of Serra da Capivara has the oldest records for the human presence in the Americas, dating to 50,000 years. Hunter- atherers and agricultural populations occupied the region. Archaeological sites in areas of different physiognomies offer an excellent opportunity to the knowledge on the diversity of parasite species of wildlife and human populations in prehistoric times, and changes and adjustments along time. Coprolites and sediments of human and animal origin dated up to 30,000 years found in 16 archaeological sites were rehydrated and examined at the microscope. Of 204 analyzed samples, 110 were positive and 24 parasites identified. 37 samples were identified as of human origin, and 19 (51.35%) were positive for Ancylostomidae, Ascaridae, Oxyuridae, Trematoda, Trichuris sp., Parapharyngodon sp., Hymenolepis nana, Eimeria sp., unidentified Nematoda and a possible Acanthor. Spirometra sp., Toxocara sp., Capillaria sp. and Acanthocephala eggs were identified in animal coprolites, and all are able to cause zoonose in humans. Results provide data to rebuilt scenarios regarding host-parasite relationships in time and space.
4

Paleogenética e paleoepidemiologia de Ascaris sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) e Trichuris sp. (Roederer, 1761) / Paleogenetics paleoepidemiology and Ascaris sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) and Trichuris sp. (Roederer, 1761)

Souza, Daniela Leles de January 2010 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2011-05-04T12:42:02Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010 / Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura são os helmintos intestinais de maior prevalência na população mundial e também no material arqueológico. Porém, na América do Sul pré-colombiana, o encontro de ovos de A. lumbricoides é raro. Recentemente um estudo de diagnóstico paleoparasitológico molecular apontou para um sub-diagnóstico de Ascaris sp. na América do Sul. No registro arqueológico de parasitos intestinais predominam achados de ovos de Trichuris sp. ao invés de Ascaris sp. Isto parece contraditório, em virtude do número de ovos eliminados por cada parasito. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram: avaliar marcadores moleculares para o diagnóstico de Ascaris sp. e Trichuris sp. em material moderno pela caracterização molecular destes parasitos; caracterizar geneticamente isolados de sítios arqueológicos sul americanos para verificar a real paleodistribuição destes parasitos em uma perspectiva paleoepidemiológica e compará-la com a epidemiologia moderna destas infecções; avaliar os fatores envolvidos na paleodistribuição encontrada. As amostras foram submetidas ao diagnóstico por microscopia óptica, seguida da extração do DNA, PCR e sequenciamento nucleotídico. Na avaliação dos marcadores moleculares, a região ITS1 de Ascaris sp. apresentou variação intra-indivíduo, o que descartou seu uso com fins taxonômicos e diagnósticos. A caracterização molecular dos genes mitocondriais cox1 e nad1 de Ascaris sp. mostrou infecção cruzada de genótipos entre as espécies humana e suína, o que denota a necessidade de monitoramento das populações avaliadas assim como de outras regiões brasileiras para que a infecção não venha a se tornar uma zoonose em potencial no Brasil. Foi possível o diagnóstico molecular de Trichuris sp. pelo gene ribossomal 18S DNA. A análise paleogenética mostrou que há subdiagnóstico para ambas as infecções na América do Sul pré-colombiana. Este é o primeiro diagnóstico paleoparasitológico molecular de T. trichiura em material sul americano. Estes são também os primeiros registros de recuperação de DNA de parasitos intestinais em material de sítio arqueológico do tipo “sambaqui” e também do período colonial brasileiro. Comparando-se a paleoepidemiologia molecular de Ascaris sp. com a epidemiologia molecular moderna foi possível notar que há haplótipos antigos que ainda estão presentes hoje, no entanto a maioria dos haplótipos é característica ao material arqueológico. Observou-se que há haplótipos comuns ao Velho e Novo Mundo, contudo, há também especificidades regionais. Os resultados da análise genética claramente apontam para uma pobre preservação dos ovos no material arqueológico, principalmente de Ascaris sp. Os fatores principais envolvidos nessa paleodistribuição, seriam fatores tafonômicos que proporcionaram a quebra maior de ovos de Ascaris sp. do que de Trichuris sp., e evidências de consumo de plantas vermífugas pelos povos pré-históricos, as quais teriam maior ação sobre Ascaris sp. do que Trichuris sp. / Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura are the intestinal helminths with higher prevalence in the world today as it was in the past. However, in pre-Columbian South America the findings of A. lumbricoides eggs are rare. Recently a study of paleoparasitological molecular diagnosis showed a sub-diagnosis of Ascaris sp. in South America. In the archeological material, eggs of Trichuris sp. are more common compared with Ascaris sp. eggs. This is contradictory taking into account the number of eggs eliminated by each parasite. The aims of this research was: to evaluate molecular markers for Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. diagnosis in modern material; genetic characterization of the samples South American archeological sites aiming the paleodistribution of these parasites in a paleoepidemiological perspective; compare results with the modern epidemiology of these infections; evaluate the factors involved in paleodistribution. Extraction of DNA, PCR and nucleotide sequencing were performed after microscopy. In the evaluation of the molecular markers Ascaris sp. ITS1 region showed intra-individual variation. Therefore, this region to taxonomical and diagnoses studies was discarded. With the molecular characterization of Ascaris sp. cox1 and nad1 mitochondrial genes it was possible to identify cross infection of genotypes between human and pig hosts. Results showed that surveillance field works in modern populations are necessary to verify the zoonotic potential of this infection in Brazil. The molecular diagnosis of Trichuris sp. by ribossomal 18S DNA gene was possible. The paleogenetic analysis showed that there is subdiagnosis for both infections in pre-Columbian South America. This is the first paleoparasitological molecular record of T. trichiura in South American samples. These are also the first recovery of DNA of intestinal parasites in "sambaqui" archeological site, and also of the Brazilian colonial period. Molecular paleoepidemiology of Ascaris sp. infection compared with modern molecular epidemiology showed that there are ancient haplotypes still present today. However, most of the haplotypes are characteristic of the archaeological material. It was observed that there are common haplotypes both to the Old World and to the New World, but showing regional specificities. The results of the genetic analysis clearly pointed to a poor preservation of eggs in archeological material, mainly of Ascaris sp. Taphonomy may be the main factor involved in paleodistribution, breaking more eggs of Ascaris sp. than Trichuris sp. Evidences of consumption of vermifuge plants by prehistoric groups should also have influence, as some plants should have more efficacy eliminating Ascaris sp. than Trichuris sp.

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