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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The paleoparasitology of Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent regions : understanding intestinal diseases through time

Anastasiou, Evilena January 2014 (has links)
No description available.
2

Synthèse de données et nouvelle contribution à l'étude des parasites de l'époque romaine, et apports méthodologiques de l'extraction des marqueurs au traitement des résultats / Data review and new contribution to the parasites study of Roman period, and methodological input from the markers extraction to the treatment of results

Dufour, Benjamin 07 December 2015 (has links)
Les données paléoparasitologiques pour l’époque romaine sont nombreuses, mais souvent diluéesdans des rapports, des monographies ou des articles scientifiques. La première partie de ma thèsevise à rassembler ces informations, et présente une synthèse des données disponibles pour l'époqueromaine (27 av. - 476 ap. J.-C.). Dans cette perspective, une approche pathographique des maladiesparasitaires a été réalisée, et une liste des parasites connus dans l'Antiquité a pu être réalisée. Nousavons également complété ces données grâce à l’étude de onze nouveaux sites archéologiques.L’ensemble des résultats a été intégré dans une base de données, dont l'exploitation a permisd'étudier la répartition géographique des taxons, et de comparer leurs fréquences en fonction dedifférents paramètres tels les types de sites, d'activités, ou d'échantillon.Une seconde partie de mon travail s’est attaché à comparer et améliorer la technique employée pourl’extraction des oeufs de parasites anciens. Plusieurs tests ont été réalisés, qui montrent que lesméthodes sans sélection chimique permettent d’extraire un grand nombre de résidus tout enconservant le maximum de biodiversité. Enfin la quantification précise des oeufs lors des études dessites archéologiques du corpus a permis de tester des approches statistiques et de spatialisation dansle traitement des résultats. Ainsi, l'emploi d’outils tels la classification ascendante hiérarchique(CAH), les systèmes d'information géographique (SIG), ou la micromorphométrie sur les oeufs, ontpermis d'affiner les identifications, et les interprétations des structures au sein des sitesarchéologiques. Ces résultats montrent l’intérêt d’intégrer ces outils dans les étudespaléoparasitologiques à l’avenir. / Paleoparasitological data concerning the Roman period are numerous, but scaterred in reports,monographs or scientific articles. The aim of the first part of my thesis is to collect theseinformations, and provide a review of available data for the Roman period (27 BC - 476 AD). Forthis purpose, a pathographic approach for parasitic diseases has been performed and a listing ofparasites known in Antiquity has been made. We have also completed the data with the study ofeleven new archeological sites. All results have been include in a database. The exploitation of dataallowed to study the taxa geographical repartition, and to compare their frequencies according tovarious parameters such as the type of sites, activities or samples.A second part of my work is focused on comparing and improving the method used to extractancient eggs. Several tests have been performed which point out that methods without chemicalselection allowed to extract many residues, while maintaining the maximum of biodiversity. Tofinish, the precise quantification of eggs during the study of archeological sites from the corpus,allowed to test statistical and spatialization approaches in the treatment of results. So, using toolssuch as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), geographic information system (GIS), ormicromorphometry on eggs, allowed to refine identifications and interpretations of structures withinarcheological sites. These results point out the interest to include in the future these tools inpaleoparasitological studies.
3

New contribution of paleoparasitology in the middle east and first data on the iranian plateau adjacent area / Première étude paléoparasitologique du plateau iranien et des régions adjacentes. Origine et diffusion des parasites intestinaux au Moyen Orient au cours de l'Holocène

Nezamabadi, Masoud 18 December 2014 (has links)
Une étude paléoparasitologique a été menée sur des échantillons provenant de 30 sites archéologiques du Moyen-Orient afin de fournir de nouvelles données sur les parasites dans cette région. Une grande partie des échantillons étudiés se sont avérés négatifs. Cependant, le site archéologique de Chehrabad en Iran a fourni d’importants résultats. Des embryophores de Taeniidae, ainsi que des œufs d’Ascaris sp., de Trichuris sp., d’Enterobius vermicularis, et d’Oxyuris equi ont été identifiés, dans deux couches datées des périodes Achéménide et Sassanide. Ces résultats exclusifs pour la région du plateau iranien, prouvent le potentiel d’étude dans certains contextes sédimentaires de cette région du globe à dominante semi-aride. L’analyse de coprolithes humains et animaux issus du site égyptien de Hierakonpolis a également révélé une diversité parasitaire importante. Des œufs de plusieurs familles de trématodes, cestodes, nématodes, et acanthocéphales ont été mis en évidence dans 2 zones du site datées de 3700-3500 av. JC, et 3900-3600 av. JC. Ces résultats fournissent de nouvelles données sur l’Egypte ancienne, et prouvent l’importance de l’étude parasitologique des coprolithes en contextes d’hyper aridité comme les sites de la Vallée du Nil. Les résultats de cette étude complètent les données paléoparasitologiques pour le Moyen-Orient, et apportent des informations inédites sur la vie des populations anciennes, de leur alimentation, de leur maladie, ainsi que sur les échanges de pathogènes liés à leurs déplacements. Ces résultats contribuent également à mieux appréhender l’histoire des maladies parasitaires et du parasitisme dans cette région du globe. / A paleoparasitological study has been carried out on 30 archaeological sites located in the Middle East to provide new information on ancient parasites of the region. Many samples examined during our analyses were negative. However, the site of Chehrabad (Iran) provided significant positive results. Taeniids, Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Enterobius vermicularis, Oxyuris equi and strongyle were the identified taxa in this site dated to Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. These results showed for the first time, the potential of paleoparasitological studies on the Iranian Plateau to improve our knowledge on ancient parasitism of the oriental areas of the Middle East region. The analyses of coprolites from the site of Hierakonpolis (Egypt) also revealed a diversity of human/animal parasitic markers consisting of trematodes, cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalan eggs. Oocysts of Eimeria sp. were also identified in this site. Findings in Hierakonpolis came from two localities at the site dated to 3700-3500 BC and 3900-3300 BC. These results provided new information on parasites in ancient Egypt and showed the importance of paleoparasitological analyses of coprolites which could be well preserved in the hyper-arid contexts. The results obtained in this work complete the previous paleoparasitological findings of the Near East. They shed a new light on several aspect of ancient human communities’ everyday life; diet and feeding practices, diseases and sanitary conditions and also on possible pathogens exchanges as a result of mobility and migration. These results contribute also to a better understanding of the history of parasitic diseases and parasitism in the Middle East region.
4

Střevní paraziti ze středověké lokality v Praze

ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza January 2016 (has links)
The aim of this thesis was to examine the archeological material from medieval site in Prague and identify human or animal intestinal parasite eggs or cysts. The concetration methods were used for parasite identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of parasitic protist DNA. In comparision with the results of most of similar research, the occurrence of parasites was low.
5

Paleoparazitologická analýza organických sedimentů archeologického naleziště v Chrudimi / Paleoparasitological analysis in organic sediments on archeological locality in Chrudim

BARTOŠOVÁ, Lenka January 2009 (has links)
The goal of this work was to examine the samples from archeological site in an attempt to identify human and/or animal intestinal parasite eggs. Another task was to detect parasitic protist antigens by ELISA test. Then the results were compared with other facts obtained from research of this locality.
6

Parasitismo em populações pré-colombianas: helmintos de animais em coprólitos de origem humana do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, PI, Brasil / Parasitism in pre-Columbian populations: helminths of animals in human coprolites from the National Park Serra da Capivara, PI, Brazil

Sianto, Luciana January 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2011-05-04T12:42:02Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2009 / O parque Nacional Serra da Capivara possui os mais antigos registros de presença humana das Américas, com datações que superam 50.000 anos. Apresenta, em sua história de ocupação, grupos caçadores coletores e grupos agricultores. Por possuir sítios arqueológicos em áreas de diferentes fisionomias, oferece uma excelente oportunidade para aprofundar o conhecimento da diversidade parasitária das espécies humana e da fauna silvestre em populações pré-históricas e suas modificações / adaptações ao longo do tempo. Coprólitos e sedimentos de até 30.000 anos, de origem humana e animal, retirados de escavações de 16 sítios arqueológicos foram reidratados e analisados em microscópio óptico. Das 204 amostras analisadas, 110 foram positivas e pelo menos 24 parasitos identificados. Foram identificadas 37 amostras de origem humana, destas 19 (51,35 por cento) foram positivas para: Ancylostomidae, Ascaridae, Oxyuridae, Trematoda, Trichuris sp., Parapharyngodon sp., Hymenolepisnana, Eimeria sp. além de Nematoda não identificado e um possível Acanthor. Nas amostras de animais foram identificados parasitos capazes de causar zoonoses em humanos como Spirometra sp., Toxocara sp., Capillaria sp. e Acanthocephala. Os resultados obtidos fornecem oportunidade de se construir cenários a respeito das relações parasitárias existentes entre os diversos hospedeiros e a evolução destasrelações no tempo e no espaço. / The National Park of Serra da Capivara has the oldest records for the human presence in the Americas, dating to 50,000 years. Hunter- atherers and agricultural populations occupied the region. Archaeological sites in areas of different physiognomies offer an excellent opportunity to the knowledge on the diversity of parasite species of wildlife and human populations in prehistoric times, and changes and adjustments along time. Coprolites and sediments of human and animal origin dated up to 30,000 years found in 16 archaeological sites were rehydrated and examined at the microscope. Of 204 analyzed samples, 110 were positive and 24 parasites identified. 37 samples were identified as of human origin, and 19 (51.35%) were positive for Ancylostomidae, Ascaridae, Oxyuridae, Trematoda, Trichuris sp., Parapharyngodon sp., Hymenolepis nana, Eimeria sp., unidentified Nematoda and a possible Acanthor. Spirometra sp., Toxocara sp., Capillaria sp. and Acanthocephala eggs were identified in animal coprolites, and all are able to cause zoonose in humans. Results provide data to rebuilt scenarios regarding host-parasite relationships in time and space.
7

Resíduos alimentares, infecções parasitárias e evidência do uso de plantas medicinais em grupos pré-históricos das Américas / Food waste, parasitic infections and evidence of the use of medicinal plants in groups of prehistoric Americas

Santos, Isabel Teixeira dos January 2010 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2011-05-04T12:36:14Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010 / A paleoparasitologia utiliza como principal instrumento de estudo a análise de coprólitos e sedimentos retirados do solo de sítios arqueológicos, latrinas e da área pélvica de esqueletos. Associando-se dados da arqueologia, antropologia e paleoparasitologia, entre outras ciências, é possível obter resultados consistentes sobre modo de vida e saúde das populações no passado. Neste trabalho foram analisadas amostras de três regiões diferentes das Américas. Um total de 59 amostras de coprólitos e sedimentos provenientes de sítios arqueológicos localizados na área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, que engloba o Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC), Piauí, Brasil, foram analisadas. Esta região apresenta sítios com datações bastante antigas obtidas na área do Parque, com evidência de atividades humanas datadas aproximadamente de 50.000 anos; 12 amostras provenientes do sítio arqueológico Antelope Cave, localizado no Arizona, EUA. Assim como o PNSC, este sítio possui a presença de cerâmica e a iniciação da agricultura pelos grupos pré-históricos naquela região; e 15 amostras retiradas diretamente da região pélvica de sepultamentos provenientes do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado em Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Este sítio arqueológico é, na verdade, um desafio metodológico devido ao clima e a atividade biótica do solo da região que não permitem boas condições de preservação do material arqueológico. A análise de resíduos alimentares destas diferentes regiões arqueológicas forneceu dados a respeito da dieta de populações antigas e a relação entre a presença de parasitos e o encontro de plantas com propriedades anti-helmínticas, e ainda foi possível a determinação de casos de falso parasitismo. / Paleoparasitology uses, as the main tool to study, the analysis of coprolites and sediments removed from the land of archaeological sites, latrines and the pelvic area of skeletons. Joining data from archeology, anthropology and paleoparasitology, among other sciences, it is possible to obtain solid results on livelihoods and health of people in the past. On this study were analyzed samples from three different regions of the Americas. A total of 59 samples of coprolites and sediments from archaeological sites located in the archaeological area of São Raimundo Nonato, which includes the National Park Serra da Capivara (PNSC), located in Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed. This region has sites with the oldest dating obtained in the Park, with human activities recorded from 50.000 years BP; 12 samples from the archaeological site of Antelope Cave, located in Arizona, USA. This site, just like PNSC, has features such as the presence of pottery and the initiation of agriculture by prehistoric groups in the region, and 15 samples taken directly from the pelvic region of burials from the sambaqui Cubatão I, located in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil. This archaeological site is actually a methodological challenge due to the climate and soil biotic activity in the region that don't allow good conditions of preservation of the archeological material. The analysis of alimentary residues of these different archaeological areas supplied data regarding the diet of old populations and the relationship between the presence of parasites and the encounter of plants with anthelminthic properties, and it was still possible the determination of cases of false parasitism.
8

Paleogenética e paleoepidemiologia de Ascaris sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) e Trichuris sp. (Roederer, 1761) / Paleogenetics paleoepidemiology and Ascaris sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) and Trichuris sp. (Roederer, 1761)

Souza, Daniela Leles de January 2010 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2011-05-04T12:42:02Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010 / Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura são os helmintos intestinais de maior prevalência na população mundial e também no material arqueológico. Porém, na América do Sul pré-colombiana, o encontro de ovos de A. lumbricoides é raro. Recentemente um estudo de diagnóstico paleoparasitológico molecular apontou para um sub-diagnóstico de Ascaris sp. na América do Sul. No registro arqueológico de parasitos intestinais predominam achados de ovos de Trichuris sp. ao invés de Ascaris sp. Isto parece contraditório, em virtude do número de ovos eliminados por cada parasito. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram: avaliar marcadores moleculares para o diagnóstico de Ascaris sp. e Trichuris sp. em material moderno pela caracterização molecular destes parasitos; caracterizar geneticamente isolados de sítios arqueológicos sul americanos para verificar a real paleodistribuição destes parasitos em uma perspectiva paleoepidemiológica e compará-la com a epidemiologia moderna destas infecções; avaliar os fatores envolvidos na paleodistribuição encontrada. As amostras foram submetidas ao diagnóstico por microscopia óptica, seguida da extração do DNA, PCR e sequenciamento nucleotídico. Na avaliação dos marcadores moleculares, a região ITS1 de Ascaris sp. apresentou variação intra-indivíduo, o que descartou seu uso com fins taxonômicos e diagnósticos. A caracterização molecular dos genes mitocondriais cox1 e nad1 de Ascaris sp. mostrou infecção cruzada de genótipos entre as espécies humana e suína, o que denota a necessidade de monitoramento das populações avaliadas assim como de outras regiões brasileiras para que a infecção não venha a se tornar uma zoonose em potencial no Brasil. Foi possível o diagnóstico molecular de Trichuris sp. pelo gene ribossomal 18S DNA. A análise paleogenética mostrou que há subdiagnóstico para ambas as infecções na América do Sul pré-colombiana. Este é o primeiro diagnóstico paleoparasitológico molecular de T. trichiura em material sul americano. Estes são também os primeiros registros de recuperação de DNA de parasitos intestinais em material de sítio arqueológico do tipo “sambaqui” e também do período colonial brasileiro. Comparando-se a paleoepidemiologia molecular de Ascaris sp. com a epidemiologia molecular moderna foi possível notar que há haplótipos antigos que ainda estão presentes hoje, no entanto a maioria dos haplótipos é característica ao material arqueológico. Observou-se que há haplótipos comuns ao Velho e Novo Mundo, contudo, há também especificidades regionais. Os resultados da análise genética claramente apontam para uma pobre preservação dos ovos no material arqueológico, principalmente de Ascaris sp. Os fatores principais envolvidos nessa paleodistribuição, seriam fatores tafonômicos que proporcionaram a quebra maior de ovos de Ascaris sp. do que de Trichuris sp., e evidências de consumo de plantas vermífugas pelos povos pré-históricos, as quais teriam maior ação sobre Ascaris sp. do que Trichuris sp. / Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura are the intestinal helminths with higher prevalence in the world today as it was in the past. However, in pre-Columbian South America the findings of A. lumbricoides eggs are rare. Recently a study of paleoparasitological molecular diagnosis showed a sub-diagnosis of Ascaris sp. in South America. In the archeological material, eggs of Trichuris sp. are more common compared with Ascaris sp. eggs. This is contradictory taking into account the number of eggs eliminated by each parasite. The aims of this research was: to evaluate molecular markers for Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. diagnosis in modern material; genetic characterization of the samples South American archeological sites aiming the paleodistribution of these parasites in a paleoepidemiological perspective; compare results with the modern epidemiology of these infections; evaluate the factors involved in paleodistribution. Extraction of DNA, PCR and nucleotide sequencing were performed after microscopy. In the evaluation of the molecular markers Ascaris sp. ITS1 region showed intra-individual variation. Therefore, this region to taxonomical and diagnoses studies was discarded. With the molecular characterization of Ascaris sp. cox1 and nad1 mitochondrial genes it was possible to identify cross infection of genotypes between human and pig hosts. Results showed that surveillance field works in modern populations are necessary to verify the zoonotic potential of this infection in Brazil. The molecular diagnosis of Trichuris sp. by ribossomal 18S DNA gene was possible. The paleogenetic analysis showed that there is subdiagnosis for both infections in pre-Columbian South America. This is the first paleoparasitological molecular record of T. trichiura in South American samples. These are also the first recovery of DNA of intestinal parasites in "sambaqui" archeological site, and also of the Brazilian colonial period. Molecular paleoepidemiology of Ascaris sp. infection compared with modern molecular epidemiology showed that there are ancient haplotypes still present today. However, most of the haplotypes are characteristic of the archaeological material. It was observed that there are common haplotypes both to the Old World and to the New World, but showing regional specificities. The results of the genetic analysis clearly pointed to a poor preservation of eggs in archeological material, mainly of Ascaris sp. Taphonomy may be the main factor involved in paleodistribution, breaking more eggs of Ascaris sp. than Trichuris sp. Evidences of consumption of vermifuge plants by prehistoric groups should also have influence, as some plants should have more efficacy eliminating Ascaris sp. than Trichuris sp.

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