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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Course design and student epistemology

Sheppard, Christine January 1990 (has links)
No description available.
42

Perceptions of accounting and accountants: an investigation into how and why these perceptions were formed

Wells, Paul K. January 2009 (has links)
There is growing concern that a widespread perception of accounting and accountants is discouraging individuals with the required skills and capabilities from entering the accounting profession. At the same time, an inappropriate perception may be attracting those who lack the required skills and capabilities. Research suggests that not only are perceptions of accounting and accountants very negative but that they may also be inaccurate and difficult to change. This thesis applies social psychology theory on stereotyping to assist in identifying why these perceptions are resistant to change. Stereotype theory suggests that strategies for changing perceptions are dependent on how and why the perceptions were formed. Through a questionnaire, this study sought to identify the perceptions and through interviews and focus groups, how and why they were formed. A questionnaire, interviews and focus groups were used to collect data from sixty-five people from four distinct groups. These groups included the general public, users of accounting services, young people making career decisions, and accountants themselves. Additional data was collected from a further three accounting educators. The application of stereotype theory has assisted in explaining why common perceptions of accounting and accountants have been so resistant to change and in identifying suitable intervention strategies. This study found that the perceptions people have of accounting and accountants are inaccurate. They are either too specific and hence unnecessarily restrictive and limiting, or alternatively the perceptions are so abstract and lacking in specificity that they are absorbed into a broader level category. In the first instance, a single experience is overgeneralised to represent a participant‟s understanding of accounting. In the second instance, accounting is overgeneralised to represent all activity of the broader category label. That the accounting profession, in general, has appeared to make little effort to correct these inaccurate perceptions and has failed to disseminate more widely the findings from academic research is of concern. Overgeneralised perceptions of accounting and accountants were found to be resistant to change for a number of reasons. Participants who created a very broad category label to represent their abstract understanding of accounting usually lacked the motivation and/or cognitive capacity to add specificity to their understanding. On the other hand, participants who based their perceptions of accounting on single exemplar models lacked an understanding of the skills and capabilities that accountants possessed and how these competencies could serve them. The influence of the high school curriculum was a further reason that perceptions were resistant to change. When members of the wider community had studied accounting at high school, their understanding of accounting was narrowly focused on the scorekeeping role of accounting. The perceptions of people who had studied accounting at high school, both currently and in the past, were the most resistant to change. The following interventions to change the perceptions people have of accounting and accountants are proposed. First it is necessary for the professional associations to articulate clearly the advice from the academic community on how the role of accountants and the nature of accounting have changed and to increase the awareness of these changes among their members. It is then necessary to communicate this information to the public by aligning the diverse range of accounting outputs with individual goals while explaining how accountants‟ training has changed to accommodate these more diverse roles. Finally, it is necessary to reconsider how accounting should be taught at high school, providing less emphasis on the scorekeeping role of accountants and increasing the emphasis on how accounting impacts everyday life.
43

Perceptions of accounting and accountants: an investigation into how and why these perceptions were formed

Wells, Paul K. January 2009 (has links)
There is growing concern that a widespread perception of accounting and accountants is discouraging individuals with the required skills and capabilities from entering the accounting profession. At the same time, an inappropriate perception may be attracting those who lack the required skills and capabilities. Research suggests that not only are perceptions of accounting and accountants very negative but that they may also be inaccurate and difficult to change. This thesis applies social psychology theory on stereotyping to assist in identifying why these perceptions are resistant to change. Stereotype theory suggests that strategies for changing perceptions are dependent on how and why the perceptions were formed. Through a questionnaire, this study sought to identify the perceptions and through interviews and focus groups, how and why they were formed. A questionnaire, interviews and focus groups were used to collect data from sixty-five people from four distinct groups. These groups included the general public, users of accounting services, young people making career decisions, and accountants themselves. Additional data was collected from a further three accounting educators. The application of stereotype theory has assisted in explaining why common perceptions of accounting and accountants have been so resistant to change and in identifying suitable intervention strategies. This study found that the perceptions people have of accounting and accountants are inaccurate. They are either too specific and hence unnecessarily restrictive and limiting, or alternatively the perceptions are so abstract and lacking in specificity that they are absorbed into a broader level category. In the first instance, a single experience is overgeneralised to represent a participant‟s understanding of accounting. In the second instance, accounting is overgeneralised to represent all activity of the broader category label. That the accounting profession, in general, has appeared to make little effort to correct these inaccurate perceptions and has failed to disseminate more widely the findings from academic research is of concern. Overgeneralised perceptions of accounting and accountants were found to be resistant to change for a number of reasons. Participants who created a very broad category label to represent their abstract understanding of accounting usually lacked the motivation and/or cognitive capacity to add specificity to their understanding. On the other hand, participants who based their perceptions of accounting on single exemplar models lacked an understanding of the skills and capabilities that accountants possessed and how these competencies could serve them. The influence of the high school curriculum was a further reason that perceptions were resistant to change. When members of the wider community had studied accounting at high school, their understanding of accounting was narrowly focused on the scorekeeping role of accounting. The perceptions of people who had studied accounting at high school, both currently and in the past, were the most resistant to change. The following interventions to change the perceptions people have of accounting and accountants are proposed. First it is necessary for the professional associations to articulate clearly the advice from the academic community on how the role of accountants and the nature of accounting have changed and to increase the awareness of these changes among their members. It is then necessary to communicate this information to the public by aligning the diverse range of accounting outputs with individual goals while explaining how accountants‟ training has changed to accommodate these more diverse roles. Finally, it is necessary to reconsider how accounting should be taught at high school, providing less emphasis on the scorekeeping role of accountants and increasing the emphasis on how accounting impacts everyday life.
44

"When they talk people listen" : Perception of power among Luo women in Kenya

Eriksson, Ottilia January 2015 (has links)
This thesis examines perceptions of political power among Luo women in Kenya. The research was conducted in the autumn of 2015 and founded by a MFS-scholarship from Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The research examines the hypotheses that there are three factors that affect women’s chances to get political power, namely: education, economy and social capital. Through qualitative methods 20 respondents were interviewed. The results show that all three factors were recognized as important. To get power the respondents experienced that you have to take part in a reciprocal pattern. You have to give money, help or knowledge, and with higher education, good economy or a lot of social capital, you will have easier to offer those things.
45

British-Chinese encounters : changing perceptions and attitudes from the Macartney mission to the Opium War (1792-1840)

Gao, Hao January 2014 (has links)
This thesis examines British-Chinese encounters in the half century before the Opium War, an under-researched medium term period that had profound consequences for both China and Britain. Unlike previous studies on China’s early relations with Britain or the West, this thesis is conducted closely from a perceptional point of view, with its principal focus on British people’s first-hand impressions of China and attitudes towards Chinese affairs as a result of these encounters. It shows that British perceptions of China, by and large, increasingly worsened throughout this period. During the two royal embassies to China, British observers from the Macartney and the Amherst missions presented similarly negative views of Chinese civilisation, but proposed conflicting measures in terms of realising Britain’s commercial and diplomatic objectives in China. In the run up to the Opium War in the 1830s, the image of a Chinese government manipulated by a capricious and despotic monarchy was gradually constructed and seen as the primary cause of China’s backwardness. China was hence increasingly envisioned as an isolated ‘other’ that could not be communicated with by appeals to reason or through normal diplomatic negotiations. In this context, a coercive line of action, supported by British naval force, was eventually regarded as a just and viable approach to promote the wellbeing of both British and Chinese common people. Although these developing unfavourable views about China did not determine the outbreak of the Opium War, they were certainly important underlying forces without which open hostilities with China would probably have been neither justifiable nor acceptable to the British parliament or people. This thesis also seeks to set this half-century of British-Chinese encounters in the context of Chinese history. It briefly describes how a changing image of Britain was developed by the Chinese government and people during this period. It shows that both local elites in the southeastern coastal areas and the elites at the imperial court in Beijing obtained credible as well as inaccurate information about Britain and its people. These early notions held in the southeast and in the Beijing sometimes had an impact on each other, but sometimes stayed distinct and unaffected. This situation partly explains why the Chinese government was caught off guard when a serious challenge from Britain occurred in the form of the Opium War.
46

Senior management perceptions of staff development provision in further education colleges in Wales

Mundy, M. January 1989 (has links)
The primary purpose of the research is data generation relating to management perceptions of staff development provision in Welsh FE institutions, with the subsidiary aim of identifying weaknesses and omissions in provision and suggesting methods for effecting improvements. After presenting an overview of factors contributing to the growth of staff development provision in FE (chapter 1), the current 'state of the art' is determined by an examination of relevant literature,(chapter 2). Four major themes are identified and employed as research guides and parameters - staff development policies, methods of needs analysis, approaches to provision and evaluation. The research methodology generates data of both a nomothetic and ideographic nature by means of pilot studies, questionnaire survey, case studies involving interviews and repertory grids and the design and testing of a staff development model, (Chapter 3). The investigation proceeds in four stages - a preliminary survey which assesses the accuracy of perceptions derived from the literature survey; a general survey of Welsh FE colleges by means of questionnaire analysis; the conducting of case studies in which college managers' perceptions are examined by interview and completion of repertory grids; the design and testing of a practical effective staff development model which focuses on specific weaknesses and omissions identified by the research, (Chapters 4,5,6,7 and 8). It is found, (Chapter 9), that current provision shows only modest advances when compared with staff development theory and practice highlighted in the literature. In particular college policies, needs analysis systems, approaches to provision are quite rudimentary and inappropriate, with systematic evaluation of provision non-existent. It is also found that deficiencies in practice are matched by similar deficiences in the manner in which current staff development provision is perceived by managers, as indicated by the interviews and repertory grid analyses. It is further found that a staff development model can be a useful tool for improving the understanding and planning of staff development and that it is possible to conduct a meaningful and productive evaluation of a college's provision by means of a practical effective model, having as its focus the principle of holistic evaluation.
47

A human-machine interaction tool set for Smalltalk 80

Spall, Roger Paul January 1990 (has links)
This research represents an investigation into user acceptance of computer systems. It starts with the premise that existing systems do not fully meet user requirements, and are therefore rejected as 'difficult to use'. Various problems and influences affecting user acceptance are identified, and improvements are suggested. Although a broad range of factors affecting user acceptance are discussed, emphasis is given to the impact of actual computer software. Initially, both general and specific user interface software influences are examined, and it is shown how these needs can be met using new software technology. A new Intelligent Interface architecture model is presented, and comparisons are made to existing interface design approaches. Secondly, the role of empirical work within the field of Human Computer Interaction is highlighted. An investigation into the usability and user. acceptance of a large working library database system is described, and the results discussed. The role of Systems Analysis and Design and its effect upon user acceptance is also explored. It is argued that despite improvements in interface technology and related software engineering techniques, a software application is also a product of the Systems Analysis and Design process. Traditional Systems Design approaches are examined, and suitable improvements suggested based upon experience with emerging separable software architectures. Thirdly, the research proceeds to examine the potential of Quantitative User Modelling, and describes the implementation of an example object oriented Quantitative User Model. This is then evaluated in order to determine new knowledge, concerning the major issues surrounding the potential application of user modelling to interface design. Finally, attention is given to the concept of interface and application separation. An object oriented User Interface Management System is presented, and its implementation in the Smalltalk 80 programming language discussed. The proposed User Interface Management System utilises a new software architecture which provides explicit user interface separation, using the concept of a Pluggable View Controller. It also incorporates an integrated design Tool-set for Direct Manipulation interfaces. The proposed User Interface Management System and software architecture represents the major contribution of this project to the growing body of Human Computer Interaction research. In particular, the importance of explicit interface separation is established, and the proposed software architecture is critically evaluated to determine new knowledge concerning the requirements, constraints, and potential of proper user interface separation. The implementation of an object oriented Part Hierarchy mechanism is also presented. This mechanism is related to the proposed User Interface Management System, and is critically evaluated in order to add to the body of knowledge concerning object oriented systems.
48

Education and the public understanding of morality

Haydon, Graham January 2000 (has links)
The theme 'the public understanding of morality' is introduced through a comparison with the idea of the public understanding of science. The argument proper starts in Part I with an overview of diversity of values in contemporary society. It is argued that it is important for education to promote the understanding of this diversity, but that this does not preclude an attempt at the same time to promote a shared understanding of morality. Consideration of the work of the 'National Forum for Values in Education and the Community' is used to show a way of narrowing down the whole field of values to a particular conception of morality. Part 11 looks further into this idea of 'morality in the narrow sense' and considers what kind of language - one of norms or one of virtues - is appropriate for articulating it. The discussion is made more concrete by reference to attitudes to violence. It is concluded that while both kinds of language are important, a language of norms has a certain priority in the articulation of morality in the narrow sense. Part III defends the idea of a morality of norms against some recent criticisms, and considers the public, including the educational, role of moral norms. Part IV tries to show how the understanding of morality which has been outlined can have some motivational force and be seen to have some authority. It is argued that the promotion of an understanding of morality, conceived in the way outlined, can appropriately be seen as a task for citizenship ed ucation. In an Epilogue it is suggested that the promotion of the public understanding of morality is a contribution to the moral development of society.
49

An Experimental Approach Analyzing Who "Sees' Disorder When There is Nothing to "See": Understanding Variance of Perceptions via Personal Characteristics

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: Knowing that disorder is related to crime, it has become essential for criminologists to understand how and why certain individuals perceive disorder. Using data from the Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder and Interpersonal Conflict Project, this study uses a fixed photograph of a neighborhood, to assess whether individuals "see" disorder cues. A final sample size of n=815 respondents were asked to indicate if they saw particular disorder cues in the photograph. The results show that certain personal characteristics do predict whether an individual sees disorder. Because of the experimental design, results are a product of the individual's personal characteristics, not of the respondent's neighborhood. These findings suggest that the perception of disorder is not as clear cut as once thought. Future research should explore what about these personal characteristics foster the perception of disorder when it is not present, as well as, how to fight disorder in neighborhoods when perception plays such a substantial role. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.S. Criminology and Criminal Justice 2013
50

Older people and collective action : social psychological determinants

Pont Boix, Judit January 2001 (has links)
This thesis examines the social psychological processes and factors involved in willingness to participate in collective action among older people. This work is framed within two social psychological theories, i.e. Identity Process Theory (Break well, 1986) and Social Representations Theory (Moscovici, 1984). The research used the construct of barriers to collective action. The barriers were conceptualised at different levels of analysis and were considered to embody both identity and representational aspects. The research comprised three studies. Study 1 used a questionnaire among 277 older people in order to establish the extent to which older people participate in different types of collective action. Two types of participation were identified, i.e. 'active' and 'passive'. Disability in specific areas and non-participation in a group were related to lower involvement in collective action. Study 2 was designed to explore the social issues older people are concerned about, to identify the types of collective action they are likely to take, and to examine perceived barriers to engaging in collective action. Thirteen focus groups were run (n= 59) and the data was content analysed. Findings showed that older people perceive a need for social change for a wide variety of social issues and the importance of several aspects of identity and belief systems as either facilitators or barriers to engaging in collective action was revealed. Collective action was defined in terms of type of action (from individual to group action) and type of goal (from collective expression to collective change). Different social psychological factors accounting for willingness to engage in collective action were identified. These were investigated in the following study. Study 3 (n= 345) investigated the relationships between certain social psychological factors and collective action. Differences in perceptions of barriers according to five levels (intraindividual, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup, societal) were shown. These were related to the way they give meaning to older people's identity structure and social beliefs. A model of collective action was tested. Willingness to participate in collective action was directly predicted by political trust, previous experience of collective action, perceived effectiveness of collective action and perceived barriers. Identity and ideology factors acted indirectly through previous experience, perceived effectiveness and perceived barriers. This work has implications for future research on the study of processes involved in explaining the generation of collective action and for the study of the socio-cognitive processes affecting ageing.

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