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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Understanding and predicting global leaf phenology using satellite observations of vegetation

Caldararu, Silvia January 2013 (has links)
Leaf phenology refers to the timing of leaf life cycle events and is essential to our understanding of the earth system as it impacts the terrestrial carbon and water cycles and indirectly global climate through changes in surface roughness and albedo. Traditionally, leaf phenology is described as a response to higher temperatures in spring and lower temperatures in autumn for temperate regions. With the advent of carbon ecosystem models however, we need a better representation of seasonal cycles, one that is able to explain phenology in different areas around the globe, including tropical regions, and has the capacity to predict phenology under future climates. We propose a global phenology model based on the hypothesis that phenology is a strategy through which plants reach optimal carbon assimilation. We fit this 14 parameter model to five years of space borne data of leaf area index using a Bayesian fitting algorithm and we use it to simulate leaf seasonal cycles across the globe. We explain the observed increase in leaf area over the Amazon basin during the dry season through an increase in available direct solar radiation. Seasonal cycles in dry tropical areas are explained by the variation in water availability, while phenology at higher latitudes is driven by changes in temperature and daylength. We explore the hypothesis that phenological traits can be explained at the biome (plant functional group) level and we show that some characteristics can only be explained at the species level due to local factors such as water and nutrient availability. We anticipate that our work can be incorporated into larger earth system models and used to predict future phenological patterns.
22

Carbon cycling, fire and phenology in a tropical savanna woodland in Nhambita, Mozambique

Ryan, Casey Merlin January 2009 (has links)
In the savanna woodlands of Southern Africa, locally know as miombo, carbon cycling is poorly quantified and many of the key processes remain obscure. For example, seasonal constraints on productivity and leaf display are not well understood. Also, fire is known to be a key process, with around 50% of the annual global area burned occurring in Africa, but detailed understanding of its ecological effects is lacking. Land use change and woodland degradation are changing the structure and functioning of these tropical woodlands, which cover 2.7 million km2 of Southern Africa and provide ecosystem services which support the livelihoods of over 100 million people. In this thesis I quantify the major carbon stocks of the woodlands in Nhambita Regulado, Gorongosa District in Sofala Province, Mozambique. I also examine processes that affect these stocks, including fire and clearance for agriculture. Furthermore, I quantify the seasonal cycle of leaf display, and its relationship to climate. I conducted a series of experimental burns and found that fire intensity was strongly related to rates of top-kill and root stock mortality. Top-kill rates decreased as tree diameter increased up to 10 cm DBH. After this point increased size did not affect top-kill rates, possibly because of accumulated wounds and rottenness. I then extrapolated these results to long term predictions of tree populations and carbon stocks by modelling the interactions of fire, mortality and tree growth. The model was able to successfully predict woody vegetation structure at two sites with known fire regimes, including a 50-year fire experiment in Marondera, Zimbabwe. The results show that annual fires in miombo suppress all woody vegetation. Low intensity fires every 2.5 years are required to maintain observed stem biomass in Nhambita. High intensity fires lead to high top-kill rates (12%), even among large stems. Manipulating fire intensity rather than frequency seems to be the most practical approach to limiting degradation by fire in these ecosystems. Using a three year time series of hemispherical photographs of the tree canopy, combined with satellite data, I find that tree leaf phenology is not directly related to seasonal rainfall patterns, both in Nhambita and across Southern Africa. Pre-rain green-up is the dominant phenology, from the semi arid savannas of the south of the continent to the wet miombo of the Congo basin. Wet miombo woodlands have longer periods of green-up before rain onset (mean 60 days) compared with dry miombo (37 days). Green up-dates show little interannual variability but large spatial variability. The importance of pre-rain green-up in determining how these ecosystems will respond to changing rainfall patterns is unknown, but is an important area for future study. I quantified carbon stocks in the Nhambita woodlands in the soil (69% of total carbon stocks of 111 tC ha-1), tree stems (19%) and roots (8%) as well as other smaller pools. An allometric relationship between root and stem biomass and stem diameter was developed, and used to evaluate the uncertainties in stem carbon estimation at plot and landscape scale. We find that the uncertainty (95% confidence intervals) at plot scale can be quite large (60% of the mean) but this is reduced to around 25% at landscape scale. Strategies for effective inventories of miombo woodland are presented. Using a chronosequence of abandoned farmland, we estimate that stem biomass recovers from clearance after around 30 years of abandonment. Changes in soil carbon stocks are less well understood and need further work. This thesis concludes by outlining further work needed to model the carbon cycle of these woodlands, as well as discussing the implication of pre-rain green-up for satellite observations of land cover changes and biomass mapping.
23

Variation in nuclear DNA amounts in flowering plants : an ecological anlaysis

Mowforth, Miriam A. G. January 1985 (has links)
No description available.
24

Plant-pollinator Interactions in a Changing Climate

Forrest, Jessica 30 August 2011 (has links)
Climate change is shifting the seasonal timing of many biological events, and the possibility of non-parallel shifts in different taxa has raised concerns about phenological decoupling of interacting species. My thesis investigates interactions between climate, phenology, and pollination, using the plants and pollinators of Rocky Mountain meadows as a study system. Interannual variation in timing of snowmelt since the 1970s has been associated with changes in the assemblages of concurrently flowering species in these meadows, suggesting that plant species differ in their phenological responses to climate. Differences between plants and pollinators in responsiveness to changing climate could, in principle, cause early-flowering plants to flower too early in warm years, before pollinators are active. In fact, I found only transient evidence for pollinator deficits in one early-flowering species (Mertensia fusiformis), even in an early-snowmelt year. However, the assemblage of pollinators visiting M. fusiformis does change predictably over the season, with likely consequences for selection on floral morphology in years when pollen is limiting. Hence, early- and late-flowering populations may evolve in response to phenology of the pollinator community. Differences between plant and pollinator phenologies appear to be due to generally lower temperature thresholds for development in plants, combined with microclimate differences between the soil and the above-ground nests of some pollinators. Phenological decoupling between plants and pollinators seems possible but unlikely to be catastrophic, since many taxa possess adaptations to temporally variable environments. Nevertheless, for many species, adaptation to novel climates will entail evolutionary change, and species interactions can influence evolutionary trajectories. For species affected by increasing late-summer drought, earlier flowering may be advantageous. However, in laboratory experiments, bumble bees avoid rare, unfamiliar flower types, causing simulated plant populations to fail to adapt to changing conditions. Overall, my work emphasizes the importance of the interplay between species interactions and environmental change.
25

Modeling the temperature-mediated phenological development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Ben-Younes, Mongi, 1953- 15 January 1992 (has links)
Graduation date: 1992
26

Plant-pollinator Interactions in a Changing Climate

Forrest, Jessica 30 August 2011 (has links)
Climate change is shifting the seasonal timing of many biological events, and the possibility of non-parallel shifts in different taxa has raised concerns about phenological decoupling of interacting species. My thesis investigates interactions between climate, phenology, and pollination, using the plants and pollinators of Rocky Mountain meadows as a study system. Interannual variation in timing of snowmelt since the 1970s has been associated with changes in the assemblages of concurrently flowering species in these meadows, suggesting that plant species differ in their phenological responses to climate. Differences between plants and pollinators in responsiveness to changing climate could, in principle, cause early-flowering plants to flower too early in warm years, before pollinators are active. In fact, I found only transient evidence for pollinator deficits in one early-flowering species (Mertensia fusiformis), even in an early-snowmelt year. However, the assemblage of pollinators visiting M. fusiformis does change predictably over the season, with likely consequences for selection on floral morphology in years when pollen is limiting. Hence, early- and late-flowering populations may evolve in response to phenology of the pollinator community. Differences between plant and pollinator phenologies appear to be due to generally lower temperature thresholds for development in plants, combined with microclimate differences between the soil and the above-ground nests of some pollinators. Phenological decoupling between plants and pollinators seems possible but unlikely to be catastrophic, since many taxa possess adaptations to temporally variable environments. Nevertheless, for many species, adaptation to novel climates will entail evolutionary change, and species interactions can influence evolutionary trajectories. For species affected by increasing late-summer drought, earlier flowering may be advantageous. However, in laboratory experiments, bumble bees avoid rare, unfamiliar flower types, causing simulated plant populations to fail to adapt to changing conditions. Overall, my work emphasizes the importance of the interplay between species interactions and environmental change.
27

Genetic adaptation of aspen populations to spring risk environments: a novel remote sensing approach

Li, Haitao 06 1900 (has links)
This study investigates geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen spring phenology to understanding how tree population adapts to climatically risk environments. These finding suggest rules to guide seed transfer between regions. I use a classical common garden experiment to reveal genetic differences among populations from western Canada and Minnesota, and present a novel method to seamlessly map the heatsum required for remotely sensed green-up. Both approaches reveal two major geographic patterns: northern and high elevation aspen populations break bud earlier than sources from the boreal plains, and late budbreak is strongly associated with the driest winter and spring environments. This suggests selection pressures for late budbreak due to both frost and drought risks in early spring, and we therefore caution against transfer of seed to drought regions of the boreal plains. Although such transfers have been shown to increase plantation productivity in short-term tests, non-local planting material may be susceptible to exceptional spring droughts. / Forest Biology and Management
28

Development of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in Pinot noir grapes and their extraction into wine

Pastor del Rio, Jose L. 09 July 2004 (has links)
Color stability and mouth feel quality are two of the most important aspects of red wine quality. Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are responsible for these attributes and it has been shown that weather conditions during the growing season and grape maturity can effect these components in wine. However, investigations into proanthocyanidin development are for the most part incomplete. Although it is known that weather affects vine metabolism, it has not clearly understood how phenolics are affected by temperature and heat summation. It is generally believed that the wines made with riper grapes improve in flavor and mouth feel as a result of an "improvement" in skin tannin "ripeness". The idea of "tannin ripeness" is usually used in the wine industry to explain this phenomenon, however, no scientific explanation for this concept has been given. The objective of this project was threefold: I) Monitor phenolic development in Pinot noir grapes over three consecutive growing seasons and determine how anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin development in grapes was affected by heat summation, II) investigate the transfer of grape phenolics into wine during fermentation and maceration and III) understand how grape maturity affected wine composition with a specific focus on proanthocyanidin structure. In this study, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin development in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir grapes (Pommard clone) were monitored for three consecutive vintages (2001-2003). Five cluster samples (x5 replicates) were collected for analysis each week beginning approximately 4 weeks prior to veraison and continued through commercial harvest. Weather information (temperature and heat summation) showed that the growing seasons became increasingly warmer from 2001 to 2003. By harvest time, 2003 had the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins in seeds (per berry weight) in comparison with the other two vintages. Similarly, proanthocyanidins in skins had the highest concentration in 2003 (per berry weight). However, there was not difference in the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers in seeds (per berry weight) between the three vintages. Anthocyanins were not significantly different over the three vintages. There was some relationship between the concentration of some proanthocyanidin components in grape seeds and fresh seed weight. Information of grape and wine phenolics was compared with each year's temperature. The results suggested that changes in temperature and heat summation between vintages are associated with changes in proanthocyanidin content in grapes and wine. The data indicates that it is possible to predict proanthocyanidins in wine based upon early grape analysis. However, the anthocyanin content in grapes did not correlate with either weather or the anthocyanin content in wine. The concentration of seed and skin proanthocyanidins in grapes were compared with the proportions of seed and skin proanthocyanidins found in wine. Based upon proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds and skin during winemaking, a formula to predict proanthocyanidin content in wine based upon grape analysis at harvest and veraison was developed. From this formula, Pinot noir wine contained 7.8% of the proanthocyanidins from seed and 19% of the proanthocyanidins from skin analyzed from grapes at harvest, and 3.6% of the seed proanthocyanidin and 9.7% of the skin proanthocyanidin present in grapes analyzed at veraison. Based upon the analyses of this study, coupled with several informal sensory studies conducted on wine, the results of this thesis do not support the notion that "tannin ripeness" is due to structural changes in proanthocyanidin that occur during fruit ripening. Furthermore, this thesis suggests that "tannin ripeness" is not due to differential extraction of seed and skin proanthocyanidins as a result of fruit ripening. / Graduation date: 2005
29

Seasonal phenology and reproductive behaviour of Dioryctria species Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in British Columbian seed orchards

Whitehouse, Caroline Marie 06 1900 (has links)
Seasonal phenology and mating frequency of moths in the genus Dioryctria found sympatrically in north Okanagan Valley, British Columbia seed orchards were assessed. Female moths in the abietella, auranticella, ponderosae and schuetzeella species groups were trapped in Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine and interior spruce stands. Most species were univoltine based on one peak of flight activity per season. There is evidence that the abietella group are bivoltine in this region. Females in the abietella and auranticella groups are polyandrous; ponderosae and schuetzeella females are monandrous. The sole abietella species, D. abietivorella, recorded in British Columbia can have substantial economic impacts on seed production in commercial seed orchards. Factors influencing reproductive behaviour, longevity and fecundity of D. abietivorella were investigated. Females are synovigenic and have an income-breeding mating strategy. Reproductive behaviours are delayed post-eclosion and signalling receptivity by females coincides with egg maturation, increasing with age. Female D. abietivorella experience trade-offs between reproduction and longevity. / Ecology
30

The relationships between phenology and fig wasps of a dioecious Ficus tinctoria

Huang, Jian-chin 02 February 2007 (has links)
The mutualism between the dioecious Ficus tinctoria and its pollinators was studied at Hsitzewan, Kaohsiung. I investigated the phenology of F. tinctoria from December 2004 to May 2006. Wasps trapped in sticky boards were recorded from April 2005 to May 2006. The average diameter of receptive figs (B phase) of female F. tinctoria was significantly different from that of functional male trees (P < 0.01), but both with similar coloration. The durations of pre-receptive figs (A phase) through wasp- releasing figs (D phase) or mature figs (E phase) in F. tinctoria were slight longer in winter and spring (8.3-8.8 weeks) than in summer and autumn (6.8-7.0 weeks). The receptive figs were asynchronous both within-tree and among-trees. The receptive figs occurred in every month of 2005 and without seasonality. There were considerable overlaps (82.6%) in the receptive figs between functional male and female trees. The frequency of tender leaf phase of F. tinctoria was positively correlated with local rainfall and temperature, but the frequency of leaf falling phase was negatively correlated with them. The frequency of receptive figs of female trees was only positively correlated with rainfall, and the frequency of their interforal figs (C phase) were both negatively correlated with rainfall and temperature. Fig production of functional male F. tinctoria was not correlated with rainfall and temperature. There are five species of fig wasps, including one species of pollinator (Liporrh opalumgibbosae), one species of Sycoscapter, two species of Philotrypesis, and one species of Neosycophila. No significant difference was found in the average number of 4 species of fig wasps from D phase figs (6.3 pollinators, 8.8 Philotrypesis sp.1, 5.7 P. sp.2, and 5.7 Sycoscapter sp.1 per fig). In addition, one species of Sycophila (Eurytomidae) was also found inside figs of F. tinctoria. The coordination between D phase figs of male F. tinctoria to its B phase was iii 26.2%, which was similar to the coordination of it to B phase of female trees (29.5%). However, more pollinators arrived on male trees than that on female trees. The coordination between pollinators and B phase figs of male trees (43.0%) was higher than that of female trees (14.6%). Fig-pollinator mutualism in F. tinctoria is probably maintained by its asynchronous phenology, and aseasonal changes of the receptive figs. Seed production at female trees can be maintained by a small size of pollinator populations.

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