Economy and environment: Issues on transport externalities, CO2 responsibility and environmental Kuznets curveAndreoni, Valeria <1981> 13 May 2010 (has links)
In this thesis some of the most important issues presently debated on international sustainability are analysed. The thesis is composed of five independent studies that tackle organically the following issues: the maritime transport externalities, the environmental Kuznets curve, the responsibilities in the carbon dioxide emissions and the integrated approach that have to be used to translate the principles of sustainability into policy. The analysis will be instrumental to demonstrating that sustainability, being a matter of economy, society and environment, requires to be analysed in a transdisciplinary perspective. Using an integrated approach to analyse the relationships between economy and environment, this thesis highlight that sustainability management requires joint economic instruments, integrated analysis, societal behavioural changes as well as responsibilities shifting.
Quantitative evaluation of household nutrition patterns: an econometric assessment of the UK 5-a-day impact on fruit and vegetable consumptionCapacci, Sara <1981> 30 April 2010 (has links)
The present work provides an ex-post assessment of the UK 5-a-day information campaign where the positive effects of information on consumption levels are disentangled from the potentially conflicting price dynamics. A model-based estimate of the counterfactual (no-intervention) scenario is computed using data from the Expenditure and Food Survey between 2002 and 2006. For this purpose fruit and vegetable demand is modelled employing Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) specification with demographic effects and controlling for potential endogeneity of prices and total food expenditure.
Le strategie di internazionalizzazione delle imprese distrettuali: un'analisi comparata di tre diversi sistemi locali di produzione in Emilia Romagna / Internationalisation strategies of district enterprises: a comparative analysis of three different local systems of production of Emilia RomagnaMonti, Enrico <1982> 19 May 2011 (has links)
Since the Nineties, the process of globalization has caused a sharp increase in the real and financial integration of the worldwide economy, reducing the obstacles to international trade and minimizing the cost of transaction. The entrance of foreign firms in the domestic market has deeply modified the competitive situation of Italian enterprises, which have been forced to change their strategies in order to cope with those of the new competitors. In this scenario, internationalization is no longer one of the different strategic options available for the firm, but it becomes a forced choice to maintain or acquire a competitive advantage sustainable over time. Internationalization strategies of SMEs, however, are hindered by the shortage of financial resources and entrepreneurial skills, therefore this kind of firms tends toward light forms of foreign expansion, like export and subcontracting. Despite this, many studies have demonstrated that the district localisation increases the firms’ productivity and innovative capacity, so their competiveness both at a domestic and international level. The majority of these empirical contributions has focused mainly on the analysis of commercial flows, confirming that district enterprises reach a superior international performance compared to their external competitors. On the contrary, only few works have tried to evaluate the existence of a district effect on the firms’ ability to invest abroad, but the obtained results are not straightforward. One of the reason of these conclusions is that the phenomena has been analysed without taking into account the differences existing between districts in terms of enterprises’ dimension, diffusion of industrial groups and, above all, the sector of productive specialization, because the technological content of production could improve the innovativeness of district firms, allowing them to adopt advanced forms of internationalisation as foreign direct investments (FDI). The aim of the thesis is to further investigate the district effect on internationalisation, trough an econometric analysis of the international strategies carried out by firms localised in three different local system of production characterised by different technological specialization.
Determinants of child undernutrition in India. A micro-case study to operationalize the Capability ApproachTinonin, Cecilia <1981> 19 May 2011 (has links)
The present research aims at shedding light on the demanding puzzle characterizing the issue of child undernutrition in India. Indeed, the so called ‘Indian development paradox’ identifies the phenomenon according to which higher level of income per capita is recorded alongside a lethargic reduction in the proportion of underweight children aged below three years. Thus, in the time period occurring from 2000 to 2005, real Gross Domestic Production per capita has annually grown at 5.4%, whereas the proportion of children who are underweight has declined from 47% to 46%, a mere one point percent. Such trend opens up the space for discussing the traditionally assumed linkage between income-poverty and undernutrition as well as food intervention as the main focus of policies designed to fight child hunger. Also, it unlocks doors for evaluating the role of an alternative economic approach aiming at explaining undernutrition, such as the Capability Approach. The Capability Approach argues for widening the informational basis to account not only for resources, but also for variables related to liberties, opportunities and autonomy in pursuing what individuals value.The econometric analysis highlights the relevance of including behavioral factors when explaining child undernutrition. In particular, the ability of the mother to move freely in the community without the need of asking permission to her husband or mother-in-law is statistically significant when included in the model, which accounts also for confounding traditional variables, such as economic wealth and food security. Also, focusing on agency, results indicates the necessity of measuring autonomy in different domains and the need of improving the measurement scale for agency data, especially with regards the domain of household duties. Finally, future research is required to investigate policy venues for increasing agency in women and in the communities they live in as viable strategy for reducing the plague of child undernutrition in India.
Ballardini, Enrico <1981>
22 July 2011
No description available.
Volgarino, Antonella <1983>
14 June 2012
Negli ultimi anni le istituzioni e la regolamentazione hanno svolto un ruolo sempre più importante nell’analisi della crescita economica. Tuttavia, non è facile interpretare le istituzioni e gli effetti dei regolamenti sulla crescita attraverso indicatori che tendono a “misurare” le istituzioni. Lo scopo di questa ricerca è analizzare la relazione di lungo periodo tra la crescita economica e la regolamentazione e il ruolo della regolamentazione antitrust sulla crescita economica. La stima econometrica dei modelli di crescita con la concorrenza e gli indicatori di potere di mercato si base su un dataset appositamente costruito che copre 211 Paesi, su un arco temporale massimo di 50 anni (da 1960 a 2009). In particolare, cerchiamo di identificare un quadro analitico volto a integrare l’analisi istituzionale ed economica al fine di valutare il ruolo della regolamentazione e, più in generale, il ruolo delle istituzioni nella crescita economica. Dopo una revisione della letteratura teorica ed empirica sulla crescita e le istituzioni, vi presentiamo l’analisi dell'impatto normativo (RIA) in materia di concorrenza, e analizziamo le principali misure di regolamentazione, la governance e le misure antitrust. Per rispondere alla nostra domanda di ricerca si stimano modelli di crescita prendendo in considerazione tre diverse misure di regolamentazione: la Regulation Impact (RI), la Governance (GOV), e la libertà economica (LIB). Nel modello a effetti fissi, RI, gli effetti della legislazione antitrust sulla crescita economica sono significativi e positivi, e gli effetti di durata antitrust sono significativi, ma negativi. Nel pannel dinamico, GOV, gli effetti dell’indicatore di governance sulla crescita sono notevoli, ma negativo. Nel pannel dinamico, LIB, gli effetti della LIB sono significativi e negativi. / During last years institutions and regulations have played an increasingly and important role in the growth economic analysis. However, it is not easy to interpret the institutions and regulations effects on growth using indicators which tend to “measure” institutions. The purpose of this research is analyse the long-run relationship between economic growth and regulation, and the role of antitrust regulation on economic growth. Our econometric estimation of growth models with competition and market power indicators based on an expressly conceived dataset including 211 countries, over a maximum period range of 50 years (from 1960 to 2009). In particular, we try to identify an analytical framework aiming to complement the institutional and economic analysis in order to assess the regulation role and more generally, the role of institutions in economic growth. After a theoretical and empirical literature review on growth and institutions, we present the Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) on competition, and we analyse the main regulation, governance and antitrust measures. To answer our research question we estimate several growth models considering three regulatory measures: Regulation Impact (RI), Governance (GOV), and Economic Freedom (LIB). In the RI fixed effect model, the effects of antitrust legislation on economic growth are significant and positive, and the effects of antitrust duration are significant but negative. In the GOV dynamic panel, the effects of governance index on growth are significant but negative. In the LIB dynamic panel the effects of LIB are significant and negative.
Monasterolo, Irene <1982>
31 May 2012
The fall of the Berlin Wall opened the way for a reform path – the transition process – which accompanied ten former Socialist countries in Central and South Eastern Europe to knock at the EU doors. By the way, at the time of the EU membership several economic and structural weaknesses remained. A tendency towards convergence between the new Member States (NMS) and the EU average income level emerged, together with a spread of inequality at the sub-regional level, mainly driven by the backwardness of the agricultural and rural areas. Several progresses were made in evaluating the policies for rural areas, but a shared definition of rurality is still missing. Numerous indicators were calculated for assessing the effectiveness of the Common Agricultural Policy and Rural Development Policy. Previous analysis on the Central and Eastern European countries found that the characteristics of the most backward areas were insufficiently addressed by the policies enacted; the low data availability and accountability at a sub-regional level, and the deficiencies in institutional planning and implementation represented an obstacle for targeting policies and payments. The next pages aim at providing a basis for understanding the connections between the peculiarities of the transition process, the current development performance of NMS and the EU role, with particular attention to the agricultural and rural areas. Applying a mixed methodological approach (multivariate statistics, non-parametric methods, spatial econometrics), this study contributes to the identification of rural areas and to the analysis of the changes occurred during the EU membership in Hungary, assessing the effect of CAP introduction and its contribution to the convergence of the Hungarian agricultural and rural. The author believes that more targeted – and therefore efficient – policies for agricultural and rural areas require a deeper knowledge of their structural and dynamic characteristics.
Le produzioni agroalimentari di qualità nelle aziende agricole dell’Emilia-Romagna: un’analisi comparativa con le aziende agricole convenzionali / The farms with quality foods production in Emilia-Romagna: a comparative analysis with conventional farmsSpinelli, Lucilla <1979> 31 May 2012 (has links)
Il tema dei prodotti agroalimentari di qualità ha ormai assunto un ruolo rilevante all’interno del dibattito riguardante l’agricoltura e l’economia agroalimentare, ponendosi al centro dell’interesse delle politiche europee (PAC post 2013, Pacchetto Qualità). La crescente attenzione verso le produzioni con marchio Dop\Igp mette però in luce la sostanziale carenza di informazioni dettagliate relativamente alle aziende che operano in questo comparto. Da questo punto di vista il VI° Censimento generale dell’agricoltura costituisce una preziosa fonte di informazioni statistiche. L’obiettivo di questo lavoro è quello di utilizzare i dati, ancora provvisori, del censimento per analizzare la struttura delle aziende con produzioni di qualità, ponendola in confronto con quella delle aziende convenzionali. Inoltre è stata fatta una classificazione delle aziende con prodotti Dop\Igp, in base alla rilevanza di queste produzioni sul reddito lordo aziendale. Le aziende sono quindi state classificate come “Specializzate” e “Miste”, con un’ulteriore distinzione di queste ultime tra quelle “Prevalentemente Dop\Igp” e quelle “Prevalentemente non Dop\Igp”. Tale ripartizione ha consentito una definizione dettagliata degli orientamenti produttivi delle aziende analizzate. / Recently, within the debate concerning agriculture and its economy, the problem of food quality becomes much more central for the European politics (PAC post 2013, Quality package 2010). This increasing attention on Pdo\Pgi productions, is truly underlining the lack in information about farms and factories actually working in this field. To solve this problem, the VI° Agricultural Census could be considered as a great source of statistical data. Aim of this study was to use this dataset to analyze those farms which are, so far, producing quality foods, comparing them to the more conventional ones. Moreover, a chart based on the relevance of Pdo\Pgi production on the whole farms net gain was created. Farms were then clustered in “specialized” and “mixed”; the last were again separated in two more groups: “mainly Pdo\Pgi” and “mainly not Pdo\Pgi”. This kind of partition allowed a more detailed definition of the productive tendency in the analyzed farms.
A farm-level programming model to compare the atmospheric impact of conventional and organic farmingSignorotti, Claudio <1972> 04 July 2013 (has links)
A model is developed to represent the activity of a farm using the method of linear programming. Two are the main components of the model, the balance of soil fertility and the livestock nutrition. According to the first, the farm is supposed to have a total requirement of nitrogen, which is to be accomplished either through internal sources (manure) or through external sources (fertilisers). The second component describes the animal husbandry as having a nutritional requirement which must be satisfied through the internal production of arable crops or the acquisition of feed from the market. The farmer is supposed to maximise total net income from the agricultural and the zoo-technical activities by choosing one rotation among those available for climate and acclivity. The perspective of the analysis is one of a short period: the structure of the farm is supposed to be fixed without possibility to change the allocation of permanent crops and the amount of animal husbandry. The model is integrated with an environmental module that describes the role of the farm within the carbon-nitrogen cycle. On the one hand the farm allows storing carbon through the photosynthesis of the plants and the accumulation of carbon in the soil; on the other some activities of the farm emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The model is tested for some representative farms of the Emilia-Romagna region, showing to be capable to give different results for conventional and organic farming and providing first results concerning the different atmospheric impact. Relevant data about the representative farms and the feasible rotations are extracted from the FADN database, with an integration of the coefficients from the literature.
Il cambiamento della ruralità nell'Unione Europea. Tipologie, evoluzione e risposte alle politiche / EU rural areas under major transformationsPagliacci, Francesco <1983> 04 July 2013 (has links)
Obiettivo del lavoro è migliorare la lettura della ruralità europea. A fronte delle profonde trasformazioni avvenute, oggi non è più possibile analizzare i territori rurali adottando un mero approccio dicotomico che semplicemente li distingua dalle città. Al contrario, il lavoro integra l’analisi degli aspetti socio-economici con quella degli elementi territoriali, esaltando le principali dimensioni che caratterizzano le tante tipologie di ruralità oggi presenti in Europa. Muovendo dal dibattito sulla classificazione delle aree rurali, si propone dapprima un indicatore sintetico di ruralità che, adottando la logica fuzzy, considera congiuntamente aspetti demografici (densità), settoriali (rilevanza dell’attività agricola), territoriali e geografici (accessibilità e uso del suolo). Tale tecnica permette di ricostruire un continuum di gradi di ruralità, distinguendo così, all’interno dell’Unione Europea (circa 1.300 osservazioni), le aree più centrali da quelle progressivamente più rurali e periferiche. Successivamente, attraverso un’analisi cluster vengono individuate tipologie di aree omogenee in termini di struttura economica, paesaggio, diversificazione dell’attività agricola. Tali cluster risentono anche della distribuzione geografica delle aree stesse: vengono infatti distinti gruppi di regioni centrali da gruppi di regioni più periferiche. Tale analisi evidenzia soprattutto come il binomio ruralità-arretratezza risulti ormai superato: alcune aree rurali, infatti, hanno tratto vantaggio dalle trasformazioni che hanno interessato l’Unione Europea negli ultimi decenni (diffusione dell’ICT o sviluppo della manifattura). L’ultima parte del lavoro offre strumenti di analisi a supporto dell’azione politica comunitaria, analizzando la diversa capacità delle regioni europee di rispondere alle sfide lanciate dalla Strategia Europa 2020. Un’analisi in componenti principali sintetizza le principali dimensioni di tale performance regionale: i risultati sono poi riletti alla luce delle caratteristiche strutturali dei territori europei. Infine, una più diretta analisi spaziale dei dati permette di evidenziare come la geografia influenzi ancora profondamente la capacità dei territori di rispondere alle nuove sfide del decennio. / This work is aimed at providing a better analysis about EU rural areas. Lately, those regions have widely changed: thus, a dichotomous approach, simply distinguishing rural areas from cities, cannot take into account the increasing complexity affecting EU regions. Actually, the research is based on a multidimensional approach, by including within the analysis both socio-economic and geographical characteristics. Moving from the wide debate on the classification of rural areas, a comprehensive rurality index is computed by applying fuzzy logic to the whole set of EU regions (about 1,300 observations). This continuous index highlights the different extents of rurality, according to demographic aspects (e.g., density), economic features (e.g., relevance of the agricultural sector) and geographical characteristics (e.g., accessibility and remoteness). Then, a cluster analysis is applied. According to the regional economic structure, the diversification of the agricultural activities and the land use characteristics, homogeneous clusters are identified. They are also geographically defined. Actually, some groups of more central rural regions have taken advantage from the major transformations having affected the EU (e.g., the improvement in the ICT, the diffusion of manufacturing activities across rural areas,…). Thus, the link between rurality and underdevelopment can be considered almost outdated. Lastly, some tools for the analysis of the EU political actions are provided. The regional performance in achieving Europe 2020 Strategy targets is analysed. First, this performance at the regional level is summed up by adopting a principal component analysis. Then, the main results are linked with the comprehensive rurality index and the main evidences from the cluster analysis. Moreover, this performance is also analysed according to an exploratory spatial data analysis approach. Actually, geography still affects the way each region faces the new challenges for the next decade.
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