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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Sviluppo economico e qualità istituzionale: il ruolo di disuguaglianza e corruzione / Economic development and institutional quality: the role of inequality and corruption

Reverberi, Pierre Maurice <1983> 04 July 2013 (has links)
Nell'ambito delle teorie dello sviluppo, un filone di studi, originato dai lavori di North (1973) e consolidatosi negli ultimi anni, individua nelle istituzioni, definite come le regole del gioco o i vincoli disegnati dagli uomini per disciplinare i loro rapporti, i fattori fondamentali dello sviluppo economico. Le istituzioni, nel modello elaborato da Acemoglu, Johnson e Robinson (2004), sono il frutto di interazioni dinamiche tra potere politico de jure, determinato dalle istituzioni politiche, e potere politico de facto, determinato dalla distribuzione delle risorse economiche. Sulla base di questa prospettiva teorica, questa tesi propone uno studio di carattere quantitativo sulla qualità istituzionale, la traduzione operativa del concetto di istituzioni, composta dalle tre fondamentali dimensioni di democrazia, efficienza ed efficacia del governo e assenza di corruzione. La prima parte, che analizza sistematicamente pro e contro di ciascuna tipologia di indicatori, è dedicata alla revisione delle misure quantitative di qualità istituzionale, e individua nei Worldwide Governance Indicators la misura più solida e consistente. Questi indici sono quindi utilizzati nella seconda parte, dove si propone un'analisi empirica sulle determinanti della qualità istituzionale. Le stime del modello di regressione cross-country evidenziano che la qualità istituzionale è influenzata da alcuni fattori prevalentemente esogeni come la geografia, la disponibilità di risorse naturali e altre caratteristiche storiche e culturali, insieme ad altri fattori di carattere più endogeno. In quest'ultima categoria, i risultati evidenziano un effetto positivo del livello di sviluppo economico, mentre la disuguaglianza economica mostra un impatto negativo su ciascuna delle tre dimensioni di qualità istituzionale, in particolare sulla corruzione. Questi risultati supportano la prospettiva teorica e suggeriscono che azioni di policy orientate alla riduzione delle disparità sono capaci di generare sviluppo rafforzando la democrazia, migliorando l'efficienza complessiva del sistema economico e riducendo i livelli di corruzione. / Amongst development theories, following the work of D. North (1973), a branch of studies has recently developed which sees institutions, defined as the rules of the game or humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction, as the fundamental cause of long-run growth. The model constructed by Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2004) emphasizes the interaction between de jure political power, influenced by political institutions, and de facto political power, shaped by distribution of resources, in the evolution of institutional paths. Based on this theoretical framework, this thesis adopts a quantitative perspective to investigate institutional quality, which is composed by three main dimensions: democracy, government efficiency and effectiveness and corruption. A survey of available measures of institutional quality is conducted in order to evaluate pro and cons of each kind of indicators. The analysis finds the World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators as the most reliable measures of institutional quality, both in terms of internal and external consistency. These indexes are then used for an empirical analysis over the determinants of institutional quality. The estimates of the cross-country regression model show that institutional quality is affected by some exogenous factors, like geography, natural resources endowments and other historic and cultural traits, and more endogenous factors. Amongst the latter, economic development exerts a positive effect on institutional quality, while a negative association, particularly on the corruption side, is shown by economic inequality. Results confirm our hypothesis and suggest that policies aiming at reducing inequality can foster development by strengthening democracy, by improving the overall efficiency of the economic system and by reducing corruption levels.
32

Alla ricerca della sostenibilità: lo sviluppo dell'agricoltura dall'Unità d'Italia alla Green Economy / Looking for sustainability: Italian Agro-food sector development, from the Unification of the country to Green Economy.

Parodi, Gianluca <1982> 04 July 2013 (has links)
L’elaborato finale presentato per la tesi di Dottorato analizza e riconduce a unitarietà, per quanto possibile, alcune delle attività di ricerca da me svolte durante questi tre anni, il cui filo conduttore è l'impatto ambientale delle attività umane e la promozione dello sviluppo sostenibile. Il mio filone di ricerca è stato improntato, dal punto di vista di politica economica, sull'analisi storica dello sviluppo del settore agricolo dall'Unità d'Italia ai giorni nostri e dei cambiamenti avvenuti in contemporanea nel contesto socio-economico e territoriale nazionale, facendo particolare riferimento alle tematiche legate ai consumi e alla dipendenza energetica ed all'impatto ambientale. Parte della mia ricerca è stata, infatti, incentrata sull'analisi dello sviluppo della Green Economy, in particolare per quanto riguarda il settore agroalimentare e la produzione di fonti di energia rinnovabile. Enfasi viene posta sia sulle politiche implementate a livello comunitario e nazionale, sia sul cambiamento dei consumi, in particolare per quanto riguarda gli acquisti di prodotti biologici. La Green Economy è vista come fattore di sviluppo e opportunità per uscire dall'attuale contesto di crisi economico-finanziaria. Crisi, che è strutturale e di carattere duraturo, affiancata da una crescente problematica ambientale dovuta all'attuale modello produttivo, fortemente dipendente dai combustibili fossili. Difatti la necessità di cambiare paradigma produttivo promuovendo la sostenibilità è visto anche in ottica di mitigazione del cambiamento climatico e dei suoi impatti socio-economici particolare dal punto di vista dei disastri ambientali. Questo punto è analizzato anche in termini di sicurezza internazionale e di emergenza umanitaria, con riferimento al possibile utilizzo da parte delle organizzazioni di intervento nei contesti di emergenza di tecnologie alimentate da energia rinnovabile. Dando così una risposta Green ad una problematica esacerbata dall'impatto dello sviluppo delle attività umane. / My PhD thesis is the final output of my research activities carried out during these three years. The main objectives that I have analyzed, and tried to merge as much as possible here, is the promotion of sustainable development and the environmental impact of human activities. My research line has been characterized on the analysis of the historical development of the Italian agricultural sector and the changes simultaneously occurring in the social and economic structure. Particular focus has been put on energy consumption and dependence from importation, territorial aspects and environmental impacts. Part of my analysis focused on the recent development of the Green Economy, in particular concerning the agro-food sector and the production of renewable energy sources. Emphasis is placed both on policies for promoting sustainability implemented at EU and national level and on consumption's changes in particular with regard to organic products. Green Economy is seen as a factor of development and as an opportunity to overcome the current context of economic and financial crisis. Crisis that is lasting and structural, moreover it has been worsened by growing environmental problems given by human activities and actual production model that is strongly dependent from fossil fuels. In fact, the necessity of changing production paradigm and promoting sustainability is also seen from a perspective of mitigating social and economic impact of climate change, particularly from environmental disasters point of view and related to humanitarian crisis. This point has been also analyzed in terms of international security and humanitarian emergency, with reference to possible application of green technologies by the side of emergency organizations during disaster relief and therefore giving a further green answer to such problem linked to global warming exacerbated by human activities.
33

Regulating State Aid: Inter-jurisdictional competition, public choice, and corporate governance

Hanke, Philip Cosmo <1983> 24 June 2014 (has links)
Depending on the regulatory regime they are subject to, governments may or may not be allowed to hand out state aid to private firms. The economic justification for state aid can address several issues present in the competition for capital and the competition for transfers from the state. First, there are principal-agent problems involved at several stages. Self-interested politicians might enter state aid deals that are the result of extensive rent-seeking activities of organized interest groups. Thus the institutional design of political systems will have an effect on the propensity of a jurisdiction to award state aid. Secondly, fierce competition for firm locations can lead to over-spending. This effect is stronger if the politicians do not take into account the entirety of the costs created by their participation in the firm location race. Thirdly, state aid deals can be incomplete and not in the interest of the citizens. This applies if there are no sanctions if firms do not meet their obligations from receiving aid, such as creating a certain number of jobs or not relocating again for a certain amount of time. The separation of ownership and control in modern corporations leads to principal-agent problems on the side of the aid recipient as well. Managers might receive personal benefits from subsidies, the use of which is sometimes less monitored than private finance. This can eventually be to the detriment of the shareholders. Overall, it can be concluded that state aid control should also serve the purpose of regulating the contracting between governments and firms. An extended mandate for supervision by the European Commission could include requirements to disincentive the misuse of state aid. The Commission should also focus on the corporate governance regime in place in the jurisdiction that awards the aid as well as in the recipient firm.
34

Spatial Disparity and Dynamic Trajectory of Convergence in China: Construction and Application of a Composite Index of Regional Development

Bin, Peng <1984> 14 May 2014 (has links)
China is a large country characterized by remarkable growth and distinct regional diversity. Spatial disparity has always been a hot issue since China has been struggling to follow a balanced growth path but still confronting with unprecedented pressures and challenges. To better understand the inequality level benchmarking spatial distributions of Chinese provinces and municipalities and estimate dynamic trajectory of sustainable development in China, I constructed the Composite Index of Regional Development (CIRD) with five sub pillars/dimensions involving Macroeconomic Index (MEI), Science and Innovation Index (SCI), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Human Capital Index (HCI) and Public Facilities Index (PFI), endeavoring to cover various fields of regional socioeconomic development. Ranking reports on the five sub dimensions and aggregated CIRD were provided in order to better measure the developmental degrees of 31 or 30 Chinese provinces and municipalities over 13 years from 1998 to 2010 as the time interval of three “Five-year Plans”. Further empirical applications of this CIRD focused on clustering and convergence estimation, attempting to fill up the gap in quantifying the developmental levels of regional comprehensive socioeconomics and estimating the dynamic convergence trajectory of regional sustainable development in a long run. Four clusters were benchmarked geographically-oriented in the map on the basis of cluster analysis, and club-convergence was observed in the Chinese provinces and municipalities based on stochastic kernel density estimation.
35

Essays on Regional Development and Internationalisation

Barone, Barbara <1982> 31 May 2012 (has links)
This collection of essays examines various aspects of regional development and the issues of internationalization. The first essay investigates the implications of the impressive growth of China from a rural-urban perspective and addresses the topic of convergence in China by employing a non-parametrical approach to study the distribution dynamics of per capita income at province, rural and urban levels. To better understand the degree of inequality characterizing China and the long-term predictions of convergence or divergence of its different territorial aggregations, the second essay formulates a composite indicator of Regional Development (RDI) to benchmark development at province and sub-province level. The RDI goes beyond the uni-dimensional concept of development, generally proxied by the GDP per capita, and gives attention to the rural-urban dimension. The third essay “Internationalization and Trade Specialization in Italy. The role of China in the international intra-firm trade of the Italian regions” - deals with another aspect of regional economic development: the progressive de-industrialisation and de-localization of the local production. This essay looks at the trade specialization of selected Italian regions (those regions specialized in manufacturing) and the fragmentation of the local production on a global scale. China represents in this context an important stakeholder and the paper documents the importance of this country in the regional intra-firm trade.
36

An Analysis of Living Conditions in Rural Villages in China. A New Geography of the Country. / Analisi delle condizioni di vita nei villaggi rurali della Cina. Una nuova geografia del Paese.

Calò, Nica Claudia <1982> 31 May 2012 (has links)
Analysts, politicians and international players from all over the world look at China as one of the most powerful countries on the international scenario, and as a country whose economic development can significantly impact on the economies of the rest of the world. However many aspects of this country have still to be investigated. First the still fundamental role played by Chinese rural areas for the general development of the country from a political, economic and social point of view. In particular, the way in which the rural areas have influenced the social stability of the whole country has been widely discussed due to their strict relationship with the urban areas where most people from the countryside emigrate searching for a job and a better life. In recent years many studies have mostly focused on the urbanization phenomenon with little interest in the living conditions in rural areas and in the deep changes which have occurred in some, mainly agricultural provinces. An analysis of the level of infrastructure is one of the main aspects which highlights the principal differences in terms of living conditions between rural and urban areas. In this thesis, I first carried out the analysis through the multivariate statistics approach (Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis) in order to define the new map of rural areas based on the analysis of living conditions. In the second part I elaborated an index (Living Conditions Index) through the Fuzzy Expert/Inference System. Finally I compared this index (LCI) to the results obtained from the cluster analysis drawing geographic maps. The data source is the second national agricultural census of China carried out in 2006. In particular, I analysed the data refer to villages but aggregated at province level. / La Cina è sicuramente uno dei più potenti paesi del mondo la cui economia può influenzare quella degli altri paesi. Tuttavia ci sono molti aspetti poco indagati di questo paese che necesiterebbero di ulteriori approfondimenti. Primo fra tutti il ruolo fondamentale delle aree rurali sia in termini politici che economici e sociali. Di particolare rilevanza l'influenza che le aree rurali hanno sulla stabilità dell'intero paese. Molti studi recenti si sono concentrati sul fenomeno dell'urbanizzazione tralasciando l'analisi delle condizioni di vita e dei profondi cambiamenti avvenuti nelle zone rurali. In questa tesi ho condotto prima un'analisi attraverso due metodologie di statistica multivariata (PCA e CA). Nella seconda parte ho invece elaborato un indice basato sull'approccio Fuzzy Logic. Infine ho comparato i risultati così ottenuti riportandoli su mappe. I dati utilizzati sono quelli del secondo censimento dell'agricoltura condotto nel 2006. In particolare ho analizzato i dati riferiti ai villaggi e aggregati a livello di provincia.
37

Topics in Local Economic Development

Bubbico, Antonio <1983> 10 July 2014 (has links)
This thesis contributes to the current debate in literature about local economic development by considering two different topics: quality of institutions, and the role of clusters in innovation and productivity growth. The research is built upon three papers. The first paper deals with the analysis of the effect of administrative continuity on administrative efficiency. The analysis underlines the importance of different typologies of social capital. Findings reveal a positive impact on administrative efficiency (AE) by administrative continuity (AC) when it is coupled by bridging and linking social capital. On the contrary, bonding social capital influences negatively the effect by AC on AE. The second paper investigates the spatial interaction in levels of quality of government (QoG) among European regions. Notwithstanding the largely recognised role by institutions in the design of regional policies, no study has been conducted about the mechanisms of interaction and diffusion of QoG at regional level. This research wants to overcome this knowledge gap in literature. Findings reveal a heterogeneity in spatial interaction among groups of regions, i.e. ‘leader regions’ (Northern regions) and ‘lagging regions’ (Southern regions), when considering different mechanisms of interaction (learning / imitating competition and pure competition). Moreover, the effect of wealth on the levels of QoG is nonlinear. Finally, the third paper analyses the relation among specialization and productivity within the agricultural sector. In literature, the study of clusters dynamics has long neglected agriculture. The analysis describes the changes in sectorial specialization for eight main crop groups in Italian regions (NUTS 3), assessing the existence of spatial autocorrelations by using an exploratory data analysis. Furthermore, the effect of specialization on productivity is analysed within the main crop groups using a spatial panel data model. Findings reveal a marked tendency to specialization in the Italian agriculture, and a heterogeneous effect by specialization on productivity.
38

Modeling the spatial dynamics of economic models

Saguatti, Annachiara <1984> 04 July 2013 (has links)
The advances that have been characterizing spatial econometrics in recent years are mostly theoretical and have not found an extensive empirical application yet. In this work we aim at supplying a review of the main tools of spatial econometrics and to show an empirical application for one of the most recently introduced estimators. Despite the numerous alternatives that the econometric theory provides for the treatment of spatial (and spatiotemporal) data, empirical analyses are still limited by the lack of availability of the correspondent routines in statistical and econometric software. Spatiotemporal modeling represents one of the most recent developments in spatial econometric theory and the finite sample properties of the estimators that have been proposed are currently being tested in the literature. We provide a comparison between some estimators (a quasi-maximum likelihood, QML, estimator and some GMM-type estimators) for a fixed effects dynamic panel data model under certain conditions, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation analysis. We focus on different settings, which are characterized either by fully stable or quasi-unit root series. We also investigate the extent of the bias that is caused by a non-spatial estimation of a model when the data are characterized by different degrees of spatial dependence. Finally, we provide an empirical application of a QML estimator for a time-space dynamic model which includes a temporal, a spatial and a spatiotemporal lag of the dependent variable. This is done by choosing a relevant and prolific field of analysis, in which spatial econometrics has only found limited space so far, in order to explore the value-added of considering the spatial dimension of the data. In particular, we study the determinants of cropland value in Midwestern U.S.A. in the years 1971-2009, by taking the present value model (PVM) as the theoretical framework of analysis.
39

An interdisciplinary analysis of obesity: theory and empirical evidence

Hansstein, Francesca <1982> 31 May 2012 (has links)
The dissertation is structured in three parts. The first part compares US and EU agricultural policies since the end of WWII. There is not enough evidence for claiming that agricultural support has a negative impact on obesity trends. I discuss the possibility of an exchange in best practices to fight obesity. There are relevant economic, societal and legal differences between the US and the EU. However, partnerships against obesity are welcomed. The second part presents a socio-ecological model of the determinants of obesity. I employ an interdisciplinary model because it captures the simultaneous influence of several variables. Obesity is an interaction of pre-birth, primary and secondary socialization factors. To test the significance of each factor, I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. I compare the average body mass index across different populations. Differences in means are statistically significant. In the last part I use the National Survey of Children Health. I analyze the effect that family characteristics, built environment, cultural norms and individual factors have on the body mass index (BMI). I use Ordered Probit models and I calculate the marginal effects. I use State and ethnicity fixed effects to control for unobserved heterogeneity. I find that southern US States tend have on average a higher probability of being obese. On the ethnicity side, White Americans have a lower BMI respect to Black Americans, Hispanics and American Indians Native Islanders; being Asian is associated with a lower probability of being obese. In neighborhoods where trust level and safety perception are higher, children are less overweight and obese. Similar results are shown for higher level of parental income and education. Breastfeeding has a negative impact. Higher values of measures of behavioral disorders have a positive and significant impact on obesity, as predicted by the theory.
40

The impact of grants in the agriculture sector in Albania: a counterfactual approach

Preka, Oltion <1985> 10 July 2014 (has links)
The objective of this study is to measure the impact of the national subsidy scheme on the olive and fruit sector in two regions of Albania, Shkodra and Fier. From the methodological point of view, we use a non- parametric approach based on the propensity score matching. This method overcomes problem of the missing data, by creating a counterfactual scenario. In the first step, the conditional probability to participate in the program was computed. Afterwards, different matching estimators were applied to establish whether the subsidies have affected sectors performance. One of the strengths of this study stays in the data. Cross-sectional primary data was gathered through about 250 interviews.. We have not found empirical evidence of significant effects of government aid program on production. Differences in production found between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries disappear after adjustment by the conditional probability of participating into the program. This suggests that subsidized farmers would have performed better than the subsidized households even in the absence of production grants, revealing program self-selection. On the other hand, the scheme has affected positively the farm structure increasing the area under cultivation, but yields has not increased for beneficiaries compared to non beneficiaries. These combined results shed light on the reason of the missed impact. It could be reasonable to believe that the new plantation, in particular in the case of olives, has not yet reached full production. Therefore, we have reasons to believe on positive impacts in the future. Concerning some qualitative results, the extension of area under cultivation is strongly conditioned by the small farm size. This together with a thin land market makes extremely difficult the expansion beyond farm boundaries.

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