Mallon, James M.
No description available.
Enhancing recovery of reverse osmosis desalination : side-stream oxidation of antiscalants to precipitate saltsGreenlee, Lauren Fay 04 February 2010 (has links)
Brackish waters are now considered valuable alternative water resources. Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are the most promising candidate for drinking water production through desalination. Low recovery (the fraction of influent water that becomes product water) prevents widespread application of RO inland because of the high cost of waste disposal. The recovery of a brackish RO system is limited by sparingly soluble salts that become supersaturated and precipitate on the membrane surface. Precipitation is controlled through pH adjustment and antiscalant addition; however, at high salt supersaturation, antiscalant control is overcome and precipitation occurs. To further increase RO recovery and avoid precipitation, a three-stage process treated the waste stream (concentrate) of a brackish water RO system through antiscalant degradation, salt precipitation, and solid/liquid separation. Ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were used to degrade antiscalants, pH elevation and base (NaOH/NaHCO3) addition were used to precipitate sparingly soluble salts, and microfiltration (0.1 μm) was used to separate precipitated solids from the water. Optimal parameters (pH, ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, antiscalant type and concentration, water composition) for antiscalant oxidation were determined. The influence of antiscalant type and concentration and pH was investigated for the precipitation and filtration stages. Results were obtained for particle size distribution, extent of precipitation, particle morphology, and particle composition. The effect of ozonation on precipitation and filtration was evaluated, with a comparison to two-stage treatment consisting of precipitation and filtration. Antiscalant oxidation is controlled by bivalent cation coordination, while pH and ozone dose significantly affect the extent of oxidation. The addition of antiscalant prior to precipitation caused changes to particle size and morphology, and results varied with water composition and antiscalant type and concentration. Ozonation, even for small times such as one minute, prior to precipitation and filtration increased calcium precipitation and decomposed the antiscalant enough to remove the effect of the antiscalant on particle characteristics. During ozonation, antiscalants were not completely oxidized, but the partial oxidation products did not seem to affect precipitation. Ozonation also reduced the fouling of microfiltration membranes used for solid/liquid separation. Results indicated concentrate treatment can significantly increase the overall recovery of an RO system. / text
29 March 2017
Effects of short-term overtemperature on Rene 80 DS were studied using Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation apparatus. Volume fraction of gamma prime to gamma matrix was quantified and used to assess the effects of time, temperature and stress. Volume fraction was found to decrease with increasing temperature and time. Dissolution was found to occur through both solid and liquid state dissolution. Application of tensile stress was found to influence dissolution behaviour of gamma prime. / May 2017
There are a number of experiments showing that the ductility of aluminum alloys decreases during age-hardening heat treatment. Observing the grains of age-hardened aluminum alloys at the micron scale, one can notice that there are precipitate-free zones (PFZs) along the grain boundaries. PFZ has yield stress three times lower than the grain interior (bulk) due to absence of alloying elements. As a result, PFZ is suspected to be the reason for ductility reduction of alloys. On the other hand, a number of experiments performed on specimens with micron-scale dimensions have shown that the plastic deformation of crystalline materials is size-dependent. These micron-scale dimensions which can influence the mechanical behavior, such as yield stress or hardening, are not taken into account in the conventional plasticity theory, therefore another theory has been developed. That theory is Strain Gradient Plasticity (SGP). The specific SGP theory used here is a so called ‘higherorder theory’ in the sense that higher order stresses as well as additional boundary conditions are included in the theory. SGP theory also includes length scale parameters in order to be dimensionally consistent. On a recent study conducted by Fourmeau et al. (Fourmeau, 2015), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to display the geometrical properties and the chemical composition of PFZ in the AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy. It is observed that the width of PFZ is about 20 to 40 nm. In the present thesis, the properties for PFZ and bulk material provided by that study are used for a micromechanical finite element model of a microstructure including the bulk, PFZ and the grain boundary (GB). A uniaxial loading condition is applied to the representative volume element (RVE) and SGP theory is hired in order to capture the plastic strain fields as well as the stress triaxiality in PFZ and bulk region. Moreover a damage criterion is employed and studied for models with PFZ and without PFZ to understand the role of PFZ in reduction of the ductility of aluminum alloys. It is found that the damage parameter is much higher in the presence of PFZ. Finally, the void growth is studied by adding voids at critical locations to the model.
14 July 2004
20 July 2009
Susanto, Benny Laurensius, Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Science, UNSW
Iron-based alloys containing 15% chromium, 2-3% molybdenum and 0.02-1.7% carbon, consisting of M23C6 and M6C carbides in an austenitic matrix were oxidised at 8500C to study their oxidation resistance and a precipitate-free zone formation. Alloy design was carried out using a thermodynamic software Thermo-Calc. Carbides in these alloys were expected to dissolve during oxidation, releasing chromium required for the protective oxide formation. Decarburisation of the matrix was expected to trigger the carbide dissolution, and form a precipitate-free zone. Transformation of the austenitic into ferritic matrix in the precipitate-free zone was expected be essential for providing a fast chromium supply to the oxide/alloy interface. Upon exposure to pure oxygen, most of the alloys oxidised non-protectively due to the fast oxidation attack and low chromium content in the matrix, while carbide dissolution was too slow. The alloys were then pre-oxidised in H2+10%H2O to grow a purely chromia scale. In this low oxygen partial pressure environment, carbides in the alloy's sub-surface dissolved and formed a ferritic precipitate-free zone. The precipitate dissolution model developed by previous investigators was then tested and proven to be valid in this iron-based alloy system. The endurance of the pre-formed chromia scale with its underlying precipitate-free zone was then tested in pure oxygen environment. All of the alloys that had successfully developed a ferritic precipitate-free zone in the pre-oxidation stage, survived the subsequent oxidation in pure oxygen up until 3 weeks observation. Although x-ray diffraction found some minor iron oxides, the oxide consisted of mainly Cr2O3. Since iron activity had increased and iron oxides had become stable after the pure oxygen gas was introduced, the growth of the precipitate-free zone had to compete with the rate at which it was consumed by oxidation. It was concluded that the transformation from austenite to ferrite at the subsurface region of the alloy could be achieved provided that the volume fraction of the carbides did not exceed 0.2. Evidence indicated that the chromia scale grew by chromium provided by the dissolving carbides. Pre-oxidation led to a promising use of the alloys at atmospheric oxygen pressure.
Mineral precipitates in eclogites from Donghai in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure province, eastern ChinaTsai, Hsien-chang 16 January 2006 (has links)
This research studies 6 eclogites from Qinglongshan Donghai in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) province, eastern China. Petrographic microscope, Ramam spectrometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are utilized to identify mineral compositions, microstructures and mineral precipitates. Optical observations show the eclogites with the following mineral assemblage: garnet + omphacite + amphibole + epidote + rutile ¡Ó quartz ¡Ó phengite ¡Ó kyanite ¡Ó coesite pseudomorph ¡Ó apatite ¡Ó talc. Oriented mineral precipitates are found within omphacite and within apatites. The parallel precipitates in omphacite are quartz rods confirmed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and TEM diffraction patterns. The direction of the long axes of the quartz rods seem to have relation with the cleavage and with the parting of omphacite. The direction of the long axis of quartz is not necessarily the c axis direction of quartz. Pargasite is intergrown with quartz and the amounts of both minerals seem to have a positive relation. Pargasite contain element K which is not found in omphacite and there is no obvious crystallographic relation between quartz, pargasite, and omphacite. There is amphibole exsolved from the omphacite and the crystallographic axes of tht exsolved amphibole parallel to those of omphacite. The a and c parameters for the two phases are equal while the b parameter of the amphibole is almost twice that of omphacite. A two-stage growth mechanism for quartz and amphibole intergrown within omphacite is proposed: (1) very fine quartz rods exsolved (or aided with infilling fluids) from a supersilicic clinopyroxene during decompression, creating grain boundaries between quartz rods and host, (2) growth of amphibole and quartz along the grain boundaries with fluid participation and an expense of omphacite during retrograde metamorphism. There are two different precipitates within apatites in different eclogites. One of the precipitates is calcium sulfate (anhydrite or gypsum) and the other is ferrous sulfide (pyrrhotite?). There was no report about calcium sulfate within apatite in UHP rocks before. The formation of sulfide (reduced) or sulfate (oxidized) is controlled by the fugacity of oxygen. According to the previous reports and the discoveries of this research, there are many different kinds of precipitates containing silicate incompatible elements in apatites. It can¡¦t be ruled out that the precipitates exsolved from apapites but apatites are more likely to act as sinks of silicate incompatible elements and different minerals precipitated within apatites under different redox conditions rather than exsolution processes.
Pitts, James William
This paper is a study of the exchange of bismuth tetra-iodide and bismuth ions in an ion-precipitate system.
Influência do recozimento na recuperação e recristalização de tiras de aço baixo carbono dobradas por deformação a frioMartinelli, Ilen Maris January 2010 (has links)
O presente trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar a influência do recozimento na recuperação e recristalização de tiras de aço baixo carbono dobradas por deformação a frio. Muitas indústrias que produzem peças a partir de dobramento a frio, buscam constantemente garantir a qualidade de seus produtos. Isto se torna um desafio a partir do momento que se considera a diversidade do formato das dobras exigidas. Através de observações práticas, o que se vê é que, com o objetivo de facilitar o processo, muitos profissionais são induzidos a acreditar que simplesmente aquecendo o material, o trabalho será facilitado e garantirá a qualidade do produto final. Assim, independente do tipo do aço e/ou nível de encruamento, os parâmetros de temperatura utilizados são determinados, na sua grande maioria, de forma empírica, sem critérios estabelecidos, ou seja, em muitos casos, os valores de temperatura tendem a ser os mesmos. Como a grande maioria de peças produzidas na indústria submetida a deformação é em aço baixo carbono, este foi escolhido como material para a fabricação das amostras utilizadas no experimento. Estas amostras foram submetidas a diversos graus de dobramento a frio e aplicação de recozimento para recristalização com variação controlada dos parâmetros. Através da intercomparação das amostras e com aplicação de diversos ensaios foram caracterizados a dureza, estrutura metalográfica, tamanho médio do precipitado, bem como a correlação entre as condições de recozimento versus o nível de recuperação do encruamento. Através dos dados obtidos, observou-se a importância de definir de forma científica os parâmetros de aquecimento para a recristalização, sob pena de prejudicar as características das peças. / This work aims to show the influence of annealing on the recovery and recrystallization of low carbon steel strips bent by cold forming. Many industries that produce parts from cold bending, constantly seek to ensure the quality of their products. This becomes a challenge from the moment that one considers the diversity of the shape of folds required. Through practical observation, we can see that, in order to facilitate the process, many professionals are led to believe that simply heating the material, the work will be facilitated and ensure final product quality. Thus, regardless of the type of steel and / or level of work hardening, the parameters used in temperature are determined, mostly, empirically, without established criteria, ie, in most cases, the temperature values tend to be same. As the vast majority of parts produced in the industry is subjected to deformation in steel low carbon, this was chosen as material for the manufacture of the samples used in the experiment. These samples were subjected to various degrees of cold bending and applying for recrystallization annealing with controlled variation of parameters. By intercomparison of samples and application of various tests were characterized hardness, metallographic structure, average size of the precipitate, and the correlation between the annealing conditions versus the level of recovery of work hardening. Through the data obtained it observed the importance of defining the parameters in a scientific way of heating for recrystallization, failing to affect the characteristics of components.
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