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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Root distribution, activity, and development for boreal species on reclaimed oil sand mine soils in Alberta, Canada

Lazorko, Heidi M. 10 July 2008
Albertas oil sands are located in the boreal forest where surface mining disturbs huge tracts of land. One such area, Syncrude Canada Ltd.s Mildred Lake mine, contains waste overburden (OB) piles which can be saline and sodic (SSOB). The objectives of this research were to 1) determine SSOB material impacts on planted tree root distributions, 2) quantify root activity to identify plant species growing at depth, and 3) document coarse woody root structure for planted trees. Root distributions for three mixedwood stands on reclaimed OB in relation to electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) were examined using soil cores. Root distributions followed a similar pattern with soil depth as those from undisturbed boreal forest stands and appeared unaffected by the SSOB at this stage; however, future monitoring will be required as the stands mature. Root activity was assessed for jack pine (jP) and white spruce (wS) stands on tailings sand (TS) and OB using a strontium (Sr) chloride tracer. Understory and tree foliage was collected prior to and after application to measure Sr concentration in the control, broadcast, and depth treatments. A small proportion of roots grew in the OB material regardless of its chemical properties. Results from the Sr tracer study suggested that these roots were probably from the clover, sow thistle, and grasses. Planted trees showed little to no change in Sr tissue content suggesting that there were little to no roots in the treatment zones, the understory species out-competed the trees for Sr accessibility, or the tracer was diluted in the tree biomass to undetectable levels. Root systems of planted jP trees older than 10 years and older than 20 years on TS and OB were excavated and the number and diameter of lateral roots, the degree of kinking and coiling, and the presence of a taproot were recorded. Excavated trees showed poor taproot development on 70% of the trees and numerous root deformities, suggesting that more emphasis is needed in correct planting techniques and good planting stock to ensure proper root development. Roots are critical components of boreal forest ecosystems; without healthy root systems productivity may decline, stands may be susceptible to windthrow, and general forest health may suffer.
2

Root distribution, activity, and development for boreal species on reclaimed oil sand mine soils in Alberta, Canada

Lazorko, Heidi M. 10 July 2008 (has links)
Albertas oil sands are located in the boreal forest where surface mining disturbs huge tracts of land. One such area, Syncrude Canada Ltd.s Mildred Lake mine, contains waste overburden (OB) piles which can be saline and sodic (SSOB). The objectives of this research were to 1) determine SSOB material impacts on planted tree root distributions, 2) quantify root activity to identify plant species growing at depth, and 3) document coarse woody root structure for planted trees. Root distributions for three mixedwood stands on reclaimed OB in relation to electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) were examined using soil cores. Root distributions followed a similar pattern with soil depth as those from undisturbed boreal forest stands and appeared unaffected by the SSOB at this stage; however, future monitoring will be required as the stands mature. Root activity was assessed for jack pine (jP) and white spruce (wS) stands on tailings sand (TS) and OB using a strontium (Sr) chloride tracer. Understory and tree foliage was collected prior to and after application to measure Sr concentration in the control, broadcast, and depth treatments. A small proportion of roots grew in the OB material regardless of its chemical properties. Results from the Sr tracer study suggested that these roots were probably from the clover, sow thistle, and grasses. Planted trees showed little to no change in Sr tissue content suggesting that there were little to no roots in the treatment zones, the understory species out-competed the trees for Sr accessibility, or the tracer was diluted in the tree biomass to undetectable levels. Root systems of planted jP trees older than 10 years and older than 20 years on TS and OB were excavated and the number and diameter of lateral roots, the degree of kinking and coiling, and the presence of a taproot were recorded. Excavated trees showed poor taproot development on 70% of the trees and numerous root deformities, suggesting that more emphasis is needed in correct planting techniques and good planting stock to ensure proper root development. Roots are critical components of boreal forest ecosystems; without healthy root systems productivity may decline, stands may be susceptible to windthrow, and general forest health may suffer.
3

Ciclagem de nutrientes em sistemas de rotação de culturas

Olibone, Ana Paula Encide [UNESP] 05 December 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:30:25Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2008-12-05Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T21:01:04Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 olibone_ape_dr_botfca.pdf: 3141451 bytes, checksum: 841b3864f5b41bea3ef33884436e0802 (MD5) / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / As espécies utilizadas em sistemas de rotação de culturas comportamse de maneira diferente quanto à absorção e ciclagem de nutrientes. Além disso, a absorção de nutrientes é influenciada pelas propriedades físicas do solo, capazes de modificar o crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a ciclagem de nutrientes em três sistemas de rotação de culturas, relacionando-a à atividade radicular da braquiária e sorgo, em sistema de semeadura direta, escarificado (SDCE) e sem escarificação (SDSE), em Nitossolo Vermelho de textura argilosa na cidade de Botucatu-SP. Além das plantas de cobertura também se avaliou a atividade radicular das culturas do milho e da soja. O sistema de rotação foi implantado na safra de 2005/2006 como segue: (1) milheto / soja / sorgo / milho / sorgo/ soja; (2) milheto / soja / braquiária / milho / braquiária / soja e (3) milheto / soja / mamona + braquiária / milho / mamona + braquiária / soja. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em parcelas subdivididas. A condução do experimento deu-se por dois anos agrícolas (2006/2007; 2007/2008) para possível observação de algum efeito acumulativo dos tratamentos. A atividade radicular das plantas de cobertura (novembro 2006), do milho (fevereiro 2007) e da soja (dezembro 2007) foi avaliada indiretamente, usando-se rubídio como marcador. Aplicou-se 3 mL da solução de nitrato de rubídio no solo com cateter, a 0,05; 0,10; 0,20, 0,40 e 0,60 m de profundidade e a 0,11 e 0,22 m de distância da planta de referência. Decorrido 4 dias da aplicação, coletou-se as respectivas partes aéreas das plantas, as quais foram secas, moídas e digeridas por via úmida para determinação do teor de rubídio em absorção atômica. Também foram analisadas... / The species used in crop rotation systems differ in nutrient absorption and cycling. Moreover, nutrient absorption is influenced by soil physical properties, which may affect root growth and its development. The present research had as objective to investigate nutrient cycling in three crop rotation systems and its relation to root activity of Brachiaria and sorghum in no tillage system, with and without chiselling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil, in a Red Nitosol, with clay texture. The rotation system was implemented in 2005/2006 and carried out for two growing seasons (November of 2006 and 2007). Crop rotation systems were: (1) Pearl millet / soybean / sorghum / maize / sorghum / soybean; (2) Pearl millet / soybean / Brachiaria / maize / Brachiaria / soybean and (3) Pearl millet / soybean / Brachiaria + castor bean / maize / Brachiaria + castor bean / soybean. The experimental design was the completely randomized block with split-plots and four replications. Root activity was evaluated for either cover crops or maize and soybean. Root activity of cover crops (November of 2006 and 2007), maize (February of 2007) and soybean (December of 2007) was indirectly evaluated, using Rubidium as marker. The solution of 3 mL of rubidium nitrate was applied in soil with a catheter, at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 m depths and at 0.11 and 0.22 m away from the plant in question. The respective shoots were collected, dried, grounded and submitted to humid digestion 4 days after the application to evaluate rubidium level through atomic absorption. Chemical characteristics and soil penetration resistance were also evaluated at 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40 and 0.40-0.60 m depths in the respective growing seasons. According to Rb levels observed in dry matter, the highest... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
4

Utilização de sonda capacitiva FDR para estimativa do consumo de água e coeficiente de cultura (Kc) de Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu em cultivo solteiro e consorciado / Utilization of capacitive probe FDR to estimate water consumption and crop coefficient (kc) of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu single and intercropping

Prudente Junior, Amauri Cassio 05 July 2019 (has links)
A demanda de alimentos para 2050 está prevista ser o dobro da atual. A produção de alimentos no Brasil tem significativa relevância para a segurança alimentar mundial, sendo a pecuária de suma importância devido à grande demanda mundial de carne e leite provenientes do Brasil. Assim, surge a necessidade de estudos que visem aumentar a produção sem expandir área de plantio, sendo a irrigação uma das formas de intensificar a produtividade de sistemas agrícolas. Para um manejo da irrigação adequado é necessário o conhecimento da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc), e estudos de técnicas que façam essa estimativa com precisão, de forma prática e acessível, são de grande valia para uma agricultura irrigada sustentável. Uma dessas técnicas é a reflectometria no domínio da frequência (FDR), que se destaca por sua praticidade e capacidade de medir a umidade do solo em camadas distintas. Por ser um equipamento portátil, sua utilização pode resultar em menos custo para estimativas de coeficientes de cultura, substituindo a lisimetria (método padrão). Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade da utilização de uma sonda (FDR) como instrumento auxiliar na estimativa de consumo hídrico e de coeficientes de cultura (Kc) do capim Marandu, em cultivo solteiro (primavera/verão) e consorciado com aveia preta + azevém ou centeio + azevém no período de outono/inverno. Como objetivos secundários, buscou-se: (i) estimar o consumo hídrico e os coeficientes de cultura dos dosséis forrageiros estudados com a sonda FDR devidamente calibrada ao solo local; (ii) comparar o consumo de água e os valores de Kc obtidos por meio da sonda FDR e por lisimetria de pesagem; (iii) verificar se a técnica capacitiva é capaz de identificar a atividade de absorção de água do sistema radicular das forrageiras estudadas; e (iv) analisar parâmetros produtivos do capim Marandu solteiro e consorciado, e estimar a produtividade de água da cultura. O experimento foi realizado na Escola Superior de Agricultura \"Luiz de Queiroz\" (ESALQ/USP), em Piracicaba-SP. O período experimental foi de 21/09/2017 a 24/09/2018, com ciclos de corte de duração variada, baseados na fenologia das culturas. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a técnica de capacitância com sonda FDR mostrou-se apropriada para a estimativa de ETc e Kc de dosséis forrageiros em cultivo solteiro e consorciado, com valores próximos ao método padrão (lisimetria de pesagem). O uso da sonda capacitiva também foi eficaz na identificação da atividade de absorção de água pelas raízes, por meio do monitoramento da umidade do solo. A sobressemeadura com culturas de inverno foi uma opção resiliente para o período de estacionalidade, durante o qual aumentou o potencial produtivo do dossel forrageiro. O consórcio Marandu + aveia preta + azevém apresentou maior produtividade que Marandu + centeio + azevém. / The demand for food by 2050 is expected to be the double of the current year. The food production in Brazil has significant relevance for the world food security, and pasture crops are very important due to the great world demand for meat and milk come from Brazil. Thus, there is a need for studies that aim to increase forage production without expanding tillage area, and irrigation is one way to increase the productivity of agricultural systems. Adequate irrigation management requires knowledge of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and studies of techniques to accurately estimate it, in a practical and accessible way, having a great value for a sustainable irrigated agriculture. One of these techniques is frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), which stands out for being practical and able to measure soil moisture in different layers. Because it is a portable equipment, its use can result in lower costs for estimating crop coefficients, replacing lysimetry (standard method). Therefore, this work aimed at verifying the possibility to use a FDR probe as a tool for estimating the crop water consumption and crop coefficients (Kc) of \'Marandu\' palisade grass, single cropped (spring / summer) and intercropped with black oat + ryegrass and with rye + ryegrass during the fall / winter period. As secondary objectives, we sought to: (i) estimate the crop water consumption and crop coefficients of the forage canopies with the FDR probe properly calibrated to the local soil; (ii) compare the crop water consumption and Kc values estimated by the FDR probe and those ones determined by weighing lysimetry; (iii) verify if the capacitive technique is able to identify the water absorption activity of the root system; (iv) to analyze productive parameters of single and intercropped \'Marandu\' palisade grass, and to estimate the water productivity of the forage canopies. The experiment was carried out at an experimental area of \"Luiz de Queiroz\" College of Agriculture (ESALQ / USP), at Piracicaba-SP. The experimental period was from 09/21/2017 to 09/24/2018, with grow-and-cut cycles whose duration based on the phenology of the crops. The results revealed that FDR capacitance technique was adequate for ETc and Kc estimates of both, single cropped and intercropped forage canopies, with values near to the standard method (weighing lysimetry). The use of the capacitive probe was also effective in identifying the water absorption activity of the root system, through the monitoring of soil moisture. Overseeding with winter forage crops was a resilient option for the seasonality period, increasing the productive potential of the forage canopy. Intercropped \'Marandu\' + black oat + rye consortium presented higher forage yield than \'Marandu\' + rye + ryegrass consortium.
5

Ciclagem de nutrientes em sistemas de rotação de culturas /

Olibone, Ana Paula Encide, 1978- January 2008 (has links)
Orientador: Ciro Antonio Rosolem / Banca: Dirceu Maximono Fernandes / Banca: Salatier Buzetti / Banca: Julinano Carlos Calonego / Banca: Gedi Jorge Sfredo / Resumo: As espécies utilizadas em sistemas de rotação de culturas comportamse de maneira diferente quanto à absorção e ciclagem de nutrientes. Além disso, a absorção de nutrientes é influenciada pelas propriedades físicas do solo, capazes de modificar o crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a ciclagem de nutrientes em três sistemas de rotação de culturas, relacionando-a à atividade radicular da braquiária e sorgo, em sistema de semeadura direta, escarificado (SDCE) e sem escarificação (SDSE), em Nitossolo Vermelho de textura argilosa na cidade de Botucatu-SP. Além das plantas de cobertura também se avaliou a atividade radicular das culturas do milho e da soja. O sistema de rotação foi implantado na safra de 2005/2006 como segue: (1) milheto / soja / sorgo / milho / sorgo/ soja; (2) milheto / soja / braquiária / milho / braquiária / soja e (3) milheto / soja / mamona + braquiária / milho / mamona + braquiária / soja. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em parcelas subdivididas. A condução do experimento deu-se por dois anos agrícolas (2006/2007; 2007/2008) para possível observação de algum efeito acumulativo dos tratamentos. A atividade radicular das plantas de cobertura (novembro 2006), do milho (fevereiro 2007) e da soja (dezembro 2007) foi avaliada indiretamente, usando-se rubídio como marcador. Aplicou-se 3 mL da solução de nitrato de rubídio no solo com cateter, a 0,05; 0,10; 0,20, 0,40 e 0,60 m de profundidade e a 0,11 e 0,22 m de distância da planta de referência. Decorrido 4 dias da aplicação, coletou-se as respectivas partes aéreas das plantas, as quais foram secas, moídas e digeridas por via úmida para determinação do teor de rubídio em absorção atômica. Também foram analisadas... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract : The species used in crop rotation systems differ in nutrient absorption and cycling. Moreover, nutrient absorption is influenced by soil physical properties, which may affect root growth and its development. The present research had as objective to investigate nutrient cycling in three crop rotation systems and its relation to root activity of Brachiaria and sorghum in no tillage system, with and without chiselling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil, in a Red Nitosol, with clay texture. The rotation system was implemented in 2005/2006 and carried out for two growing seasons (November of 2006 and 2007). Crop rotation systems were: (1) Pearl millet / soybean / sorghum / maize / sorghum / soybean; (2) Pearl millet / soybean / Brachiaria / maize / Brachiaria / soybean and (3) Pearl millet / soybean / Brachiaria + castor bean / maize / Brachiaria + castor bean / soybean. The experimental design was the completely randomized block with split-plots and four replications. Root activity was evaluated for either cover crops or maize and soybean. Root activity of cover crops (November of 2006 and 2007), maize (February of 2007) and soybean (December of 2007) was indirectly evaluated, using Rubidium as marker. The solution of 3 mL of rubidium nitrate was applied in soil with a catheter, at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 m depths and at 0.11 and 0.22 m away from the plant in question. The respective shoots were collected, dried, grounded and submitted to humid digestion 4 days after the application to evaluate rubidium level through atomic absorption. Chemical characteristics and soil penetration resistance were also evaluated at 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40 and 0.40-0.60 m depths in the respective growing seasons. According to Rb levels observed in dry matter, the highest... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
6

Wurzelwachstum und Wurzelaktivität von Sommergerste, Sommerraps und Ackerbohne im bioporennahen Unterboden

Petzoldt, Lisa Mona 02 May 2022 (has links)
Bioporen werden von Regenwürmern und Pfahlwurzeln geformt und gelten als präferentieller Weg für das Wurzelwachstum in tiefere Bodenbereiche. Jedoch ist bislang unklar, ob dem bioporennahen Unterboden eine besondere Funktion für das Wurzelwachstum, die Nährstoffakquise und den Zugang in den bulk-Boden zukommt. In diesem Bereich fehlt es an einer Quantifizierung von Wurzelwachstum und die Messung von Wurzelaktivität. Mit speziell angefertigtem Beprobungswerkzeug wurde der bioporennahe Unterboden großlumiger, nahezu vertikal verlaufender Bioporen (Durchmesser >5 mm) in kleinteiligen Abständen in 0-2, 2-4 und 4-8 mm auf die Wurzellänge [cm], den Wurzeldurchmesser [mm], die Gesamt-C- und -N-Gehalte [%] (Ct, Nt) sowie den pH-Wert untersucht. Neben der Untersuchung von Bioporen im Feld wurde in Gefäßversuchen der Einfluss des Regenwurms und der Pfahlwurzel auf das Wurzelwachstum separat betrachtet. Für die Untersuchungen wurden Sommergerste, Sommerraps und Ackerbohne eingesetzt zur Abbildung verschiedener Wurzelsysteme. Die Ergebnisse zeigten einen deutlich ausgeprägten lateral abnehmenden Gradienten der Ct- und Nt-Gehalte im Feldversuch. In den Gefäßversuchen gab es keine Unterschiede zwischen den Bioporentypen in den Ct- und Nt-Gehalten. Die Wurzeln wuchsen hauptsächlich im Bioporenlumen und in 0-2 mm, geringer in 2-4 und 4-8 mm des bioporennahen Unterbodens. Der pH-Wert war in der Wurmpore höher als im bulk-Boden. Sommerraps und Ackerbohne zeigten anhand Wurzel-induzierter pH-Wertänderung eine deutliche Stoffwechselaktivität in der Wurzelprägung, während in der Wurmprägung keine signifikante pH-Wertveränderung für die drei Kulturarten sichtbar wurde. Die verminderte laterale Wurzelausdehnung im bioporennahen Unterboden deutet auf ein begrenztes Potenzial der Bioporen als Zugangsweg zum Explorieren des bulk-Bodens hin. Ein erhöhtes Wurzelwachstum in den ersten 2 mm des bioporennahen Unterbodens weist auf eine Verankerung der Wurzeln und eine Nährstoffaufnahme hin. / Biopores are formed by earthworms and taproots and are considered a preferential pathway for root growth into deeper soil layers. However, it is unclear to date whether the biopore sheath has a specific function for root growth, nutrient acquisition and access into the bulk soil. There is a lack of literature on the quantitative measurement of root growth and the measurement of actual root activity in the biopore sheath. Using sampling tools specially made for this type of investigation, the biopore sheath of large-sized, nearly-vertical biopores (diameter >5 mm) were sampled at small-scale intervals in 0-2, 2-4 and 4-8 mm and analyzed for root length [cm], root diameter [mm], total C- and N-contents [%] (Ct, Nt), and pH. In addition to the study of biopores in the field, the influence of earthworm or taproot on root growth was considered separately in pot experiments. Spring barley, spring oilseed rape and faba bean were used for the investigations in order to be able to map different root systems. The results showed a clearly pronounced laterally decreasing gradient of Ct- and Nt-contents in the field experiment. There were no differences between the biopore types in Ct- and Nt-contents in the pot experiments. Roots grew mainly in the biopore and in 0-2 mm, less in 2-4 and 4-8 mm of the biopore sheath. The pH value was higher in the worm type biopore than in the bulk soil. Based on root-induced pH change, spring oilseed rape and faba bean showed significant metabolic activity in root type biopore, while no significant pH change was found in worm type for the three crop species. The laterally decreasing root elongation from biopore surface towards bulk soil is pointing towards a limited potential of biopores as an access path to explore the bulk soil. Increased root growth in the first 2 mm of the biopore sheath indicates root anchorage and nutrient uptake.

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