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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Maximizing net income for pork producers by determining the interaction between dietary energy concentration and stocking density on finishing pig performance, welfare, and carcass composition

2014 November 1900 (has links)
Marketplace volatility in the pork industry demands that producers re-evaluate production practices in order to remain profitable. Stocking density and dietary energy concentration independently affect performance and economic returns of growing finishing pigs. However, there is limited information on whether the interaction between these two factors is important for optimizing productivity and maximizing economic returns. The objective of this study was to determine if the dietary energy concentration that maximizes performance and economic returns varies with stocking density. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 × 3 factorial included; sex (barrows and gilts), dietary energy (2.15, 2.30 and 2.45 Mcal NE/kg) and stocking density (14, 17 or 20 pigs per pen providing 0.92, 0.76 and 0.65 m2 per pig, respectively). A total of 932 pigs were used with three replications of 18 treatments. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens within sex to achieve an average initial BW of 75 kg. Wheat and barley based diets were formulated to meet or exceed the pigs’ nutrient requirements (National Research Council, 2012) and were fed in three phases within sex at each energy concentration. Overall (75 to 118 kg BW), as dietary energy increased from 2.15 to 2.45 Mcal NE/kg, ADG increased from 1.17 to 1.23 kg/d, ADFI decreased from 4.09 to 3.77 kg/d, G:F improved from 0.29 to 0.33 and caloric intake increased from 8.81 to 9.29 Mcal NE/d (P < 0.05). When stocking density was increased from 14 to 20 pigs per pen, ADG (1.21 to 1.17 kg/d), ADFI (4.00 to 3.82 kg/d) and caloric intake (9.19 to 8.12 Mcal NE/d) decreased (P < 0.05). Neither dietary energy concentration nor stocking density had a significant effect on the utilization of calories for growth (Gain:Mcal). Feeder visits per pig and time at the feeder per pig were decreased when stocking density increased from 14 to 20 pigs per pen (P < 0.01). Total time at the feeder and time at the feeder per pig were increased when dietary energy decreased from 2.45 to 2.15 Mcal of NE/kg. Per pen, aggressive incidents at the feeder increased (P < 0.05) and there was a tendency for increased aggressive incidents per pig (P = 0.09) when stocking density was increased. There was a linear increase (P < 0.01) in income over feed cost (IOFC) with increased stocking density, and there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a linear increase in IOFC when dietary energy was increased. The dietary energy which maximized the IOFC did not vary with stocking density. Dietary energy and stocking density independently affect pig performance, behavior, and economic returns and the optimal dietary energy does not depend on stocking density (dietary energy by stocking density interaction).
2

Environmental influences on the sustainable production of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata : a study in two southeastern Australian estuaries

Rubio Zuazo, Ana Maria, anarubio.zuazo@gmail.com January 2008 (has links)
There has been a continuous decline in both the production and general performance of the SRO in NSW estuaries over the past three decades. The relationship of this decline to both environmental and oyster-density related factors are assessed in this thesis. This question has been examined at different scales: a large scale that compares two different estuaries (Clyde and Shoalhaven Rivers, southern NSW); a regional scale that encompasses variations within an estuary and, at a lease scale that examines processes pertaining to individual or small groups of oysters. Levels of inorganic nutrients were in general very low potentially limiting primary production. The limiting nutrient was nitrogen or phosphorus depending on whether long term conditions were dry or wet, respectively. Only during rain events, through the input of terrestrial material, were conditions favourable for fast rates of primary production. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis has demonstrated that both external material and local resuspension of the benthos constitute a major proportion of the SRO diet. The uptake of the various food sources also varied considerably depending on local environmental conditions. Increases in SRO growth were strongly correlated to increases in temperature with a low temperature cut-off at ~13°C. Growth also appeared to reduce considerably when salinities lower than ~15ppt persisted for the order of a month. These factors may alter growth through changes in filtration rates. These processes were modelled in a coupled hydrodynamic-NPO (Nitrogen-Phytoplankton-Oyster) model of the Clyde River. This demonstrated that primary production was more affected by estuarine dynamics and nutrient concentrations than oyster uptake. At the current levels of oyster densities, primary production by itself could not account for the observed oyster growth, however growth became realistic with observed levels of POC added to the model. A set of environmental indices were used to complement the model and to assess the sustainability of the culture system. The combined indices indicated that while the ecological carrying capacity of the Clyde was exceeded the production capacity at an estuarine scale was not. On the lease scale, density experiments showed that while growth was not reduced as a result of current stocking densities, the condition index was significantly affected.
3

Densidade de estocagem de lambari (Astyanax altiparanae) em tanques-rede / Density of storage (astyanax altiparanae) in cages

Costa, Beatriz Braun 13 December 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-17T18:39:44Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 4573.pdf: 2386349 bytes, checksum: 7ed71a71bbb8a21974731217325807a0 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-12-13 / Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos / With the increased interest in growing native fish species the tetra has been highlighted nationally in the marketing of fish facing the two niche markets: as a snack in bars and restaurants and other natural bait for sport fishing. Therefore, studies on the stocking density are needed for better understanding in response to performance than can affect the growth, nutrition and animal behavior. This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability and growth performance of the tetra (Astyanax altiparanae) in cages, subjected to different stocking rates. The experiment was conducted on the premises of the UPD Pirassununga, APTA Pole Central East, in cages of 1m3, villages in densities: 250,450 and 600 fish per tank with 4 repetitions. The temperature, water clarity, dissolved oxygen an pH were daily measured. The tetra were fed extruded commercial diet containing 36%of protein. The experiment lasted 57 days and monthly samples were collected to evaluate the development and adjust amount of feed. To verify the significance between treatment means was used Tukey s test at 5% probability. The results showed increasing linear effect for variable total biomass (p<0,05) as opposed to the linear effect (p<0,05) for average consumption of feed as well as weight gain, average final length and final weight medium according to the increase of stocking density. The physic-chemical parameters remained at adequate levels. It is concluded that stocking density affects the development of juveniles of tetra and the density of persons over fishes/m³. Can still be used in the cultivation of 600 fishes/m³ tetra juveniles in cages, resulting in higher total biomass, although they result in smaller populations. / Com o aumento do interesse no cultivo de espécies de peixes nativos, o lambari tem se destacado nacionalmente na comercialização de pescado frente à dois nichos de mercado: um como petiscos em bares e restaurantes e outro como isca natural para a pesca esportiva. Sendo assim, estudos referentes à densidade de estocagem se fazem necessários para um melhor entendimento frente ao desempenho produtivo que pode afetar o crescimento, a alimentação e o comportamento dos animais. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade econômica e o desempenho produtivo do lambari (Astianax altiparanae) em tanquesrede, submetidos à diferentes densidades de estocagem. O experimento foi conduzido nas instalações da UPD de Pirassununga, Pólo APTA Centro-Leste, em tanques-redes de 1m3, povoados nas densidades de: 250, 400 e 600 peixes por tanque com 4 repetições. A temperatura, transparência da água, oxigênio dissolvido e o pH foram aferidos diariamente.Os lambaris foram alimentados com ração comercial extrusada contendo 36% de proteína bruta. O experimento durou 57 dias e mensalmente foram realizadas biometrias para avaliar o desenvolvimento e o ajuste da quantidade de ração. Para verificar a significância entre as médias dos tratamentos foi utilizado o teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados mostraram efeito linear crescente para variável de biomassa total (p<0,05) em oposição ao efeito linear decrescente (p<0,05) para consumo médio de ração, assim como ganho de peso médio, comprimento final médio e peso final médio conforme aumento da densidade de estocagem. Os parâmetros físicoquímicos permaneceram em níveis adequados. Conclui-se que a densidade de estocagem afeta o desenvolvimento dos juvenis de lambari e que a densidade de 300 peixes/m3proporciona indivíduos maiores. Ainda pode-se utilizar 600 peixes/m3 no cultivo de juvenis de lambari em tanque-rede, resultando em maior biomassa total, apesar de resultarem em populações menores.
4

Management Practices and Communication Strategies to Improve Milk Fat and Protein Content on Dairy Farms

Woolpert, Melissa Elizabeth 01 January 2016 (has links)
Dairy farmers in the Northeastern Unites States are paid based on the amount of fat and protein in their cows' milk, and improving fat and protein production is linked with improved financial sustainability for dairy farms. However, not all farmers are motivated to make changes to increase milk fat and protein production. Previous research has identified a positive correlation between a group of fatty acids, known as the de novo fatty acids, and the fat and protein content of bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms. Therefore, the first objective of this research was to explore the relationship of farm management, the cow's diet, and lactation performance with de novo fatty acid content on Northeastern US dairy farms. Results from the first objective were communicated with dairy farmers; therefore, the second objective was to understand how to communicate with farmers to influence their behavior. We hypothesized that farms with high de novo fatty acids in bulk tank milk would manage and feed their cows to optimize rumen fermentation conditions. The first (Chapter 2) and second (Chapter 3) studies were methodologically very similar. Farms were categorized as either high de novo (HDN) or low de novo (LDN) based on the concentration of de novo fatty acids in their bulk tank milk for the 6 months prior to the farm visit. Farms were then visited once in March or April, 2014 (Chapter 2) or between February and April, 2015 (Chapter 3) to assess management practices and collect samples of the cows' diet. There were no differences in days in milk in Chapter 2 or Chapter 3. Yield of milk, fat, and true protein per cow were higher for HDN versus LDN farms in Chapter 2. In both chapters, HDN farms had higher milk fat and true protein content and higher de novo fatty acid yield per day. The HDN farms had lower freestall stocking density in Chapter 2 and provided more feedbunk space per cow in Chapter 3. Additionally, tiestall feeding frequency was higher for HDN than LDN farms. No differences were detected for dietary chemical composition, except ether extract was lower for HDN than LDN farms in both chapters. Chapter 4 explored how to communicate the results of Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 through eleven qualitative, semi-structured interviews and insight from the 83 farm visits. Farmers identified the cooperative, expert consultants (nutritionist, veterinarian, and agronomists), financial advisers, print publications, and other farmers as principal sources of information. However, barriers to the transfer of information included family dynamics, lack of access to high speed internet, and difficulties evaluating divergent recommendations from experts. Several farmers expressed an incorrect perception of their farms' fat and protein production compared with cooperative averages which reduced their motivation to incorporate management changes. Recommendations to overcome these barriers include integrating management team meetings and facilitating informal discussion groups between farmers. This research is correlational in nature, and future research is needed to verify a causal relationship between de novo fatty acids and milk fat and protein content. However, the results of this research can be used to help farmers increase their cows' milk fat and protein content, improve the transfer of knowledge to dairy farmers, and ultimately support the financial sustainability of dairy farms in the Northeastern US.
5

Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes densidades durante a fase de creche / Performance of pigs submitted to differents stocking densities during the nursery phase

Marimon, Bruno Teixeira January 2018 (has links)
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade sobre o desempenho e o comportamento de leitões na fase de creche. Um total de 560 leitões desmamados (peso médio de 5,75 ± 0,9 kg e idade média de 20,92 ± 0,8 dias) foram aleatoriamente alojados em quatro tratamentos com diferentes densidades: T0,33, T0,28, T0,23 e T0,18 (0,33, 0,28, 0,23 e 0,18 m²/animal respectivamente). As baias continham 20 animais e a ração foi fornecida à vontade. As lesões de cauda e orelha foram graduadas em escores de 0 a 4 e o número de lesões de briga foram avaliados semanalmente. Dezesseis baias foram filmadas em três momentos (1ª, 4ª e 6ª semana de alojamento) para avaliação da frequência de brigas e de belly nosing. Foi observado um efeito linear da densidade sobre o ganho de peso diário (GPD; P=0,049), um efeito quadrático sobre o peso aos 42 dias (P=0,030) e uma tendência de efeito quadrático para o consumo médio diário (CMD; P=0,075). Não houve efeito da densidade na conversão alimentar (CA) e no coeficiente de variação (CV) do peso aos 42 dias. Foi observado um maior número de leitões apresentando lesões severas de orelha no grupo T0,18 quando comparado ao T0,33 (P = 0,019) e T0,28 (P = 0,056). Um maior número de animais com lesões moderadas ou severas foi observado no grupo T0,18 (P < 0,05) do que nos demais grupos para lesões de orelha, e do que T0,33 para lesões de cauda. Houve um efeito linear da densidade sobre a frequência de brigas, com uma maior ocorrência nos grupos com menos espaço. Contudo, não foi observado efeito sobre o número de lesões de briga ou de casos de belly nosing. Em conclusão, o aumento da densidade afetou negativamente o desempenho dos leitões, além de aumentar a ocorrência de comportamentos indesejáveis. / The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of space allowance on performance and behavior of nursery pigs. At weaning 560 pigs (5.75 ± 0.9 kg of body weight and 20.92 ± 0.8 days of age) were randomly assigned in four treatments with different stocking densities: T0.33, T0.28, T0.23 and T0.18 (0.33, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.18 m²/pig respectively). Pens were standardized to have the same group size (20 pigs/pen) and feed was provided ad libitum. Tail and ear biting lesions and the fighting lesions were weekly observed. Sixteen pens were videotaped in three different moments (1st, 4th and 6th housing week) and the frequency of fights and belly nosing were recorded. A linear effect was observed of stocking density on average daily gain (ADG; P=0.049), a quadratic effect and a quadratic tendency of effect were observed on body weight at 42 days after weaning and on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P=0.030; P=0.075, respectively). There was no effect of stocking density on the gain:feed ratio or weight coefficient of variation (CV) at day 42. Higher graduation of severe ear lesions was observed in pigs from T0.18 when compared to T0.33 (P = 0.0196) and T0.28 (P = 0.056). A higher number of pigs with moderate or severe tail and ear lesions was observed in T0.18 (P > 0.05). Moreover, it was observed a linear effect of density on the frequency of fights, with higher occurrence in groups housed in restricted spaces. However, no effect of stocking density was observed on fight lesions or belly nosing among treatments. In conclusion, increased density negatively affected the performance of piglets and increased the occurrence of unsuitable behaviors.
6

Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes densidades durante a fase de creche / Performance of pigs submitted to differents stocking densities during the nursery phase

Marimon, Bruno Teixeira January 2018 (has links)
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade sobre o desempenho e o comportamento de leitões na fase de creche. Um total de 560 leitões desmamados (peso médio de 5,75 ± 0,9 kg e idade média de 20,92 ± 0,8 dias) foram aleatoriamente alojados em quatro tratamentos com diferentes densidades: T0,33, T0,28, T0,23 e T0,18 (0,33, 0,28, 0,23 e 0,18 m²/animal respectivamente). As baias continham 20 animais e a ração foi fornecida à vontade. As lesões de cauda e orelha foram graduadas em escores de 0 a 4 e o número de lesões de briga foram avaliados semanalmente. Dezesseis baias foram filmadas em três momentos (1ª, 4ª e 6ª semana de alojamento) para avaliação da frequência de brigas e de belly nosing. Foi observado um efeito linear da densidade sobre o ganho de peso diário (GPD; P=0,049), um efeito quadrático sobre o peso aos 42 dias (P=0,030) e uma tendência de efeito quadrático para o consumo médio diário (CMD; P=0,075). Não houve efeito da densidade na conversão alimentar (CA) e no coeficiente de variação (CV) do peso aos 42 dias. Foi observado um maior número de leitões apresentando lesões severas de orelha no grupo T0,18 quando comparado ao T0,33 (P = 0,019) e T0,28 (P = 0,056). Um maior número de animais com lesões moderadas ou severas foi observado no grupo T0,18 (P < 0,05) do que nos demais grupos para lesões de orelha, e do que T0,33 para lesões de cauda. Houve um efeito linear da densidade sobre a frequência de brigas, com uma maior ocorrência nos grupos com menos espaço. Contudo, não foi observado efeito sobre o número de lesões de briga ou de casos de belly nosing. Em conclusão, o aumento da densidade afetou negativamente o desempenho dos leitões, além de aumentar a ocorrência de comportamentos indesejáveis. / The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of space allowance on performance and behavior of nursery pigs. At weaning 560 pigs (5.75 ± 0.9 kg of body weight and 20.92 ± 0.8 days of age) were randomly assigned in four treatments with different stocking densities: T0.33, T0.28, T0.23 and T0.18 (0.33, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.18 m²/pig respectively). Pens were standardized to have the same group size (20 pigs/pen) and feed was provided ad libitum. Tail and ear biting lesions and the fighting lesions were weekly observed. Sixteen pens were videotaped in three different moments (1st, 4th and 6th housing week) and the frequency of fights and belly nosing were recorded. A linear effect was observed of stocking density on average daily gain (ADG; P=0.049), a quadratic effect and a quadratic tendency of effect were observed on body weight at 42 days after weaning and on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P=0.030; P=0.075, respectively). There was no effect of stocking density on the gain:feed ratio or weight coefficient of variation (CV) at day 42. Higher graduation of severe ear lesions was observed in pigs from T0.18 when compared to T0.33 (P = 0.0196) and T0.28 (P = 0.056). A higher number of pigs with moderate or severe tail and ear lesions was observed in T0.18 (P > 0.05). Moreover, it was observed a linear effect of density on the frequency of fights, with higher occurrence in groups housed in restricted spaces. However, no effect of stocking density was observed on fight lesions or belly nosing among treatments. In conclusion, increased density negatively affected the performance of piglets and increased the occurrence of unsuitable behaviors.
7

Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes densidades durante a fase de creche / Performance of pigs submitted to differents stocking densities during the nursery phase

Marimon, Bruno Teixeira January 2018 (has links)
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade sobre o desempenho e o comportamento de leitões na fase de creche. Um total de 560 leitões desmamados (peso médio de 5,75 ± 0,9 kg e idade média de 20,92 ± 0,8 dias) foram aleatoriamente alojados em quatro tratamentos com diferentes densidades: T0,33, T0,28, T0,23 e T0,18 (0,33, 0,28, 0,23 e 0,18 m²/animal respectivamente). As baias continham 20 animais e a ração foi fornecida à vontade. As lesões de cauda e orelha foram graduadas em escores de 0 a 4 e o número de lesões de briga foram avaliados semanalmente. Dezesseis baias foram filmadas em três momentos (1ª, 4ª e 6ª semana de alojamento) para avaliação da frequência de brigas e de belly nosing. Foi observado um efeito linear da densidade sobre o ganho de peso diário (GPD; P=0,049), um efeito quadrático sobre o peso aos 42 dias (P=0,030) e uma tendência de efeito quadrático para o consumo médio diário (CMD; P=0,075). Não houve efeito da densidade na conversão alimentar (CA) e no coeficiente de variação (CV) do peso aos 42 dias. Foi observado um maior número de leitões apresentando lesões severas de orelha no grupo T0,18 quando comparado ao T0,33 (P = 0,019) e T0,28 (P = 0,056). Um maior número de animais com lesões moderadas ou severas foi observado no grupo T0,18 (P < 0,05) do que nos demais grupos para lesões de orelha, e do que T0,33 para lesões de cauda. Houve um efeito linear da densidade sobre a frequência de brigas, com uma maior ocorrência nos grupos com menos espaço. Contudo, não foi observado efeito sobre o número de lesões de briga ou de casos de belly nosing. Em conclusão, o aumento da densidade afetou negativamente o desempenho dos leitões, além de aumentar a ocorrência de comportamentos indesejáveis. / The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of space allowance on performance and behavior of nursery pigs. At weaning 560 pigs (5.75 ± 0.9 kg of body weight and 20.92 ± 0.8 days of age) were randomly assigned in four treatments with different stocking densities: T0.33, T0.28, T0.23 and T0.18 (0.33, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.18 m²/pig respectively). Pens were standardized to have the same group size (20 pigs/pen) and feed was provided ad libitum. Tail and ear biting lesions and the fighting lesions were weekly observed. Sixteen pens were videotaped in three different moments (1st, 4th and 6th housing week) and the frequency of fights and belly nosing were recorded. A linear effect was observed of stocking density on average daily gain (ADG; P=0.049), a quadratic effect and a quadratic tendency of effect were observed on body weight at 42 days after weaning and on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P=0.030; P=0.075, respectively). There was no effect of stocking density on the gain:feed ratio or weight coefficient of variation (CV) at day 42. Higher graduation of severe ear lesions was observed in pigs from T0.18 when compared to T0.33 (P = 0.0196) and T0.28 (P = 0.056). A higher number of pigs with moderate or severe tail and ear lesions was observed in T0.18 (P > 0.05). Moreover, it was observed a linear effect of density on the frequency of fights, with higher occurrence in groups housed in restricted spaces. However, no effect of stocking density was observed on fight lesions or belly nosing among treatments. In conclusion, increased density negatively affected the performance of piglets and increased the occurrence of unsuitable behaviors.
8

Optimum rate of juvenile feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) grown in artificial substrate based system in different density storage. / Taxa Ãtima de arraÃoamento de juvenis de tilÃpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivados em sistema baseado em substrato artificial, em diferentes densidades de estocagem.

JÃssica Lucinda Saldanha da Silva 28 January 2014 (has links)
CoordenaÃÃo de AperfeiÃoamento de Pessoal de NÃvel Superior / The feeding rates practiced in fish cultured directly influence the economic return of activity, because excessive rates result in zootechnical, economic losses and environmental. An alternative for improving the quality of crop water and increase the production of fish is the use of artificial substrates for colonization by periphyton. This study was conducted in two consecutive phases. The first phase of research was aimed at determining, in fish farming system based substrate, the optimal rate of feeding in each track of body weight, that maximizes the weight gain and feed efficiency, and minimizes the concentrations of ammonia and nitrite in pond water. Using seven treatments and a control, with five repetitions each, totaling 40 tanks of 250 L. In the treated groups growing feeding rates were evaluated, beginning with the following values: 3, 6, 9, 12%; 15, 18 and 21% biomass per day. The second phase of the study aimed to determine the best stocking density of juvenile tilapia fed at rates optimized in the cropping system based on substrate. By regression analysis of the results of final weight, specific growth rate and yield as a function of feeding rates employed, these variables observed increase in initial feed rate of about 12% of the biomass day -Â, occurring decreased these variables with increasing feed rate. Variables of water quality for initial feed rate of 12%, as NAT (0,39 mg/L), NH3 (0,026 mg/L) and O2D (5,18 mg/L) were within the acceptable for tilapia levels. With the increase in feed rate, there was worsening in water quality, it was not possible observe the effect of biofilter periphyton. Therefore in the first phase, that the optimal rate of feeding of juvenile Nile tilapia cultured in ponds with submerged substrates for periphyton, in the growing phase (1-30 g), corresponds to the initial rate of 12% biomass day-Â. In the second experimental phase, the rate of feeding and stocking density showed higher final body weight (25 g), yield (14,77 g/ mÂ/day) and TCE (5,16) were equal to 12% biomass day- (initial) and 9 fish/tank, respectively. The variables of water quality for this treatment were within the acceptable for growing tilapia tracks. / As taxas de arraÃoamento praticadas em cultivos de peixes influenciam diretamente no retorno econÃmico da atividade, pois taxas excessivas resultam em prejuÃzos zootÃcnicos, econÃmicos e ao meio ambiente. Uma alternativa para melhorar a qualidade da Ãgua de cultivo e aumentar a produÃÃo de pescado à o emprego de substratos artificiais para colonizaÃÃo por perifÃton. O presente trabalho foi realizado em duas fases consecutivas. A primeira fase teve como objetivo geral determinar, em sistema de cultivo de peixes baseado em substrato, a taxa de arraÃoamento Ãtima, em cada faixa de peso corporal, que maximiza o ganho em peso e a eficiÃncia alimentar; e minimiza as concentraÃÃes de amÃnia e nitrito na Ãgua de cultivo. Utilizando sete tratamentos e um controle, com cinco repetiÃÃes cada, totalizando 40 tanques de 250 L. Nos grupos tratados foram avaliadas taxas crescentes de arraÃoamento, iniciando-se com os seguintes valores: 3; 6; 9; 12%; 15, 18 e 21% da biomassa ao dia. A segunda fase do trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor densidade de estocagem de juvenis de tilÃpia alimentados sob taxas otimizadas, em sistema de cultivo baseado em substrato. Pela anÃlise de regressÃo dos resultados de peso final, taxa de crescimento especÃfico e produtividade em funÃÃo das taxas de arraÃoamento empregadas, observou-se aumento dessas variÃveis atà a taxa de arraÃoamento inicial de, aproximadamente, 12% biomassa dia-Â, ocorrendo queda dessas variÃveis com a elevaÃÃo da taxa de alimentaÃÃo. As variÃveis de qualidade de Ãgua para taxa alimentar inicial de 12%, como NAT (0,39 mg/L), NH3 (0,026 mg/L) e O2D (5,18 mg/L) ficaram dentro dos nÃveis aceitÃveis para o cultivo de tilÃpia. Com o aumento da taxa de alimentaÃÃo, houve piora da qualidade de Ãgua, nÃo sendo possÃvel observar o efeito de biofiltro do perifÃton. Concluiu-se, na primeira fase, que a taxa Ãtima de arraÃoamento de juvenis de tilÃpia do Nilo cultivados em tanques com substratos submersos para perifÃton, na fase de recria (1 â 30 g), corresponde à taxa inicial de 12% biomassa dia-Â. Na segunda fase experimental, a taxa de arraÃoamento e a densidade de estocagem que proporcionaram maior peso corporal final (25 g), produtividade (14,77 g/mÂ/dia) e TCE (5,16) foram iguais a 12% da biomassa dia-1 (inicial) e 9 peixes/tanque, respectivamente. As variÃveis de qualidade de Ãgua para esse tratamento se apresentaram dentro das faixas aceitÃveis para o cultivo de tilÃpia do Nilo.
9

Proteção antioxidante do colostro bovino em células intestinais de juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) submetidos a estresse / Antioxidant protection of bovine colostrum on intestinal cells of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) submitted to stress

Mariana Caroline Furian Pontin 11 May 2018 (has links)
O estresse causa modificações no epitélio intestinal, tais como o aumento de células caliciformes e da taxa de apoptose. O uso de alimentos nutracêuticos tem sido uma alternativa para amenizar essas modificações sobre o tecido epitelial. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se a inclusão de colostro bovino, o qual é constituído de fatores antioxidantes, imunes e de crescimento, seria capaz de amenizar as consequências do estresse crônico sob o intestino. Para isso, juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) adensados a 50 kg/m3 foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade com ração peletizada e semi-purificada sem (0%CBL) e com a inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado em concentrações crescentes (10, 20 e 30%CBL), (n=4). Após 28 dias, foram coletados segmentos do intestino médio, S1 e S2, e reto. Os tecidos foram marcados com corantes histológicos para a quantificação de células caliciformes contendo mucinas neutras, ácidas (incluindo sialo e sulfomucinas) e ácidas-neutras. Também foram mensurados o volume (Vv) e a densidade da superfície (Sv) da mucosa, por análise estereológica, e a espessura da camada muscular. A razão do número de cada tipo e subtipo de célula caliciforme sobre o Vv e Sv foi calculada para estimar a densidade de células caliciformes, Dv e Ds, respectivamente. A taxa apoptótica foi analisada qualitativamente através da intensidade (alta, média e baixa) da imunomarcação da caspase-3 nas células epiteliais. As dietas não influenciaram os parâmetros zootécnicos analisados (P>0,05). No reto, os grupos que receberam 20 e 30%CBL apresentaram menor número de células caliciformes contendo sulfomucinas e menor Ds em relação a 0 e 10% (P=0,0148 e 0,0198, respectivamente). No RT, Dv total e Dv de células caliciformes contendo mucinas ácidas foi maior em 0 e 30%CBL em relação a 20%CBL (P=0,0155 e 0,225, respectivamente). No S1, 10 e 30%CBL apresentaram maior Dv em relação a 20%CBL (P=0,0540). A espessura da camada muscular, o Vv e a Sv não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). No S2 e RT, a taxa de apoptose teve relação inversa à concentração de colostro bovino liofilizado adicionado na ração. Nos três segmentos, houve maior proporção de células caliciformes contendo mucinas ácidas do que neutras, sendo a maioria representada por sulfomucinas. Assim, a inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado nas rações de juvenis de pacu adensados diminuiu a apoptose nos segmentos intestinais S2 e RT e também diminuiu o número de células caliciformes contendo sulfomucinas no RT, indicando que o colostro bovino liofilizado pode ser utilizado como alimento nutracêutico para pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) adensados, a fim de diminuir a taxa apoptótica e proteger o intestino contra enzimas bacterianas, uma das principais funções das sulfomucinas. / The stress causes changes in the intestinal epithelium, such as the increase in the number of goblet cells and on the rate of apoptosis. The use of nutraceutical foods has been an alternative to soften these modifications on the epithelial tissue. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if the inclusion of bovine colostrum, which is composed of antioxidant, immune and growth factors, would be able to attenuate the consequences of chronic stress on the intestine. For this, pacu juveniles (Piaractus mesopotamicus), stocked at density of 50 kg/m3, were fed twice daily until satiety with pelleted and semi-purified diet without (0% LBC) and with the inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum in increasing concentrations (10, 20 and 30% LBC), (n = 4). After 28 days, segments of the middle gut, S1 and S2, and rectum (RT) were collected. The tissues were stained with histological dyes for the quantification of goblet cells containing neutral, acidic (including sialo and sulphomucins) and acid-neutral mucins. The volume (Vv) and surface density (Sv) of the mucosa were also measured by stereological analysis and the thickness of the muscular layer. The ratio between the number of each goblet cell type and subtype and the Vv or Sv was calculated to estimate the density of goblet cells, Dv and Ds, respectively. The apoptotic rate was analyzed qualitatively according to the intensity (high, medium and low) of caspase-3 immunostaining in epithelial cells. The diets did not influence the zootechnical parameters analyzed (P> 0.05). In the rectum, the groups that received 20 and 30% LBC presented lower number of goblet cells containing sulphomucins and lower Ds in relation to 0 and 10% (P = 0.0148 and 0.0198, respectively). In RT, total Dv and Dv of goblet cells containing acid mucins were higher in 0 and 30% LBC in relation to 20% LBC (P = 0.0155 and 0.225, respectively). In S1, 10 and 30% LBC presented higher Dv in relation to 20% LBC (P = 0.0540). Muscle layer thickness, Vv and Sv did not differ between treatments (P> 0.05). In S2 and RT, the rate of apoptosis was inversely related to the concentration of lyophilized bovine colostrum added in the diet. In the three segments, there was higher proportion of goblet cells containing acidic than neutral mucins, most of them being sulphomucins. Thus, the inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum in diets of pacu juveniles reduced apoptosis in the intestinal segments S2 and RT and also decreased the number of goblet-containing sulphomucins in the RT, indicating that lyophilized bovine colostrum can be used as a nutraceutical feed for pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) under high stocking density to decrease the apoptotic rate and protect the intestine against bacterial enzymes, one of the main functions of sulphomucins.
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Proteção antioxidante do colostro bovino em células intestinais de juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) submetidos a estresse / Antioxidant protection of bovine colostrum on intestinal cells of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) submitted to stress

Pontin, Mariana Caroline Furian 11 May 2018 (has links)
O estresse causa modificações no epitélio intestinal, tais como o aumento de células caliciformes e da taxa de apoptose. O uso de alimentos nutracêuticos tem sido uma alternativa para amenizar essas modificações sobre o tecido epitelial. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se a inclusão de colostro bovino, o qual é constituído de fatores antioxidantes, imunes e de crescimento, seria capaz de amenizar as consequências do estresse crônico sob o intestino. Para isso, juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) adensados a 50 kg/m3 foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade com ração peletizada e semi-purificada sem (0%CBL) e com a inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado em concentrações crescentes (10, 20 e 30%CBL), (n=4). Após 28 dias, foram coletados segmentos do intestino médio, S1 e S2, e reto. Os tecidos foram marcados com corantes histológicos para a quantificação de células caliciformes contendo mucinas neutras, ácidas (incluindo sialo e sulfomucinas) e ácidas-neutras. Também foram mensurados o volume (Vv) e a densidade da superfície (Sv) da mucosa, por análise estereológica, e a espessura da camada muscular. A razão do número de cada tipo e subtipo de célula caliciforme sobre o Vv e Sv foi calculada para estimar a densidade de células caliciformes, Dv e Ds, respectivamente. A taxa apoptótica foi analisada qualitativamente através da intensidade (alta, média e baixa) da imunomarcação da caspase-3 nas células epiteliais. As dietas não influenciaram os parâmetros zootécnicos analisados (P>0,05). No reto, os grupos que receberam 20 e 30%CBL apresentaram menor número de células caliciformes contendo sulfomucinas e menor Ds em relação a 0 e 10% (P=0,0148 e 0,0198, respectivamente). No RT, Dv total e Dv de células caliciformes contendo mucinas ácidas foi maior em 0 e 30%CBL em relação a 20%CBL (P=0,0155 e 0,225, respectivamente). No S1, 10 e 30%CBL apresentaram maior Dv em relação a 20%CBL (P=0,0540). A espessura da camada muscular, o Vv e a Sv não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). No S2 e RT, a taxa de apoptose teve relação inversa à concentração de colostro bovino liofilizado adicionado na ração. Nos três segmentos, houve maior proporção de células caliciformes contendo mucinas ácidas do que neutras, sendo a maioria representada por sulfomucinas. Assim, a inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado nas rações de juvenis de pacu adensados diminuiu a apoptose nos segmentos intestinais S2 e RT e também diminuiu o número de células caliciformes contendo sulfomucinas no RT, indicando que o colostro bovino liofilizado pode ser utilizado como alimento nutracêutico para pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) adensados, a fim de diminuir a taxa apoptótica e proteger o intestino contra enzimas bacterianas, uma das principais funções das sulfomucinas. / The stress causes changes in the intestinal epithelium, such as the increase in the number of goblet cells and on the rate of apoptosis. The use of nutraceutical foods has been an alternative to soften these modifications on the epithelial tissue. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if the inclusion of bovine colostrum, which is composed of antioxidant, immune and growth factors, would be able to attenuate the consequences of chronic stress on the intestine. For this, pacu juveniles (Piaractus mesopotamicus), stocked at density of 50 kg/m3, were fed twice daily until satiety with pelleted and semi-purified diet without (0% LBC) and with the inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum in increasing concentrations (10, 20 and 30% LBC), (n = 4). After 28 days, segments of the middle gut, S1 and S2, and rectum (RT) were collected. The tissues were stained with histological dyes for the quantification of goblet cells containing neutral, acidic (including sialo and sulphomucins) and acid-neutral mucins. The volume (Vv) and surface density (Sv) of the mucosa were also measured by stereological analysis and the thickness of the muscular layer. The ratio between the number of each goblet cell type and subtype and the Vv or Sv was calculated to estimate the density of goblet cells, Dv and Ds, respectively. The apoptotic rate was analyzed qualitatively according to the intensity (high, medium and low) of caspase-3 immunostaining in epithelial cells. The diets did not influence the zootechnical parameters analyzed (P> 0.05). In the rectum, the groups that received 20 and 30% LBC presented lower number of goblet cells containing sulphomucins and lower Ds in relation to 0 and 10% (P = 0.0148 and 0.0198, respectively). In RT, total Dv and Dv of goblet cells containing acid mucins were higher in 0 and 30% LBC in relation to 20% LBC (P = 0.0155 and 0.225, respectively). In S1, 10 and 30% LBC presented higher Dv in relation to 20% LBC (P = 0.0540). Muscle layer thickness, Vv and Sv did not differ between treatments (P> 0.05). In S2 and RT, the rate of apoptosis was inversely related to the concentration of lyophilized bovine colostrum added in the diet. In the three segments, there was higher proportion of goblet cells containing acidic than neutral mucins, most of them being sulphomucins. Thus, the inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum in diets of pacu juveniles reduced apoptosis in the intestinal segments S2 and RT and also decreased the number of goblet-containing sulphomucins in the RT, indicating that lyophilized bovine colostrum can be used as a nutraceutical feed for pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) under high stocking density to decrease the apoptotic rate and protect the intestine against bacterial enzymes, one of the main functions of sulphomucins.

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