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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Analysis of PIK3CA mutations in tumours from patients with non-small cell lung cancer using pyrosequencing

Jonasson, Jennifer January 2014 (has links)
A subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases harbour mutations in classical oncogenes, which can affect therapy response and prognosis. By therapeutically targeting the corresponding proteins with inhibitory drugs, the clinical outcome for these lung cancer patients may be improved. One of these oncogenes is the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) which encodes the catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). PIK3CA is a central regulator in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which controls cell growth and apoptosis. Mutations in the PIK3CA gene are considered to up-regulate the kinase activity in tumour cells and through that dysregulate fundamental cellular processes. PI3K inhibitors are currently tested in clinical trials and present a promising therapy option in lung cancer patients. In this study, a pyrosequencing assay for detection of PIK3CA mutations in tumours from patients with NSCLC was established. The three "hot-spot" codons 542, 545 and 1047 of the PIK3CA gene were analysed. The sensitivity of this assay was determined to the presence of 5 % of mutant alleles. In agreement with previous reports, three of the 60 lung cancer cases revealed PIK3CA mutations (5 %). All mutations occurred in exon 9 codon 542 or 545. In line with previous reports, two of the three samples harboured concurrent mutation in the EGFR or KRAS gene. The established pyrosequencing analysis for PI3KCA mutations provides a reliable and cost-effective assay for clinical diagnostics. The determination of the PI3KCA mutation status may help to distinguish patients for treatment targeting the PI3K pathway.

Targeting the Epigenetic Lesion in MLL-Rearranged Leukemia

Chen, Liying Michelle 06 February 2014 (has links)
It has become increasingly apparent that the misregulation of histone modification actively contributes to cancer. The histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase Dot1l has been implicated in the development of leukemias bearing translocations of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We studied the global epigenetic profile for H3K79 dimethylation and found abnormal H3K79 dimethylation profiles exist not only in leukemias driven by MLL-fusion proteins with nuclear partners like AF9, but also in leukemia with MLL-fusions containing cytoplasmic partners like AF6. Genetic inactivation of Dot1l led to downregulation of fusion target genes and impaired both in vitro bone marrow transformation and in vivo leukemia development by MLL-AF10, CALM-AF10 as well as MLL-AF6, suggesting that aberrant H3K79 methylation by DOT1L sustains fusion-target gene expression in MLL rearranged leukemias and CALM-AF10 rearranged leukemias. Pharmacological inhibition of DOT1L selectively killed MLL-AF10 and MLL-AF6 transformed cells but not Hox9/Meis1 transformed cells, pointing to DOT1L as a potential therapeutic target in MLL-rearranged leukemia. We further characterized the DOT1L complex under physiological conditions from human leukemia cells and identified AF10 as a key DOT1L complex component. Given the importance of H3K79 methylation in MLL-rearranged leukemia, we sought to study the role of DOT1L complex component AF10 in H3K79 methylation and MLL leukemia. We generated conditional knockout mice in which the Dot1l-interacting octapeptide-motif leucine-zipper (OM-LZ) domain of Af10 was flanked by LoxP sites. Cre induced deletion of \(Af10^{OM-LZ}\) is predicted to abrogate the Af10-Dot1l interaction. Our histone mass spectrometry data demonstrated that deletion of the endogenous \(Af10^{OM-LZ}\) domain abrogated global H3K79 dimethylation but retained H3K79 monomethylation. Interestingly, bone marrow transformation by MLLAF6 and MLL-AF9 is abrogated by induced deletion of endogenous \(Af10^{OM-LZ}\), while bone marrow transformation by MLL-AF10 and CALM-AF10 is not affected by deletion of endogenous \(Af10^{OM-LZ}\), confirming the importance of Af10-Dot1l interaction in MLL- or CALM fusion-leukemias. Moreover, we showed \(Af10^{OM-LZ}\) deletion prolonged survival of MLL-AF9 leukemia in vivo and led to chromotin compaction and downregulation of MLL fusion targets in MLL-AF9 leukemia. Therefore our results demonstrate a role for Af10 in the conversion of H3K79 monomethylation to dimethylation and reveal the AF10-DOT1L interaction as an attractive therapeutic target in MLL-rearranged leukemias.

Knockdown of the Yes-associated Protein 1 pathway provides a basis for targeted therapy to treat infantile hemangioma

Nord, Dianna M 18 August 2015 (has links)
Hemangioma is a type of tumor commonly found in infants that is characterized by heavy vascularization and a disfiguring appearance. Hemangioma, though benign, can sometimes proliferate and be threatening to infants. Current treatments for infantile hemangioma include surgical removal as well as the use of topical and oral medication. However, current therapies are often ineffective at treating lesions and are commonly accompanied by dangerous side effects, creating the need for a new, safer treatment. This study targets the Yes-Associated Protein-1 (YAP-1), which has been described as an oncogene, by use of an interfering RNA technique in attempts to mediate tumor growth and progression. Western blotting of treatment and control BEND3 murine cells reveals that YAP-1 is knocked-down in treatment groups which have been infected with shYAP-1 siRNA genes. By successfully knocking down the YAP-1 protein, the potential for developing a novel targeted therapy for infantile hemangioma has been established.

Therapeutic targeting of metastatic recurrences of pediatric medulloblastoma by selective kinase and histone deacetylase inhibitors

Adile, Ashley Ann January 2020 (has links)
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumour. Of its four distinct molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4), Group 3 MB patients hold the worst clinical prognosis due to their high incidence of tumour recurrence and metastasis to the spinal leptomeninges. Relapsed Group 3 MB patients, particularly those with MYC amplification (known as Group 3𝛾), carry a mortality rate of nearly 100%, given the paucity of effective therapeutic options currently available. The most common cause of mortality amongst these patients is leptomeningeal metastasis, yet this metastatic disease is poorly characterized. Our understanding of MB tumour recurrence and leptomeningeal metastasis is further encumbered by the rare clinical opportunities at which specimens may be collected from relapsed patients. We were able to circumvent this obstacle by establishing a patient-derived xenograft mouse-adapted therapy model, which mimics the treatments administered in the clinic and in turn, recapitulates both local and metastatic human MB recurrence. This model system enabled the collection of valuable, patient-derived Group 3𝛾 MB tumour cells from the spinal leptomeninges at relapse. It provides an opportunity for chemical screening, with the aim of identifying small molecule inhibitors capable of eradicating these cells. Existing studies on MB leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis suggest that effective treatments may target signalling proteins, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Therefore, I hypothesized that selective kinase and HDAC inhibitors would pose as effective therapies against Group 3𝛾 MB metastatic recurrences. In this thesis, I conducted a high-throughput screen of 640 kinase inhibitors and robust testing of novel HDAC6-selective inhibitors against these treatment-refractory, metastatic cells. Here, I showed that metastatic recurrences of Group 3𝛾 MB are therapeutically vulnerable to selective inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and HDAC6. Functional studies demonstrated that these inhibitors selectively target the aggressive, migratory Group 3𝛾 MB cells, while sparing healthy neural stem cells. They also showed effective blood-brain-barrier penetration in silico and in vitro, while significantly reducing MB tumour cell properties that are often associated with treatment failure. Taken together, my thesis highlights specific inhibitors of CHK1, PDGFRβ, and HDAC6 that effectively target MB tumour cells that fuel treatment-refractory leptomeningeal metastases. With additional preclinical validation, these compounds may serve as potent therapeutic options to extend survival and improve the quality of life for patients that are ostensibly limited to palliation. / Thesis / Master of Science (MSc) / Medulloblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer in children. While current standard treatment improves patient survival, 30-40% of all medulloblastoma patients relapse at local (brain) or metastatic (spine) sites. Medulloblastoma metastatic recurrences remain poorly understood, yet they result in an alarmingly high mortality rate amongst patients due to inadequate treatment options currently available. Specific molecular targets are common in both medulloblastoma and metastatic cancer research. These targets are particularly important in governing cell signalling pathways that regulate tumour growth and migration. Therefore, treatment against these targets may be effective at preventing medulloblastoma metastatic recurrences. As the collection of local and metastatic tumour samples at patient relapse are rare, the Singh lab developed an animal model that mimics human medulloblastoma recurrence. In this thesis, recurrent medulloblastoma metastases were isolated from our established animal model and tested against compounds that inhibit the specific molecular targets previously implicated in medulloblastoma and other metastatic tumours. We identified potent compounds that effectively target these metastatic cells. Next, we determined which compounds spared healthy cells and were able to penetrate the brain, given our future objective of targeting these MB cells from their source to ultimately prevent metastasis. The identified compounds substantially reduced the ability of these cells to divide. With further investigation, these compounds may pose as effective therapeutic agents to treat human medulloblastoma patients with metastatic recurrences.

Targeting HOX/PBX dimers in cancer

Morgan, Richard, El-Tanani, Mohamed, Hunter, K.D., Harrington, K.J., Pandha, H.S. 07 March 2017 (has links)
Yes / The HOX and PBX gene families encode transcription factors that have key roles in establishing the identity of cells and tissues in early development. Over the last 20 years it has become apparent that they are also dysregulated in a wide range of solid and haematological malignancies and have a predominantly pro-oncogenic function. A key mode of transcriptional regulation by HOX and PBX proteins is through their interaction as a heterodimer or larger complex that enhances their binding affinity and specificity for DNA, and there is growing evidence that this interaction is a potential therapeutic target in malignancies that include prostate, breast, renal, ovarian and lung cancer, melanoma, myeloma, and acute myeloid leukaemia. This review summarizes the roles of HOX and PBX genes in cancer and assesses the therapeutic potential of HOX/PBX dimer inhibition, including the availability of biomarkers for its application in precision medicine.

Design, Synthesis and Study of Novel Multivalent Ligands - Toward New Markers of Cancer Cells

Brabez, Nabila January 2012 (has links)
Cancer is lacking early detection methods and treatment specificity. In order to increase the sensitivity and specificity towards cancer cells, we propose the use of multivalent interactions targeting specific receptor combinations at the cancer cell surface. In this thesis, we explored the design of multimers, which could provide such interactions. The design was investigated and revisited based on specific parameters, essential for the creation of multivalent interactions such as thermodynamics. The synthesis was designed so that libraries of homo- and hetero-multimers of different valencies can be obtained efficiently with good yields. The established synthetic scheme is empowered by its modularity, necessary to investigate different essential factors. Trimers composed of micromolar affinity MSH(4) targeting the MC1-R, overexpressed in melanoma, were investigated on a model cell line and resulted in the creation of nanomolar affinity constructs with up to 350 fold increase in affinity. Different multimers such as hexavalent and nonavalent dendrimers were synthesized and studied for their properties. All constructs had nanomolar affinity and showed to be non-toxic up to micromolar concentrations and imaging studies also confirmed their internalization, which overall demonstrate the potential for these compounds to be used as markers for cancer cells and as delivery agents. Trimers targeting the CCK2-R were similarly investigated for their potential as pancreatic cancer markers. However, those constructs did not seem to result in the expected enhancements in affinity, but the affinity of the initial monovalent agonist was in the 10-50 nanomolar range. As we were unable to design micromolar affinity agonist we investigated the use of antagonists. This study, revealed the importance of thermodynamics in the creation of multivalent interaction. Heterotrivalent ligands (CCK and MSH) were investigated for their potential in cross-linking different receptors and the study demonstrated the subtility to detect cross-linking. Finally, the different attempts toward the efficient synthesis of a tetra-orthogonal scaffold, a key feature needed to generate multimers that could target up to 3 different receptors was investigated and showed promising results. It is our hypothesis that such an approach will ultimately lead to specific markers of tumor cells, which could be used as diagnosis agents when modified with an imaging moiety and as a therapeutic agent when modified with a drug.

Adénocarcinome canalaire pancréatique, mécanisme moléculaire et approche thérapeutique / Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, molecular mechanism and therapeutic approach

Lafitte, Marie 18 October 2012 (has links)
L’adénocarcinome canalaire pancréatique est une maladie agressive et dévastatrice qui est caractérisée par une progression rapide et une résistance aux traitements. Le développement de nouveaux vecteurs à fort potentiel de transfert de gène dans les cellules tumorales pourrait être un outil performant et innovant pour améliorer les traitements existants. Nous avons développé un système de ciblage des cellules tumorales pancréatiques via l’antigène de surface Mucine 4 en utilisant des vecteurs lentiviraux spécifiques permettant le transfert efficace du gène cytotoxique de la Thymidine Kinase (hsv-TK) directement dans des modèles de tumeurs. La transduction lentivirale de cellules tumorales pancréatiques a été possible dans des xénogreffes orthotopiques. Le transfert du gène TK suivi d’un traitement au ganciclovir a montré des résultats encourageants in vivo. L’approche thérapeutique présentée ici semble être plus sécurisé, plus spécifique et aussi efficace qu’un lentivirus à large tropisme pour le transfert de gène dans les tumeurs pancréatiques. La mise en évidence de nouvelles cibles moléculaires dont la dérégulation participe au développement et à l’agressivité des tumeurs pancréatiques pourraient être utilisées pour moduler favorablement les traitements thérapeutiques en cours. De plus, ces nouvelles cibles moléculaires pourraient également servir de facteur de détection précoce ou de marqueurs pronostiques de l’adénocarcinome pancréatique. L’implication des isoformes du récepteur FGFR3 dans les mécanismes moléculaires de l’adénocarcinome pancréatique a été évaluée pour la première fois. Un rôle opposé d’oncogène et de gène suppresseur de tumeur a été découvert pour le FGFR3 en fonction du contexte cellulaire. Des voies de signalisation différentes sont empruntées pour induire ces effets opposés dans les cellules tumorales pancréatiques. Cette nouvelle donnée devra être considérée pour des thérapies ciblées impliquant des inhibiteurs de tyrosine kinases qui, s’ils sont utilisés dans un mauvais contexte cellulaire, pourraient être plus dangereux que bénéfiques. / Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive and devastating disease, which is characterized by rapid progression and resistance to treatment. The development of new vectors with high potential of gene transfer in tumor cells could be an innovative and valuable tool. We have developed a strategy of pancreatic tumor cells targeting with the cell surface marker Mucin 4 using specific lentiviral vectors for the efficient transfer of the thymidine kiniase cytotoxic gene within the tumor. Lentiviral transduction of human pancreatic tumor cells was possible when cells were grafted orthotopically. The hsv-TK/GCV anti-cancer system showed promising results in vivo. The approach presented here appeared to be a safer, much more specific and an as efficient way to perform gene delivery in pancreatic tumors, in comparison with a broad tropism lentivirus. Discovering new molecular targets which modulation contributes to the development and aggressiveness of pancreatic tumors could favorably modulate the current therapies. Furthermore, these new molecular targets could also serve as factors of early detection or prognostic markers of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The involvement of FGFR3 receptor in the molecular mechanisms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was evaluated for the first time. Opposite roles of both oncogene and tumor suppressor gene have been discovered for FGFR3 depending on the cellular context. Importantly, molecular pathways supporting these effects are different. This new data should be considered for targeted therapies involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. If used in the wrong cell context they could be more dangerous than beneficial

Identification de nouvelles voies de signalisation activées dans les léiomyosarcomes / Identification of novel activated signalling pathways in Leiomyosarcomas

El Sayadi, Hiba 23 December 2009 (has links)
Les léiomyosarcomes sont des tumeurs malignes mésenchymateuses composées de cellules à différentiation musculaire lisse. Elles présentent des altérations génétiques complexes avec pertes et gains de chromosomes variables selon les tumeurs, sans anomalies moléculaires récurrentes permettant de définir une entité nosologique contrairement aux sarcomes associés à des translocations (sarcome d’Ewing), ou à des mutations (GIST). Les évènements moléculaires pilotant la tumeur restent inconnus et donc aucune thérapie ciblée n’est encore identifiée. L’objectif de ce travail était d’identifier par protéomique de nouvelles cibles potentielles dans les LMS. Nous avons identifié des kinases activées en analysant le profil d’expression et de phosphorylation des protéines de signalisation, sur une série de 13 tumeurs congelées. Parmi celles-ci, une surexpression de Tyro-3, PKCq, et MSH2 et une perte de phosphorylation de FAK Y397 ont été détectées dans les tumeurs comparées au tissu sain. Une classification hiérarchique non supervisée a montré deux groupes de LMS ayant des profils d’expression protéique distincts. Nous nous sommes intéressés à Tyro-3 dont la co-expression avec son ligand Gas6 a été exclusivement associée à la phosphorylation d’Akt dans 8 des 13 LMS. Ces corrélations ont été retrouvées dans les deux lignées SK-LMS-1 et CNIO AA. La déphosphorylation de FAK Y397 a été observée uniquement dans CNIO AA qui exprime fortement Gas6. L’ajout de Gas6 exogène à SK-LMS-1 induit la phospho-Akt, et la déphosphorylation de FAK Y397. La double extinction de l’expression des gènes de Tyro-3 et Axl dans CNIO AA réduit la viabilité des cellules, suggérant un rôle crucial de cette voie dans les LMS / Soft tissue and visceral leiomyosarcoma account for 15% of all sarcomas in adults. Molecular alterations in LMS are not well characterized, with often complex gains and losses of chromosome segments. We investigated the expression or phosphorylation of kinases and downstream signalling molecules in a series of fresh frozen LMS and cell lines with the aim to identify potential targets for targeted therapy. Four proteins were found differentially expressed including Tyro3, a receptor tyrosine kinase. The functional activity of Tyro3 was investigated in 2 LMS cell lines, SK-LMS-1 and CNIO AA. Four proteins and phosphoproteins were found differentially expressed in LMS samples as compared to NSM: an hypophosphorylation of FAK Y397 was observed in all samples while Tyro3, MSH2, and PKC theta were found overexpressed in LMS samples. Gas6, the ligand of Tyro3 was found expressed in 8 of the 13 samples, and the coexpression of Gas6 and Tyro3 was found exclusively associated with Akt phosphorylation. Both SK-LMS-1 and CNIO AA LMS cell lines were found to express Tyro3, while Gas6 expression was only observed in CNIO AA cells. P-Akt was expressed spontaneously in CNIO AA, but not in SKLMS-1, while the opposite figure was observed for phosphorylated FAK Y397. Exposure of SKLMS-1 to exogenous Gas6 induced P-Akt, and resulted in a reduction of FAK Y397 phosphorylation. Transfection of CNIO AA with siRNA directed against, Tyro3 and Axl genes induced a reduction of the expression of the specific proteins, and when combined, significantly reduced CNIO AA cell viability. Gas 6 a ligand of Tyro3 is expressed in a subset of LMS tumors and cell lines, and may exert autocrine activities in a subset of LMS

Development of a Monitoring Parameters Guideline for Targeted Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Bryant, S. L., Bossaer, John B. 01 December 2010 (has links)
No description available.

Funktionelle Analyse des tumorspezifischen IgG Antikörpers BARB-4 / Functional analysis of the tumor-specific igG antibody BARB-4

Rückl, Kilian Thomas January 2012 (has links) (PDF)
Der menschliche Organismus ist zeitlebens von malignen Neoplasien bedroht, die durch lokales oder metastasiertes Wachstum lebensnotwendige Funktionen des Körpers beeinträchtigen können. Als wichtigstes Werkzeug zur Abwehr dieser Neoplasien wurde in den letzten Jahrzehnten die natürliche Immunität aufgedeckt. Besonders die Antikörper der innaten Immunität spielen eine entscheidende Rolle. BARB-4 ist ein humaner, tumorspezifischer Antikörper und Teil dieser natürlichen Immunität. Er wurde mit Hilfe der Hybridomatechnologie aus einem Patienten mit Siegelringkarzinom des Magens isoliert, und ist einer der wenigen Vertreter innater humaner IgG Antikörper. Diese Arbeit gibt einen ersten Überblick über die Bindungsspezifität und die funktionellen Eigenschaften des BARB-4-Antikörpers. In den immunhistochemischen Färbungen konnte die Tumorspezifität des Antikörpers nachgewiesen werden. Bei dem zugehörigen Antigen handelt es sich um eine Variante des TAF15, einem Protein der FET-Familie, die intrazelluläre Aufgaben bei Transkriptionsvorgängen haben, bei denen zudem aber auch eine Beteiligung an Adhäsions- und Migrationsvorgängen vermutet wird. Diese Variante ist bei malignen Zellen an der Oberfläche lokalisiert, was die Ergebnisse der Durchflußzytometrie belegen. Durch konfokale Mikroskopie mit Fluoreszenz-markiertem BARB-4 konnte diese Oberflächenbindung an Tumorzellen bestätigt werden. Im weiteren zeitlichen Verlauf konzentrierte sich der Antikörper im Zellinneren. Die Präsenz des Antikörpers führte bei Versuchen mit Tumorzellen zu einer bemerkenswerten Hemmung der Adhäsions- und Migrationsfähigkeit der Zellen. Beide stellen Schlüsseleigenschaften für die Metastasierung von Tumorzellen dar. Diese Eigenschaften könnten BARB-4 für einen möglichen, therapeutischen Einsatz zur Prävention von Tumormetastasen qualifizieren. / Throughout live, the human body is threatened by malign neoplasms whose local or metastasizing growth can restrict its essential functions. In the last decades, natural immunity was discovered as an instrumental tool in the fight against these neoplasms. Especially antibodies of the innate immune response play a central role in this defense. BARB-4 is part of this repertoire of antibodies. B-cells producing BARB-4 were isolated from a patient suffering from signet ring carcinoma, and propagated using Hybridoma-technology. While most antibodies of the innate immune response are of the IgM subclass, BARB-4 is an IgG antibody. This work offers an assessment of the specificity and functional properties of BARB-4. By using immuno-histochemistry, it couId be shown that BARB-4 specifically binds to human cancer cells. More specifically BARB-4 binds to a variant of TAF15, a member of the FET family of transcriptional regulators. TAF15 is also assumed to be involved in adhesion and cell-migration. Flow-cytometry confirmed its localization to the plasma-membrane, which is unique to this tumor-specific variant of TAF15. Subsequent confocal microscopy showed that after initial binding of TAF15, the BARB-4 antibody is internalized by the bound cancer cells. Remarkably, BARB-4 treatment of cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of their ability to adhere and migrate. As both adhesion and migration are hallmarks of metastasis in cancer cells, BARB-4 is a possible candidate for therapeutic prevention of cancer metastasis.

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